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Standards-Based IEPs Module 3: Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance.

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Presentation on theme: "Standards-Based IEPs Module 3: Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Standards-Based IEPs Module 3: Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance

2 IEP Development Process Desired Outcomes/ Instructional Results Write Measurable Goals Select Instructional Services & Program Supports Implement & Monitor Progress General Curriculum Expectations Current Skills and Knowledge Area of Instructional Need PLAAFP Statements on IEP Form Developing PLAAFP Statements

3 Process of Developing Standards-Based IEPs Determine general education curriculum expectations Identify current skills, knowledge and area(s) of instructional need Conduct data/gap analysis and develop impact statement NxGCSOs/Support for SB-IEPs (ELA, Math) NxGECEs/Community Readiness Unwrap the Standards What is the big picture? Which are most important? Which are critical needs? Develop student data profile Review student data profile Review Grade-Level CSOs Review Learning Progressions Determine Gap Where student is and where student needs to go

4 Develop student data profile which is an overview of student’s functioning in all areas relevant to the IEP. The profile should include general information regarding: Strengths Needs How the exceptionality affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum including Career and Technical Education Assessment/Evaluation Status of prior IEP goals Teacher/Parent/Student input Transition needs (at least by age 16) Learning Style (UDL) Step 2: Identify current skills, knowledge and area (s) of instructional need

5  Provide instructional accountability and access to general curriculum  Support instruction in least restrictive environment  Link the IEP to the general curriculum Standards Drive IEPs

6  Essential for closing the achievement gap  Promote a single system of education and consistency across schools and the district  Are best for kids – assume more, not less Standards Drive IEPs

7  Refer to standards to determine expectations at grade-level  Use the standards as a guide to determine what is important for the student to learn or be able to do  Conduct an analysis to determine the gap between grade expectations and the student’s current skills/knowledge What Does it Mean to Connect IEPs to Standards?

8 What is meant by the general education curriculum?  The full range of courses, activities, lessons, and materials routinely used by the general population What is meant by access?  Participation in the knowledge and skills that make up the general education curriculum Accessing the General Education Curriculum

9 Developing Present Level Statements General Curriculum Expectations Current Skills and Knowledge Areas of Instructional Need PLAAFP Statements on IEP Form

10 Academic Social emotional Communication Recreation/Leisure Health, Physical, Medical Technology For secondary consider:  Jobs/job training  Post-secondary education  Community participation  Home/independent living Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge Consider the Whole Child

11 Academic  Tests  Work samples  Curriculum based assessments  Statewide assessments  Evaluation results  Classroom observation  Formative assessment  IEP Progress Reports  Social/emotional behavior  Classroom reports  Observation  Office referral data  Family input  Attendance Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge

12  Communication  Reports  Observation  Language evaluation  Language skills (including English Language Learners ELLs with exceptionalities)  Health/Physical  Family reports  Comprehensive evaluation  In-school nurse reports  Physical education  Self-report Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge

13 Recreation/Leisure  Family reports  Physical education  Self-report  Extracurricular participation Jobs & Job training  Vocational training records  Vocational/Transition assessment results  Student interview Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge

14  Post-secondary Education  Counselor and student interviews  Transition assessments Community Participation  Family report  Student self-report  Transition assessments Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge

15 Home/Independent Living  Family report  Student self-report  In-school observations  Transition assessments Other reports (use of assistive technology, accommodations, modifications)  Family  Teacher  Student Collect Data Current Skills/Knowledge

16 What:  Can the student do in school; at home?  Accommodations have helped in the past?  Is the student’s performance level on state assessments and in the classroom? Present Performance or Current Skills/Knowledge

17 Activity 3.1

18 Present Level Statements: More than One Step General Curriculum Expectations Current Skills and Knowledge Areas of Instructional Need PLAAFP Statements on IEP Form

19 Selecting the Standard  Discuss intent of standards:  What are the knowledge and skills necessary for the student to achieve to a level that is expected in the standards?  What are the prerequisite skills?

20  Determine which standards are most important for each student (based on progress in the general education curriculum)  Compare standard(s) with student’s areas of need and the impact of the disability/giftedness  Use data to determine the areas in which the student will need additional supports Selecting the Standard

21 Think about…Essential Knowledge and Skills  Leverage-standards in one subject that support student’s success in other subjects  Endurance-standards that help students across the years rather than respond to the testing of a single grade level  Readiness-essential for the next grade/standards that help students prepare for the next level of learning

22 Which standards:  Can be met with accommodations in the general classroom?  Require specialized instruction? Impact Considerations

23 Which standards are most essential to:  Accelerate the ability to progress in the general curriculum?  Result in educational benefit? Impact Considerations

24 1. Consider the target grade level standards  Identify critical knowledge and skills within the standards  Use a data analysis process to conduct a drill down Identifying Instructional Need

25 ELA.6.R.C1.5 determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.


27 2. Of these skills, where does the student demonstrate proficiency? (These could become descriptors in the Present Level Statements)  Formal assessment  Informal assessment Data Analysis, continued

28 3. Can the standard(s) be achieved with an accommodation?  For example, can the student:  Demonstrate the central idea of a text if given orally rather than being asked to read the items independently?  Summarize the text when it is read orally? Data Analysis, continued

29 4. Given these responses:  What skills need to be taught explicitly to demonstrate proficiency on the targeted standards?  Which skills/knowledge can be acquired in the general classroom with an accommodation/assistive technology? Data Analysis, continued

30 Consider other functional skill areas that may not be directly connected to the academic standards, and determine which areas need specialized instruction through the IEP. Data Analysis, continued

31  Just as a review, we have already talked about:  Identifying critical standards  Collecting/analyzing data relative to the student’s current academic performance  Collecting/analyzing data relative to the student’s functional performance  Identifying instructional need  Present Level Statements Let’s review…

32 Assignment: 1.Review the selected objective for English Language Arts 2.Make notes of critical expectations 3.Document the student’s current skills and knowledge specific to the objective 4.Conduct an analysis of data using the process we have just been talking about and document results Practice Data Analysis Activity 3.2

33 Impact Statement Answers the question of how the child's exceptionality affects (impacts) his/her involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. Discuss learner characteristics and examine how the characteristics affect student learning. Do not use student’s exceptionality to explain how the disability/giftedness affects involvement/ progress in the general curriculum. 33

34 Learner Characteristics Consider the learner characteristics typical of the student’s exceptionality and through observation how these characteristics may affect progress in learning the content state standard.

35 Activ Learner Characteristics Activity Activity 3.3

36 Examples of Learner Characteristics Easily distracted Difficulty processing information in specific ways Difficulty organizing materials/time Difficulty completing written tasks Difficulty with problem-solving

37 What is a Gap Analysis? A gap analysis is used to measure the difference between the student's current levels of performance and grade-level content standard expectations.

38 Karen’s Impact Statement Karen’s deficit in reading fluency causes her to have difficulties in summarizing and identifying the main idea of a text. This adversely affects her in classes when she has to read lengthy text materials, summarize them, and provide central idea of a text. What areas are affected due to the exceptionality? How does the student’s exceptionality impact the student’s involvement in the general education curriculum? What academic areas are impacted due to the exceptionality? 38

39 Sample Impact Statements Eli’s tendency to reverse numbers will impact his ability to accurately write numbers and will also impact computation/problem solving in mathematics. Samantha’s difficulties with reasoning skills affect her ability to draw inferences from literary and informational passages and impact all other academic areas.

40 Sample Impact Statements Ann’s disability in the areas of auditory processing an auditory memory cause her to have difficulty processing problems and remembering information presented orally. This impacts her ability to follow multi-step directions, to comprehend and recall complex concepts. This also impacts her academic success with oral presentations in all instructional settings, reading, written language, and math, and to a lesser degree, science and social studies.

41 Jane’s exceptional intellectual ability and achievement as shown in Part V Assessment Data indicates that she may be under- challenged in the grade-level content instruction normally provided in the general education classroom. This impacts her educational progress in that she may need grade-level curriculum enriched to include more depth and complexity. Sample Impact Statements

42 Unacceptable Impact Statements What is missing? Lisa has difficulty organizing her materials and beginning assignments because she has an attention deficit disorder. Ethan’s learning disability impacts his phonemic awareness.

43 Activity 3.4 Karen Shaw

44 Develop Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance Choose content standard and objective(s) Write measurable goals and objectives Collect Data Identify Strengths Identify Needs Develop Impact Statement What standard(s) and objective(s) best address the gap? What standard(s) and objective(s) are critical for accelerating student learning? Develop 4-Point Goal In what length of time (Timeframe) Under what context (Conditions) The student (Who) - Will do what (Behavior) Through what assessment (Evaluation) - To what degree/level (Criterion) Accommodations/Modifications/Specially Designed Instruction

45 Step 4:Develop Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance The present level provides a summary of baseline information that indicates the student’s academic achievement on specific standards or skills. The present level must be data-based. Components of Present Levels: Grade-level expectations Strengths Needs How the student’s exceptionality affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum (for preschool children, how the disability affects the child’s participation in age- appropriate activities). Impact Statement DO NOT use the student’s eligibility to explain how the exceptionality affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum! Remember: the present levels of academic achievement and functional performance set the stage for developing IEP goals!

46 Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) (1) “...a statement of the child’s present levels of academic and functional performance, including— (i) how the child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum (i.e., the same curriculum as for nondisabled children);…..” § (a)(1)

47  Part I  Description of what the student can do; strengths, based on general curriculum expectations  Part II  Conversation to identify the gaps in skills/knowledge associated with the exceptionality Present Level & the IEP: A Two-Step Process

48 Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance are comprehensive statements describing the student’s current performance in relation to the enrolled grade-level content state standards serve as the basis for determining: o measurable annual goals o accommodations o supplementary aids and services o program supports

49 Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance Present levels must be: Measurable—use terms that are observable, specific, and based on evidence Understandable—use clear language that can be understood by all members of the IEP Team

50 Subjective StatementsObjective Statements Richie talks too much.Richie interrupts the teacher during classroom discussions with verbal outbursts Stephanie did not turn in her homework assignments. Stephanie did not turn in her homework assignments 17 out of 20 times this grading period resulting in a grade of “Incomplete” in Math I. Tom has difficulty writing a summary.On 50% of his assignments related to summarizing a passage, Tom will list the main idea instead of providing a summary. Objective vs. Subjective Statements Activity 3.5

51 Components of Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance 1.Strengths 2.Needs 3. Impact statement

52 PLAAFP: Component 1 Strengths must be specific to the knowledge/skills that are needed to learn grade level standards. Strengths may include: Skills related to the state standard(s) Student’s response to learning strategies Successful Core, Targeted and Intensive Instruction interventions or accommodations

53 PLAAFP: Component 2 Needs should focus on the skill sets the student requires to access and make progress in general education curriculum. The student’s needs will inform the IEP Team which measurable annual goals to develop.

54 PLAAFP: Component 3 Impact Statement : Answers the question of how the child's exceptionality affects (impacts) his/her involvement and progress in the general education curriculum. Discuss learner characteristics and examine how the characteristics affect student learning. Do not use student’s exceptionality to explain how the exceptionality affects involvement/ progress in the general curriculum. 54

55 On the IEP:  The Present Level Statements must include:  Academic and functional performance: strengths, needs and data sources  Affect of the exceptionality in the general education curriculum - The Impact Statement for preschool children, the affect on participation in age appropriate activities Putting it All Together, continued…

56  Strengths: Student’s response to:  Learning strategies  Accommodations  Interventions  Standards instruction Ask…What have we learned about this student’s academic skills and knowledge? Putting it All Together, continued…

57  Needs: Focus on needs that affect progress in the general education curriculum  progress in learning grade-level standards Ask…What prerequisite skills/knowledge does the student need to close the gap between his/her Present Level and the grade-level content standards? Putting it All Together, continued…

58 Use up-to-date descriptive data: Cory reads 24 wpm, while the benchmark for 2 nd graders in the regular curriculum is wpm. Cory can say 5 out of 10 short and long vowel sounds. He cannot read multi-syllabic words. Academic Performance Example

59  Student’s:  social/emotional (behavioral) performance  communication skills  performance in areas of recreation/leisure, self- management, independent living, etc. Ask …“ What have we learned about this student’s ability to function independently and appropriately with peers and adults?” Functional Performance

60  Use up-to-date descriptive data: In a classroom observation, Cory sat quietly in his seat for 10 minutes. At the 10-minute mark, he began to look around the room, followed by twirling his pencil and playing with his paper. When placed with a partner to complete his work, he was able to remain on task and complete the assignment… Functional Performance Example

61  How does the disability affect performance?  Consider how it affects progress in learning the grade-level content standards – the Impact Statement. Performance in the General Education Curriculum

62  Do not use the student’s exceptionality to explain how the disability/advanced learning affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculum when developing the Impact Statement.  What not to write: Marley’s learning disability affects his progress in the general curriculum.  What to write: Marley’s weakness in applying strategies, such as making inferences and complex predictions, affect his progress in comprehending sixth-grade literary materials. Caution

63 Activity 3.6 Karen Shaw

64 Rosie has trouble controlling her behavior. She gets easily upset when interacting with peers and does not take direction from authority. Once off task it is really hard to reengage her. Can you improve this Present Level statement? Activity 3.7

65 Rosie enjoys socializing with peers, and will play cooperatively with them some of the time. Her teacher reports that more often, Rosie is off task and interacts inappropriately with her peers. Observations of Rosie indicated that when interacting with peers, Rosie became upset (cried, threw material, left the group) 55% of the time within the first five minutes of a group activity. Once off task, it took up to 20 minutes for her to reengage in the activity. One way…

66  Rosie has improved in mathematics since last year. She can add and subtract and do some multiplication. She has difficulties solving word problems. Rosie currently has a grade of 71% in math. Putting it all together Activity 3.7 (Continued)

67 Curriculum Based Assessments indicate Rosie can add and subtract within 100 to solve one-step words problems, involving “adding to”, “taking from”, etc. She has memorized the multiplication facts for 0 – 5 and 10. She is able to use a multiplication table for facts she does not have memorized. Classroom assessments demonstrate that Rosie can apply the correct operation when presented with the terms or symbols for “multiply”, and “divide”. Rosie cannot describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as a multiplication problem, such 35 = 5 groups of 7 objects. She is not able to interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison when given word problem, such as: “A pack of pencils costs 9 times as much as a single pencil, which costs 5 cents. How much is a pack?” Rosie’s disability impacts her ability to use multiplication equations to solve real world problems. One way…

68 Review of Present Level Statements 1.Are they related to the vision (desired outcome) for this student? 2. Do they reflect what the student knows in relation to the general curriculum or standards expectations? 3. Are they stated in measurable terms? 4.Do they include strengths, needs, and exceptionality affect on access to the general curriculum? 5. Are they self-explanatory?

69 Review of Steps to Develop PLAAFP 1.Review NxGCSOs for student’s grade level 2.Review various data sources to determine the student’s strengths and needs 3.Determine what the priorities are for the student in relation to the grade-level standards 4.After the strengths and priority needs have been identified, now write the Present Levels statement for each relevant area

70 PLAAFP Reading Example-Grade 4 Strengths Sally can identify 1-2 details from text read. She can identify the main idea when reading content area passages. She can verbally explain events in chronological order. She can compare and contrast events from text using a Venn diagram. Needs However, Sally is unable to write a complete summary and will often add her opinion. She has difficulty identifying author’s evidence or purpose in text read, she only states why she likes the text. In addition, Sally can not determine the cause or effect of a situation. Impact Statement Sally’s inability to understand key components of reading literature affects her progress in the 4 th grade general education curriculu m.

71 PLAAFP Phrase Examples Vague Verb PhrasesSpecific Verb Phrases Received a math score of 90Can count to 25 Knows his lettersCan verbally identify 23/26 letters Can addUsing a calculator, solves double-digit addition problems Expressive language is at 27Communicates wants and needs in 2- 3 word sentences Can readCan locate 2 -3 details in a reading selection Knows fractionsCan reduce equivalent fractions Can measureCan accurately use various types of measurement tools such as rulers, weights, and volume (liters)

72 Present Levels: Instructional and Grade Levels It is critical that the PLAAFP and annual goals include both the instructional AND grade levels. Why? 1.Instructional level alone does not meet the criteria of the general education curriculum. 2. Grade level alone does not meet the criteria of an IEP based on identified skill deficits.

73 Present Levels: Instructional and Grade Level The two levels together (instructional and grade) allow the student to make progress in the general education curriculum, while also addressing skill deficits (needs).

74 Present Levels: The End Result Instructional Level and Grade Level The information then translates into content for goals and specially designed instruction in order for the student to work toward mastery in the general education curriculum. 74

75 Present Level Remember… The Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance set the stage for developing IEP goals!


77 Let’s Review PLAAFP Reminders Activity 3.9

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