Presentation on theme: "Standards-Based IEPs Standards-Based IEPs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Standards-Based IEPsStandards-Based IEPsModule 3: Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional PerformanceTrainer Notes: The third SB IEP Module will focus on the Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) which is essential for good IEP development. It sets the stage for developing IEP goals.Modules 1-4
2 IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes/Instructional ResultsWrite Measurable GoalsSelect Instructional Services & Program SupportsImplement & Monitor ProgressGeneralCurriculum ExpectationsCurrent Skills and KnowledgeArea of Instructional NeedPLAAFP Statements on IEP FormDeveloping PLAAFP StatementsTrainer Notes: This is where you would begin the second part of the SB training, so it might be good to start off by reviewing the IEP development process just as a refresher. Review the flowchart which is a snapshot of the whole process.Modules 1-4
3 Process of Developing Standards-Based IEPs Determine general education curriculum expectationsNxGCSOs/Support for SB-IEPs (ELA, Math)NxGECEs/Community ReadinessUnwrap the StandardsIdentify current skills, knowledge and area(s) of instructional needWhat is the big picture?Which are most important?Which are critical needs?Develop student data profileThe highlighted area is the second step in developing standards-based IEPs.Conduct data/gap analysis and develop impact statementReview student data profileReview Grade-Level CSOsReview Learning ProgressionsDetermine GapWhere student is and where student needs to goModules 1-4
4 Step 2: Identify current skills, knowledge and area (s) of instructional need Develop student data profile which is an overview of student’s functioning in all areas relevant to the IEP.The profile should include general information regarding:StrengthsNeedsHow the exceptionality affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum including Career and Technical EducationAssessment/EvaluationStatus of prior IEP goalsTeacher/Parent/Student inputTransition needs (at least by age 16)Learning Style (UDL) Modules 1-4
5 Standards-Based IEPsStandards Drive IEPsProvide instructional accountability and access to general curriculumSupport instruction in least restrictive environmentLink the IEP to the general curriculumAs a review, standards drive the IEP because they provide instructional accountability. They set the expectation for what we want all students to learn in order for them to reach certain criteria. When we base our IEPs on the standards, it supports instruction in the least restrictive environment because it is based on what all students are expected to know and what is being taught in the general curriculum. It supports meaningful access to the general curriculum…access that allows students to understand what is happening in the general curriculum. It also creates a structure for linking IEPs to the general curriculum.Modules 1-4
6 Standards Drive IEPs Essential for closing the achievement gap Standards-Based IEPsStandards Drive IEPsEssential for closing the achievement gapPromote a single system of education and consistency across schools and the districtAre best for kids – assume more, not lessStandards-Based IEPs are essential for achieving educational benefit for students with disabilities because educational benefit is determined by the ability to meet certain criteria, and ultimately to receive a diploma that has meaning. Standards-driven IEPs promote a single system of education instead of two separate systems – a common language, a common set of expectations. They encourage greater consistency from school district to school district and from school to school. Standards-Based IEPs are best for all kids. They assume “more” – not “less”. They set high standards.Modules 1-4
7 What Does it Mean to Connect IEPs to Standards? Standards-Based IEPsWhat Does it Mean to Connect IEPs to Standards?Refer to standards to determine expectations at grade-levelUse the standards as a guide to determine what is important for the student to learn or be able to doConduct an analysis to determine the gap between grade expectations and the student’s current skills/knowledgeWhat does it really mean to connect IEPs to standards? It means that we refer to the standards first and foremost, to determine the grade-level expectation. We use the standards to guide what is important for the student to learn and be able to do if that student is going to be able to be successful in the general curriculum. It is about conducting an analysis. We look at what is expected at grade level, that is our content standards. The curriculum is based on those content standards. We then compare what is expected in the standards to the student’s current skills and knowledge. It is that gap between expectations and the student’s current skills and knowledge that defines the educational need.In the special education world and in IDEA, there is no reference to Standards-Based IEPs as such. Instead, there is a requirement that the IEP is to be written in a way that allows access to the general education curriculum.Modules 1-4
8 Accessing the General Education Curriculum Standards-Based IEPsAccessing the General Education CurriculumWhat is meant by the general education curriculum?The full range of courses, activities, lessons, and materials routinely used by the general populationWhat is meant by access?Participation in the knowledge and skills that make up the general education curriculumHere is this idea of access again. We talk about the general education curriculum within IDEA more than standards, but since the curriculum is based on the standards, we need to know the skills and knowledge required to meet the intent of the standards. What is meant by the general education curriculum? It is the full range of courses, activities, lessons, and materials routinely used by the general population of a school.What is meant by access? It is participation in the knowledge and skills that make up the general education curriculum.Modules 1-4
9 Developing Present Level Statements Standards-Based IEPsDeveloping Present Level StatementsGeneral Curriculum ExpectationsPLAAFP Statements on IEP FormAreas of Instructional NeedHere is another way of diagramming the development of Present Level Statements. We have the general curriculum expectations compared to the current skills and knowledge. That leads to the identification of areas of instructional need and then to the statements that you are actually going to put on the IEP form. You could think about the Present Level as a conversation that takes place and it is better to collect a lot of data “on the side”. You could even have a separate flip chart page or separate note page, and then determine what you are going to put on the form itself.Process first, product second.Current Skills and KnowledgeModules 1-4
10 Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Consider the Whole Child Standards-Based IEPsCollect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Consider the Whole ChildFor secondary consider:Jobs/job trainingPost-secondary educationCommunity participationHome/independent livingAcademicSocial emotionalCommunicationRecreation/LeisureHealth, Physical, MedicalTechnologyRemember to look at the whole child. We have a tendency to think, for example, if a student qualified for special education based on their need for reading, we only need to look at reading. In reality, we need to make sure that we are not just thinking about why a student qualified for special education, what disability they have, but what are their full range needs? The child might need instruction in some areas that did not necessarily show up in the evaluation. You want to look at all areas – academics, social/emotional, communication, etc.When we talk about communication, it is really important to think about language…especially for second language students as well as for students who may have a hearing loss or who may be deaf – students who have unique communication needs. Communication and language development are a very important part of looking at the “whole child”.We need to look at recreation and leisure…what the parents and the family have to say about what the student does for recreation. That is additional information to bring to the table.We want to make sure that we look at some of the health and physical needs or medical needs and this would include hearing and vision information. The hearing and vision screenings are really a critical piece of information to bring to the table.Let’s not forget technology – particularly in this day with our emphasis on the use of assistive technology. Has this student used technology in the past? Is there a potential need that the student may have relative to technology, including but not limited to augmentative communication?For secondary students, beginning no later than age sixteen (16), we want to make sure that we are also thinking about jobs and job training – post-secondary education, community participation and home/independent living.Modules 1-4
11 Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Standards-Based IEPsCollect Data Current Skills/KnowledgeAcademicTestsWork samplesCurriculum based assessmentsStatewide assessmentsEvaluation resultsClassroom observationFormative assessmentIEP Progress ReportsSocial/emotional behaviorClassroom reportsObservationOffice referral dataFamily inputAttendanceWhere do you find all this information? First of all, you would want to review progress from previous IEPs.Where might you find social/emotional behavior information? You have classroom reports that are really critical… not just classroom but also playground reports. You have your own observations or the observations of others. Office referral data is another great source of data. A very important source of data for social/emotional behavior is family input, especially in checking to see if a particular behavior is seen only at school. And finally, attendance. This is not an unlimited list, and you probably have additional things that you could put on the list.Academic needs --- again, you want to look at classroom tests, work samples, and you want to use curriculum-based assessments to the maximum degree possible. These are assessments that are based on what is expected in that curriculum. Of course, you want the results of the statewide assessments from year to year, not just one year but multiple years to see whether or not there are any patterns. Finally, you want to take any pertinent achievement results from the most recent special education evaluation. Keep in mind that often times these evaluations are based on some formal achievement results that may not be as pertinent as the current classroom achievement results, but it is important information and it needs to be brought to the table.Modules 1-4
12 Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Standards-Based IEPsCollect Data Current Skills/KnowledgeCommunicationReportsObservationLanguage evaluationLanguage skills (including English Language Learners ELLs with exceptionalities)Health/PhysicalFamily reportsComprehensive evaluationIn-school nurse reportsPhysical educationSelf-reportWhere will you get communication information? Again, classroom reports –What language does this student use commonly in the classroom, or does the student seem to be understanding vocabulary? Does the student seem to be able to respond quickly, or could there even be a possibility that there might be a hearing loss? Do you have information from a formal speech/language evaluation? Observations of the student’s interactions with other students in terms of their normal speech patterns are excellent sources of data. One data source for communication that is not on the list would be family --- particularly where the child may be an English language learner or English is the second language for the family. What language is the most dominant language at home? Those are the kinds of things you want to be looking for under communication.Health/Physical: Family reports and other pertinent information that might have been used in a comprehensive evaluation would be good sources of data. School nurse reports might be a good source for looking at whether or not there are any health concerns that you need to be considering when writing the IEP. Physical education class reports would be another place to look for some of this physical and health information. Does the child get tired easily in PE or have excuses for skipping PE? Finally, the Self Report from the student is a great source of data. Modules 1-4
13 Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Standards-Based IEPsCollect Data Current Skills/KnowledgeRecreation/LeisureFamily reportsPhysical educationSelf-reportExtracurricular participationJobs & Job trainingVocational training recordsVocational/Transition assessment resultsStudent interviewWhere might you find information related to jobs and job training? You might have vocational training records. You could have a formal vocational assessment or you could just use student interview. For Recreation/Leisure and Extracurricular, again, family reports, look at your physical education classroom results. In PE, how interactive is the student? The student is a good source for what they like to do. What is their preferred recreation, and have they had any prior extracurricular participation?Modules 1-4
14 Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Standards-Based IEPsCollect Data Current Skills/KnowledgePost-secondary EducationCounselor and student interviewsTransition assessmentsCommunity ParticipationFamily reportStudent self-reportTransition assessmentsPost-secondary education information comes primarily from student interviews, and could possibly be obtained from counselor interviews. Ask the student what they want to do when they leave high school. Community participation information would probably be found in family reports and student health reports.Modules 1-4
15 Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Standards-Based IEPsCollect Data Current Skills/KnowledgeHome/Independent LivingFamily reportStudent self-reportIn-school observationsTransition assessmentsOther reports (use of assistive technology, accommodations, modifications)FamilyTeacherStudentFor home and living you could look at family reports, student self-reports, and observations to see how independent the student is. There are other things like assistive technology, and accommodations or modifications. Refer to family and teacher reports for these — what kind of accommodations have been used in the past? Does the teacher find that the student is more successful when working with a peer? The family is often a great source for knowing whether or not there might be some accommodation that has worked in the past or at home. Finally, ask the student.Those are possible sources of information.Modules 1-4
16 Present Performance or Current Skills/Knowledge Standards-Based IEPsPresent Performance or Current Skills/KnowledgeWhat:Can the student do in school; at home?Accommodations have helped in the past?Is the student’s performance level on state assessments and in the classroom?Let’s talk about what the student can do. What can the student do in school and at home? What kinds of accommodations have helped in the past, and what is the current performance on state assessments and in the classroom? Notice…all of these points are descriptions of present performance. We are not talking about what is missing. We are talking about what the current performance is. Classroom-based performance could be things like curriculum-based measurement or formative assessment.Modules 1-4
18 Present Level Statements: More than One Step Standards-Based IEPsPresent Level Statements: More than One StepGeneral Curriculum ExpectationsPLAAFP Statements on IEP FormAreas of Instructional NeedAgain, the Present Level involves multiple steps.Trainer Notes: Refer to slideCurrent Skills and KnowledgeModules 1-4
19 Selecting the Standard Standards-Based IEPsSelecting the StandardDiscuss intent of standards:What are the knowledge and skills necessary for the student to achieve to a level that is expected in the standards?What are the prerequisite skills?When developing Standards-Based IEPs, we will be selecting particular standards to focus on. We are not going to put everything we teach on the IEP. We only want to include standards for which the student needs additional supports and specialized instruction through the IEP. We need to prioritize. Each standard we select will be an area for goal writing, and the Present Level statement should address current skills and knowledge relating to that standard. Remember, you need to know what knowledge and skills are expected in the standards to do a good job in selecting standards for the IEP.Modules 1-4
20 Selecting the Standard Standards-Based IEPsSelecting the StandardDetermine which standards are most important for each student (based on progress in the general education curriculum)Compare standard(s) with student’s areas of need and the impact of the disability/giftednessUse data to determine the areas in which the student will need additional supportsFor students with many areas of need, or more significant gaps and deficits, it is important for the IEP Team to prioritize when selecting standards.Modules 1-4
21 Think about…Essential Knowledge and Skills Standards-Based IEPsThink about…Essential Knowledge and SkillsLeverage-standards in one subject that support student’s success in other subjectsEndurance-standards that help students across the years rather than respond to the testing of a single grade levelReadiness-essential for the next grade/standards that help students prepare for the next level of learningIEP Team members should be familiar with these types of standards, and understand the benefit of each.Modules 1-4
22 Impact Considerations Standards-Based IEPsImpact ConsiderationsWhich standards:Can be met with accommodations in the general classroom?Require specialized instruction?Begin by reviewing the standards for the grade-level of your student, make some notes. Document what you know about the student’s current skills and knowledge in relation to the standards.Modules 1-4
23 Impact Considerations Standards-Based IEPsImpact ConsiderationsWhich standards are most essential to:Accelerate the ability to progress in the general curriculum?Result in educational benefit?Which standards will give the student the most bang for his or her educational buck?Modules 1-4
24 Identifying Instructional Need Standards-Based IEPsIdentifying Instructional Need1. Consider the target grade level standardsIdentify critical knowledge and skills within the standardsUse a data analysis process to conduct a drill downWith that reading standard in mind, that we have unwrapped, think about the data analysis process you would use to “drill down” to look closely at the standard and ask: “What are the prerequisite skills?” “What are the knowledge and skills the student would need by the end of the year to meet the intent of the standard?” If you have already gone through the process of unwrapping the standards, this would be much easier.Arkansas Department of Education
25 ELA.6.R.C1.5determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.What is the critical knowledge?central ideaconveyeddetailsummarypersonal opinionsjudgmentsinformational textModules 1-4
27 Data Analysis, continued Standards-Based IEPsData Analysis, continued2. Of these skills, where does the student demonstrate proficiency? (These could become descriptors in the Present Level Statements)Formal assessmentInformal assessmentContinue the data analysis. Where is the student’s performance in relation to the essential prerequisite skills for accessing the standard? Where is the student’s performance in relation to the knowledge and skills the student would need by the end of the year to meet the intent of the standard? You would look at formal assessments as well as informal reading assessments to determine where the student is demonstrating proficiency.Arkansas Department of Education
28 Data Analysis, continued Standards-Based IEPsData Analysis, continued3. Can the standard(s) be achieved with an accommodation?For example, can the student:Demonstrate the central idea of a text if given orally rather than being asked to read the items independently?Summarize the text when it is read orally?Another question we would ask would be, “Can the student achieve any of the expectations within the standard if they were given accommodations? “Arkansas Department of Education
29 Data Analysis, continued Standards-Based IEPsData Analysis, continued4. Given these responses:What skills need to be taught explicitly to demonstrate proficiency on the targeted standards?Which skills/knowledge can be acquired in the general classroom with an accommodation/assistive technology?We have to ask ourselves if the skills need to be taught explicitly to the student through specialized instruction. If the student can achieve the standard with an accommodation, we may have selected the wrong standard to be included as an area for goal writing on the IEP. It may just need to be addressed on the IEP modification pages.Remember that specialized instruction includes not only the instruction that happens in the “special education classroom”, but the instruction that happens in co-taught and integrated classrooms. It also includes indirect monitoring services and instruction through speech therapy.Arkansas Department of Education
30 Data Analysis, continued Standards-Based IEPsData Analysis, continuedConsider other functional skill areas that may not be directly connected to the academic standards, and determine which areas need specialized instruction through the IEP.Trainer Notes: Read slideRemember, we are not just looking at academic skills. There may be functional areas for which the student needs specialized instruction to access the curriculum and progress in the knowledge and skills expected in the standard.In this case we have been focusing on a particular reading standard, but we might select a functional standard to include on the IEP that is not directly linked to any academic standard, e.g., toileting.Arkansas Department of Education
31 Let’s review… Just as a review, we have already talked about: Standards-Based IEPsLet’s review…Just as a review, we have already talked about:Identifying critical standardsCollecting/analyzing data relative to the student’s current academic performanceCollecting/analyzing data relative to the student’s functional performanceIdentifying instructional needPresent Level StatementsTrainer Notes: Refer to slideArkansas Department of Education
32 Practice Data Analysis Standards-Based IEPsActivity 3.2Practice Data AnalysisAssignment:Review the selected objective for English Language ArtsMake notes of critical expectationsDocument the student’s current skills and knowledge specific to the objectiveConduct an analysis of data using the process we have just been talking about and document resultsWe are going to assume you have already gone through the process of identifying at least one critical objective for the student Karen. We will be using a different objective than we looked at a few minutes ago, ELA.6.R.C2.4. Remember, you could use this process with any ojective or set of standards. We just chose literacy.Review the objectiveMake notes of critical expectationsDocument the student’s current skills and knowledge in relation to the objectiveConduct a data analysis using the process we have just been talking about and document resultsTrainer Notes: Ask participants to take out:Handout 2.1 – Student Data Analysis Karen ShawHandout 2.5 – Developing SB-IEPs Karen ShawArkansas Department of Education
33 Impact StatementAnswers the question of how the child's exceptionality affects (impacts) his/her involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. Discuss learner characteristics and examine how the characteristics affect student learning.Do not use student’s exceptionality to explain how the disability/giftedness affects involvement/ progress in the general curriculum.It may be helpful for the IEP Team to discuss the student’s learner characteristics and examine how these characteristics impact learning.During the meeting the IEP Team members can discuss the student’s disability/giftedness characteristics and use that information to develop the impact statement.One example of what not to write is:Karen’s learning disability affects his progress in the general curriculum.What to write is:Karen’s deficit in reading fluency causes her to have difficulties in summarizing and identifying the main idea of a text. This adversely affects her in classes when she has to read lengthy text materials, summarize them, and provide a central idea of the text.
34 Learner Characteristics Consider the learner characteristics typical of the student’s exceptionality and through observation how these characteristics may affect progress in learning the content state standard.The focus of determining the student’s learner characteristics is to identify the factors that get in the way of students’ learning. One of the best ways to identify a student’s learner characteristics is to observe the student’s response when faced with challenging tasks. Although some learner characteristics are typical for certain types of exceptionalities, not all individuals with a specific exceptionality will have all of the characteristics associated with the exceptionality. It is essential, therefore, to observe each student’s behavior.Learner characteristics are not a type of exceptionality but how the student responds when faced with challenging tasks.
35 Learner Characteristics Activity 3.3Learner CharacteristicsActivActivityTrainer Note:Instruct participants to pair with someone at their table and, working together, list five (5) learner characteristics that they observe in their classrooms. Ask for volunteers willing to share examples of learner characteristics with the large group.Additional learner characteristics that participants may include during Activity 3.3 include but are not limited to:Difficulty with learning new tasksDifficulty with generalizing concepts and skills to new environmentsPoor social skillsBehavior difficultiesDifficulty thinking in a logical or sequential mannerDifficulty with number concepts
36 Examples of Learner Characteristics Easily distractedDifficulty processing information in specific waysDifficulty organizing materials/timeDifficulty completing written tasksDifficulty with problem-solvingThese are only a few of many learner characteristics that can impact student learning. Every student will respond differently as they are faced with various academic/behavioral tasks or expectations.Psychologists can be helpful in this respect.
37 What is a Gap Analysis?A gap analysis is used to measure the difference between the student's current levels of performance and grade-level content standard expectations.In order to develop IEP goals and objectives that will help students progress from their present levels of performance toward proficiency in grade-level reading and/or mathematics standards, the IEP Team will need to conduct a gap analysis. To help you conduct a gap analysis to support IEP Team decision making, let’s review some questions.What progress has the student made in relation to state content standards?Where are the greatest gaps for the student, that would prevent the student from making progress in the enrolled grade-level state content standards?What skills need to be taught explicitly for student to demonstrate proficiency on grade-level state standards?Which skills/knowledge can be acquired in the general classroom with an accommodation/assistive technology?
38 Karen’s Impact Statement Karen’s deficit in reading fluency causes her to have difficulties in summarizing and identifying the main idea of a text. This adversely affects her in classes when she has to read lengthy text materials, summarize them, and provide central idea of a text.What areas are affected due to the exceptionality?How does the student’s exceptionality impact the student’s involvement in the general education curriculum?What academic areas are impacted due to the exceptionality?Trainers may use color coding to separate the components of an impact statement and we can clearly see the questions that are answered in this statement.The areas in red describe the area affected by the exceptionality.The blue area details the impact of the exceptionality and the green describes the academic areas that are affected by the exceptionality.Let’s look at some examples of acceptable and unacceptable impact statements.
39 Sample Impact Statements Eli’s tendency to reverse numbers will impact his ability to accurately write numbers and will also impact computation/problem solving in mathematics.Samantha’s difficulties with reasoning skills affect her ability to draw inferences from literary and informational passages and impact all other academic areas.Let’s look at some additional examples of acceptable impact statements.If we color code the impact statement, we can clearly see the questions that are answered in this statement.The areas in red describe the area affected by the disability.The blue area details the impact of the disability and the green describes the academic areas that are affected by the exceptionality.Notice how the statements describe the way the characteristics of the disability will affect or impact involvement and progress in the general education curriculum.Notice that these impact statements do not simply state that the disability impacts learning, they tell how learning is impacted.
40 Sample Impact Statements Ann’s disability in the areas of auditory processing an auditory memory cause her to have difficulty processing problems and remembering information presented orally. This impacts her ability to follow multi-step directions, to comprehend and recall complex concepts. This also impacts her academic success with oral presentations in all instructional settings, reading, written language, and math, and to a lesser degree, science and social studies.Modules 1-4
41 Sample Impact Statements Jane’s exceptional intellectual ability and achievement as shown in Part V Assessment Data indicates that she may be under-challenged in the grade-level content instruction normally provided in the general education classroom. This impacts her educational progress in that she may need grade-level curriculum enriched to include more depth and complexity.Modules 1-4
42 Unacceptable Impact Statements What is missing?Lisa has difficulty organizing her materials and beginning assignments because she has an attention deficit disorder.Ethan’s learning disability impacts his phonemic awareness.Do not use just the type of exceptionality as the answer to the question, “How does the exceptionality impact learning the content standard” ?Acceptable impact statements answer the question, “How?” and tell how learning is impacted.Unacceptable statements state that the exceptionality has a impact on learning certain skills, but do no tell how the exceptionality impacts learning the skills.Trainer Notes:Discuss the differences between acceptable and unacceptable examples of impact statements.Have a group discussion regarding what is missing from each impact statement. (What is missing is: How the exceptionality impacts learning).
44 Choose content standard and objective(s) Develop Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional PerformanceCollect DataIdentify StrengthsIdentify NeedsDevelop Impact StatementChoose content standard and objective(s)What standard(s) and objective(s) best address the gap?What standard(s) and objective(s) are critical for accelerating student learning?The highlighted area is the fourth step in developing standards-based IEPs.Develop 4-Point GoalIn what length of time (Timeframe)Under what context (Conditions)The student (Who) - Will do what (Behavior)Through what assessment (Evaluation) - To what degree/level (Criterion)Accommodations/Modifications/Specially Designed InstructionWrite measurable goals and objectivesModules 1-4
45 Step 4:Develop Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance The present level provides a summary of baseline information that indicates the student’s academic achievement on specific standards or skills. The present level must be data-based.Components of Present Levels:Grade-level expectationsStrengthsNeedsHow the student’s exceptionality affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum (for preschool children, how the disability affects the child’s participation in age- appropriate activities).Impact StatementDO NOT use the student’s eligibility to explain how the exceptionality affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum!Remember: the present levels of academic achievement and functional performance set the stage for developing IEP goals!Modules 1-4
46 Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) (1) “. . .a statement of the child’s present levels of academic and functional performance, including— (i) how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for nondisabled children);…..” § (a)(1)
47 Present Level & the IEP: A Two-Step Process Standards-Based IEPsPresent Level & the IEP: A Two-Step ProcessPart IDescription of what the student can do; strengths, based on general curriculum expectationsPart IIConversation to identify the gaps in skills/knowledge associated with the exceptionalityPart one (1) of the process is simply describing what the student can do in relation to general curriculum expectations. Part two (2) is a conversation in which we are going to identify the gaps that are associated specifically with the impact of the student’s exceptionality. Since we know what the student can do in relation to the general curriculum expectations, we can identify the gaps.Modules 1-4
48 Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance are comprehensive statements describing the student’s current performance in relation to the enrolled grade-level content state standardsserve as the basis for determining:measurable annual goalsaccommodationssupplementary aids and servicesprogram supportsAs you develop the present levels of achievement and functional performance, remember that the IEP Team is drawing comparisons between the expectations set by grade-level content state standards and where the student is currently performing.The Present Level Statement is the first step in the standards-based IEP process. It is the step upon which all the other steps are built. The Present Level Statement should be data-based and specific enough to serve as a baseline for developing standards-based IEP goals.
49 Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance Present levels must be:Measurable—use terms that are observable, specific, and based on evidenceUnderstandable—use clear language that can be understood by all members of the IEP TeamGeneral statements based on opinion do not present a clear picture of where a student is functioning. For example, statements like, “Sammy’s performance in math is greatly improved” do not provide sufficient information for members of the IEP Team. The term “improved” can mean different things to different people and it does not inform the reader as to how much the student’s performance has improved or in what way the performance has improved.As the IEP Team develops the present levels, ask yourselves if someone who was not present during the meeting could understand the student’s current functioning. If so, you have written statements that will form a strong basis for decision making.The development of a clear, concise present level is essential to developing meaningful and measurable goals.Caution against using PLAAFPs to determine placement. Future placement should not be mentioned PLAAFP.
50 Objective vs. Subjective Statements Activity 3.5Objective vs. Subjective StatementsSubjective StatementsObjective StatementsRichie talks too much.Richie interrupts the teacher during classroom discussions with verbal outburstsStephanie did not turn in her homework assignments.Stephanie did not turn in her homework assignments 17 out of 20 times this grading period resulting in a grade of “Incomplete” in Math I.Tom has difficulty writing a summary.On 50% of his assignments related to summarizing a passage, Tom will list the main idea instead of providing a summary.After reviewing this chart, give the participants the subjective statements below one at a time and ask them to create an objective statement.ActivitySubjective Statement 1: Has trouble with addingPossible Objective Statement 1: Can add three digit numbers but cannot regroupStatement 2: Can read Pre-Primer wordsPossible Objective Statement 2: Can read 20 words at Pre Primer levelStatement 3: Can not write a paragraphPossible Objective Statement 3: Can write a 5 sentence paragraph with less than 2 spelling and grammar errors
51 Components of Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance StrengthsNeeds3. Impact statementThe development of a comprehensive present levels of academic achievement and functional performance is essential to developing meaningful and measurable annual goal statements. Each PLAAFP should have these three components.Let’s examine each of the three parts of the present levels of academic achievement and functional performance.
52 PLAAFP: Component 1Strengths must be specific to the knowledge/skills that are needed to learn grade level standards.Strengths may include:Skills related to the state standard(s)Student’s response to learning strategiesSuccessful Core, Targeted and Intensive Instruction interventions or accommodationsStrengths should be specific and related to the standard(s) of the student’s enrolled grade.Remember, strengths clearly describe what the student can do. If the IEP Team is setting the stage for a reading comprehension goal, for example, the strengths should state if the student is currently able to comprehend before, during or after reading a passage.
53 PLAAFP: Component 2Needs should focus on the skill sets the student requires to access and make progress in general education curriculum.The student’s needs will inform the IEP Team which measurable annual goals to develop.Needs focus on any weaknesses a student may have. What skills are missing in order for the student to be able to achieve the grade-level state standard? The need(s), as stated in the present level, is a clear statement of what the student needs to learn in order to close the gap between his/her knowledge/skills and enrolled grade-level expectations.IEP Teams may be overwhelmed by the number of needs. IEP Teams should ask, “Which need presents the biggest obstacle to the student’s progress toward grade-level state standards” Also, remember that IEP Teams can document additional support the student will be provided in the supplementary aids and services section of the IEP. In addition, needs can be addressed in various places throughout the IEP: goals, supplementary aids and services, accommodations, special considerations, services.Trainer Notes:Emphasize that there will be a number of needs identified for most students and that the IEP Team will need to prioritize the needs based on the impact on progress in the general education curriculum for the student’s current grade which this IEP will be in effect.
54 PLAAFP: Component 3Impact Statement: Answers the question of how the child's exceptionality affects (impacts) his/her involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. Discuss learner characteristics and examine how the characteristics affect student learning.Do not use student’s exceptionality to explain how the exceptionality affects involvement/ progress in the general curriculum.It may be helpful for the IEP Team to discuss the student’s learner characteristics and examine how these characteristics impact learning.During the meeting the IEP Team members can discuss the student’s exceptionality characteristics and use that information to develop the impact statement.
55 Putting it All Together, continued… Standards-Based IEPsPutting it All Together, continued…On the IEP:The Present Level Statements must include:Academic and functional performance: strengths, needs and data sourcesAffect of the exceptionality in the general education curriculum - The Impact Statementfor preschool children, the affect on participation in age appropriate activitiesNow that we have done the data analysis let’s refer back to the GPS. Putting in good data about our current “location” or Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance is really essential. We have gathered our data. We have done the data analysis. We know what the current strengths are, and we know where the gap is. We know which standards and functional areas we are going to include on the IEP. Now we need to think about what it looks like on the IEP form. What are we going to include on the form itself, and are there some specific regulatory requirements?Let’s take another look at those regulations. The statements need to include both academic and functional performance, and we need a clear statement of how the disability affects performance in the general curriculum. We describe this affect in the section of the Present Level Statement called the Impact Statement.Arkansas Department of Education
56 Putting it All Together, continued… Standards-Based IEPsPutting it All Together, continued…Strengths:Student’s response to:Learning strategiesAccommodationsInterventionsStandards instructionAsk…What have we learned about this student’s academic skills and knowledge?Trainer Notes: Refer to slideArkansas Department of Education
57 Putting it All Together, continued… Standards-Based IEPsPutting it All Together, continued…Needs:Focus on needs that affect progress in the general education curriculumprogress in learning grade-level standardsAsk…What prerequisite skills/knowledge doesthe student need to close the gap betweenhis/her Present Level and the grade-levelcontent standards?Remember, the general education curriculum is based on the standards.Arkansas Department of Education
58 Academic Performance Example Standards-Based IEPsAcademic Performance ExampleUse up-to-date descriptive data:Cory reads 24 wpm, while the benchmark for 2nd graders in the regular curriculum is wpm. Cory can say 5 out of 10 short and long vowel sounds. He cannot read multi-syllabic words.We need to use up-to-date descriptive data in our Present Levels. Let’s look at an academic example of a Present Level Statement.Trainer Notes: Read slideArkansas Department of Education
59 Functional Performance Standards-Based IEPsFunctional PerformanceStudent’s:social/emotional (behavioral) performancecommunication skillsperformance in areas of recreation/leisure, self- management, independent living, etc.Ask…“ What have we learned about this student’s ability to function independently and appropriately with peers and adults?”We are going to do the same thing for the functional performance. We want to look again at the social/emotional behavior performance, at communication skills performance in the area of leisure/recreation and self-management/independent living skills, etc. Ask … What have we learned about this student’s ability to function independently or appropriately with peers & adults? What are the behavioral expectations for a student of this age?Arkansas Department of Education
60 Functional Performance Example Standards-Based IEPsFunctional Performance ExampleUse up-to-date descriptive data:In a classroom observation, Cory sat quietly in his seat for 10 minutes. At the 10-minute mark, he began to look around the room, followed by twirling his pencil and playing with his paper. When placed with a partner to complete his work, he was able to remain on task and complete the assignment…You might want to add benchmark data for comparison to typical peers as appropriate. For example, a typical student in Cory’s classroom may be able to sit quietly in the seat for twenty (20) minutes while remaining on task.Arkansas Department of Education
61 Performance in the General Education Curriculum Standards-Based IEPsPerformance in the General Education CurriculumHow does the disability affect performance?Consider how it affects progress in learning the grade-level content standards – the Impact Statement.We need to consider both academic and functional affects, as appropriate.Arkansas Department of Education
62 Standards-Based IEPsCautionDo not use the student’s exceptionality to explain how the disability/advanced learning affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum when developing the Impact Statement.What not to write:Marley’s learning disability affects his progress in the general curriculum.What to write:Marley’s weakness in applying strategies, such as making inferences and complex predictions, affect his progress in comprehending sixth-grade literary materials.When describing how the disability/giftedness affects progress, we do not want to use the student’s exceptionality as the reason for not making progress. For example, something not to write: Marley’s learning disability affects his progress in the general curriculum.” That does not tell me very much because “learning disability” is a very generalized term. Another way to say it would be: Marley’s weakness in applying strategies, such as making inferences and making complex predictions, affects his progress in comprehending sixth grade literary materials.”In this instance, I am actually explaining what the learning disability is --- I am describing it instead of simply using a generic term like “learning disability” because it could mean different things. This impact statement is there to assist us in designing our instruction. It tells us about specifically how Marley’s disability affects his ability to access.Arkansas Department of Education
64 Can you improve this Present Level statement? Standards-Based IEPsActivity 3.7Can you improve this Present Level statement?Rosie has trouble controlling her behavior. She gets easily upset when interacting with peers and does not take direction from authority. Once off task it is really hard to reengage her.Let’s practice again before we leave this segment. On the slide you will see a statement about Rosie which reads: Rosie has trouble controlling her behavior. She gets easily upset when interacting with peers and does not take direction from authority. Once off task, it is really hard to reengage her.”How would you improve that statement? Remember, we will have a goal for each Present Level Statement so the Present Level needs to be based on specific data and provides us with baseline information. If this statement was in the student data profile it would probably be fine. It is more generic and just gives us an overall picture. Take a minute to think about it, and when you have improved it, we will show you one of the ways in which we would suggest improving it.Trainer Notes: Tell participants to write down their ideas on paper. Provide 3-5 minutes. Ask for volunteers to share.Arkansas Department of Education
65 Standards-Based IEPsOne way…Rosie enjoys socializing with peers, and will play cooperatively with them some of the time. Her teacher reports that more often, Rosie is off task and interacts inappropriately with her peers. Observations of Rosie indicated that when interacting with peers, Rosie became upset (cried, threw material, left the group) 55% of the time within the first five minutes of a group activity. Once off task, it took up to 20 minutes for her to reengage in the activity.Here is how you might improve it: Rosie’s teacher reports that Rosie is often off task and interacts inappropriately with her peers. Observations of Rosie indicated that when interacting with peers, Rosie became upset (cried, threw materials, left the group) 55% of the time within the first five minutes of a group activity. Once off task, it took up to twenty (20) minutes for her to re-engage in the activity.Now that is one way –it does not mean it is the only way. But it is more descriptive and gives more information than the first way.Arkansas Department of Education
66 Putting it all together Standards-Based IEPsActivity 3.7 (Continued)Putting it all togetherRosie has improved in mathematics since last year. She can add and subtract and do some multiplication. She has difficulties solving word problems. Rosie currently has a grade of 71% in math.Here is another example: How would you improve this statement including the impact statement?Trainer Notes: Tell participants to write down their ideas on paper. Provide three to five (3-5) minutes. Ask for volunteers to share.Arkansas Department of Education
67 Standards-Based IEPsOne way…Curriculum Based Assessments indicate Rosie can add and subtract within 100 to solve one-step words problems, involving “adding to”, “taking from”, etc. She has memorized the multiplication facts for 0 – 5 and 10. She is able to use a multiplication table for facts she does not have memorized. Classroom assessments demonstrate that Rosie can apply the correct operation when presented with the terms or symbols for “multiply”, and “divide”. Rosie cannot describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as a multiplication problem, such 35 = 5 groups of 7 objects. She is not able to interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison when given word problem, such as: “A pack of pencils costs 9 times as much as a single pencil, which costs 5 cents. How much is a pack?” Rosie’s disability impacts her ability to use multiplication equations to solve real world problems.This is an example of a Present Level Statement specific to mathematics. The standard is 4.OA.1 – 4th grade Operations and Algebraic Thinking (Domain) 1. The standard reads: CC.4.OA.1 Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, , e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.Now, I could look at Rosie’s Present Level and determine where I need to begin my instruction. I know where the gaps are. Let’s take a minute to think about the “impact” – about how the disability affects progress in the general education curriculum. Why do we have to include that anyway? The impact is critical to designing our program – our specialized instruction. If I know that Rosie’s disability impacts her ability to use multiplication equations to solve real world problems, I am going to set up some supports in mathematics to accommodate for that. Just remember, we are considering how the disability impacts the student’s performance so that we can design the specialized supports and services the student needs to benefit from their special education services.Arkansas Department of Education
68 Review of Present Level Statements Standards-Based IEPsReview of Present Level StatementsAre they related to the vision (desired outcome) for this student?2. Do they reflect what the student knows in relation to the general curriculum or standards expectations?3. Are they stated in measurable terms?4. Do they include strengths, needs, and exceptionality affect on access to the general curriculum?5. Are they self-explanatory?Thinking about the IEPs you have developed this year:Are your current Present Levels related to the vision (desired outcome) for this student? Do the Present Level Statements reflect what the student knows in relation to the general education curriculum or standards expectations? Are the Present Level Statements stated in measurable terms? Does your IEP include strengths, need and how the exceptionality effects access to the general curriculum in clear specific terms that are self-explanatory?Arkansas Department of Education
69 Review of Steps to Develop PLAAFP Review NxGCSOs for student’s grade levelReview various data sources to determine the student’s strengths and needsDetermine what the priorities are for the student in relation to the grade-level standardsAfter the strengths and priority needs have been identified, now write the Present Levels statement for each relevant areaBackground:Strengths can be gathered or identified using the student’s enrolled grade-level standards. It is important that during the process of developing PLAAFP statements the statements are connected to the enrolled grade-level standards for that student. The present level should describe what that student can do (with data sources to support) in relation to the enrolled grade-level standards. Sometimes, strengths are identified that have no impact or are not related to the enrolled grade-level such as “can walk, ambulate around school”, we want teachers or IEP Teams to identify strengths related to enrolled grade-level standards. This process also ensures that teachers become more familiar with what is expected at particular grade levels.The best source of identifying strengths or what the student can do is to use the NxGCSOs. Having them available to review while looking at data will guide Present Level Strengths statement.This process would be the same for all subject areas.If this is a review or revision of the student’s current IEP, the present levels of performance should include a description of the student’s progress toward meeting the annual goals of the current IEP. The present levels of academic achievement and functional performance should be developed in relation to the curricular expectations for the grade level. The present level of academic achievement and functional performance should provide information about the student’s performance and the typical grade-level expectations for the academic content area. The comparison of the two enables the IEP team to set measurable annual goals. Remember to develop the present level based on how the student is performing compared to grade-level content standards.
70 PLAAFP Reading Example-Grade 4 StrengthsSally can identify 1-2 details from text read. She can identify the main idea when reading content area passages. She can verbally explain events in chronological order. She can compare and contrast events from text using a Venn diagram.NeedsHowever, Sally is unable to write a complete summary and will often add her opinion. She has difficulty identifying author’s evidence or purpose in text read, she only states why she likes the text. In addition, Sally can not determine the cause or effect of a situation.Impact StatementSally’s inability to understand key components of reading literature affects her progress in the 4th grade general education curriculum.These are the components of the PLAAFP (present level statement).
71 PLAAFP Phrase Examples Vague Verb PhrasesSpecific Verb PhrasesReceived a math score of 90Can count to 25Knows his lettersCan verbally identify 23/26 lettersCan addUsing a calculator, solves double-digit addition problemsExpressive language is at 27Communicates wants and needs in 2- 3 word sentencesCan readCan locate 2 -3 details in a reading selectionKnows fractionsCan reduce equivalent fractionsCan measureCan accurately use various types of measurement tools such as rulers, weights, and volume (liters)Keep in mind the PLAAFP phrase examples must be in relation to the student’s enrolled grade-level, however, in many cases a student’s skill level will span over 2 grade-levels.
72 Present Levels: Instructional and Grade Levels It is critical that the PLAAFP and annual goals include both the instructional AND grade levels. Why?Instructional level alone does not meet the criteria of the general education curriculum.2. Grade level alone does not meet the criteria of an IEP based on identified skill deficits.Remind participates that every student must be working toward grade-level standards.
73 Present Levels: Instructional and Grade Level The two levels together (instructional and grade) allow the student to make progress in the general education curriculum, while also addressing skill deficits (needs).
74 Present Levels: The End Result Instructional Level and Grade Level The information then translates into content for goals and specially designed instruction in order for the student to work toward mastery in the general education curriculum.
75 Present Level Remember… The Present Levels of Academic Achievement Standards-Based IEPsPresent LevelRemember… The Present Levels of Academic Achievementand Functional Performance set the stagefor developing IEP goals!Trainer Notes: Refer to slideArkansas Department of Education
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