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Creating a Community of Lifelong Learners: Informational Literacy EDFN 747 Curriculum Theory and Practice Practicum Pat Larsen July 27, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating a Community of Lifelong Learners: Informational Literacy EDFN 747 Curriculum Theory and Practice Practicum Pat Larsen July 27, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating a Community of Lifelong Learners: Informational Literacy EDFN 747 Curriculum Theory and Practice Practicum Pat Larsen July 27, 2004

2 Practicum Project Purpose  Professional Development Activity  Introduce concept to teachers  Elicit teacher interest in learning more about informational literacy.  Sustained Curriculum Evaluation and Development  How can we weave informational literacy into our core curriculum?  How can we collaborate with our Library Media Specialists in an effort to include them as vital agents of change?  A 3 rd Grade Model…

3 The Age of Information “A weekday edition of the New York Times contains more print information than the average seventeenth century Englishman was likely to see in a lifetime.” (Christina Doyle, Professor of Technology in Learning at Northern Arizona University, 1992) Learning at Northern Arizona University, 1992)

4 What is Informational Literacy? The Vast World of Informational Literacy: Multiplicity of Terms Preparing Our Students to Become 21 st Century Information Consumers Personal Empowerment Independence Personal Literacy Interdependence Lifelong Learning Individual Development Learning to Learn Attitudes Information Literacy Values Informed Decision Making Skills Technological Literacy Digital Literacy Electronic Literacy E-Literacies Media Literacy Critical Literacy Ethical Literacy Moral Literacy Information Problem- Solving Literacy Traditional Literacy Basic Literacy Functional Literacy Academic Literacy Cultural Literacy Social Literacy Political Literacy Multicultural Literacy Visual Literacy Language Arts Science Social Science MathematicsCommunication Scholarly Adapted from Colorado State University Diagram on Subsets of Informational Literacy

5 What is Informational Literacy? Narrowing the Scope: Learning How to Learn “To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and effectively use the needed information. Since information may be presented in a number of formats, the term information applies to more than just the printed word. Other literacies such as visual, media, computer, network, and basic literacies are implicit in informational literacy.” “To be information literate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and effectively use the needed information. Since information may be presented in a number of formats, the term information applies to more than just the printed word. Other literacies such as visual, media, computer, network, and basic literacies are implicit in informational literacy.” (Christina Doyle, 1992) An information literate person is one who: Recognizes that accurate and complete information is the basis for intelligent decision making Recognizes the need for information Formulates questions based on information needs Identifies potential sources of information Develops successful search strategies Accesses sources of information including computer-based and other technologies Evaluates information Organizes information for practical application Uses information in critical thinking and problem-solving

6 What is Informational Literacy? Turning Information into Knowledge “… This involves a deeper understanding of how and where to find information, the ability to judge whether that information is meaningful, and ultimately, how best that information can be incorporated to address the problem or issue at hand…it is not the same as computer literacy (technological know-how to manipulate computer hardware and software) or library literacy; although there is a strong relationship among all of these concepts. Information literacy goes beyond merely having access to and knowledge of how to use technology because technology alone does not guarantee quality learning experiences.” (Barbara Humes, 2004)

7 What is Informational Literacy? Three themes predominate in research on informational literacy: (1) Information literacy is a process. Skills must be taught in the context of the overall process. (2) To be successful, informational literacy skills instruction must be integrated with the curriculum and be reinforced both within and outside of the educational setting. (3) Information literacy skills are vital to future success.

8 Evolution of Informational Literacy  1974: Paul Zurkowski Report: National Commission on Libraries and Information Services first coined the phrase “Information Literacy.  1983: Report on a Nation at Risk: The development of informational literacy in K-12 Education  1986: American Library Association Publication of a concept paper outlining the role of the library and the role of information resources in K-12 education.  1988: The American Association of School Librarians’ publication: Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning. Emphasized the notion that the mission of the school library media program is to “Ensure that students and staff are effective users of information.”  1991: U.A. Department of Labor’s report from the Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) lists information literacy as one of the five essential competencies necessary for solid job performance.  1991: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Resolutions: #8: Stressed informational literacy and states it should be a part of every student’s education experience.  1994: Passage of Educate America Act and Goals Three of eight goals stress informational literacy. 1995: Carol Collier Kuhlthau paper: The Process of Learning from Information. Kuhlthau found that “to be literate was not only to recognize when information was required, but involved the ability to construct one’s own knowledge through a process that gave meaning and self-interest to the notion of learning throughout a lifetime.  2001: passage of PL : No Child Left Behind

9 Is There a Need to Teach Informational Literacy? National Goals Reform Mandates SD State Standards RCAS District Standards Educate America Act: Goals 2000: Three of the eight goals demonstrate the critical nature of information literacy to an information society (#1, School Readiness, #3: Student Achievement. #5: Adult literacy and lifelong learning.) Goals 2000Goals 2000 American Library Association American Library Association (ALA) Nine Informational Literacy Standards for Student Learning American Library Association No Child Left Behind Reform reports call for changes in approaches to learning. Information literacy as a theme, provides a means to bring about such changes. K-12 Restructuring Education reform and restructuring make informational literacy skills a necessity as students seek to construct their own knowledge and create their own understandings. Embedded throughout content areas. Example: Language Arts: Part of Vision for Reading in South Dakota Statement: “Today’s rapidly changing world demands that students possess the reading skills to become discriminating consumers, effective users of information, and lifelong learners.” Example: Language Arts Indicator 4: “Students are able to retrieve, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate a variety of informational texts. Students gather information from electronic reference sources, newspapers, magazines, journals, books and other non-fiction sources. Students synthesize by combining new information with existing knowledge to form original ideas of interpretations…use of textual features and graphic features is essential. All of these concepts help extend students’ control in reading and writing informational text.

10 Is There a Need to Teach Informational Literacy? “We live in an age of information, and reading informational texts critically and analytically-gaining what is called informational literacy-is something every student must learn to do to succeed at school, in life, and eventually in the workplace.” (Robb, 2003) “Today, all persons are users of information – as citizens, business people, problem-solvers in private life, as lifelong learners. Schools provide the optimal setting for assuring that all citizens acquire competence in knowing how to learn.” (Doyle, 1992)

11 A Link to Learning Theories “The process of information literacy provides a constellation of skills, a way of thinking to construct meaning in learning.” (Doyle 1992) A Link to Learning Theories “The process of information literacy provides a constellation of skills, a way of thinking to construct meaning in learning.” (Doyle 1992) Constructivism Bloom’s Taxonomy Cognitive Learning Theory Self-directed learning/learner-based inquiry Self-directed learning/learner-based inquiry Independent, active learning prepares students for real- life problem-solving Independent, active learning prepares students for real- life problem-solving Students seek to construct their own knowledge and understanding Students seek to construct their own knowledge and understanding Shift in teacher’s role from giver of information to facilitator of learning Shift in teacher’s role from giver of information to facilitator of learning Make connections between prior and new knowledge Make connections between prior and new knowledge Connect meaningful search for information to problem-solving, to the real world, and the use of information. Connect meaningful search for information to problem-solving, to the real world, and the use of information. Allows teachers to develop learning strategies to meet the needs of individual students. Allows teachers to develop learning strategies to meet the needs of individual students. Requires application of all Levels: Knowledge Knowledge Comprehension Comprehension Application Application Analysis Analysis Synthesis Synthesis Evaluation Evaluation Teaches students learning how to learn. Teaches students learning how to learn. Students monitor individual progress and utilize metacognition to improve their own skills by devising their own strategies for improvement. Students monitor individual progress and utilize metacognition to improve their own skills by devising their own strategies for improvement. Students choose materials that match their academic levels and preferred learning styles thus individualizing the learning process for the individual student. Students choose materials that match their academic levels and preferred learning styles thus individualizing the learning process for the individual student. Empowers students to analyze how they learn and have choices on how to improve. Empowers students to analyze how they learn and have choices on how to improve.

12 Model for Weaving Informational Literacy into Core Curriculum: “Infotectives” A Plan for 3 rd Grade: A Plan for 3 rd Grade: Two Pieces of the Puzzle (1) Learning How to Extract Information from Nonfiction Sources (2) Incorporating Technology into Beginning Research Techniques “In order to produce learners who are information literate, schools will need to integrate information literacy skills across the curriculum in all subject areas beginning in the earliest grades.” (Barbara Humes, 2004) Link for Ideas Across the Content Areas

13 Reading Reading Standards (Applies to other content areas as well) Indicator 1: Students are able to apply various reading strategies to comprehend and interpret text. 3.R.1.3 Identify organizational features and their purpose in fiction and informational text. Indicator 4: Students are able to retrieve, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate a variety of informational texts. 3.R.4.2 Gather information to research a topic.

14 Reading Reading Examples (Taken from SD and RCAS Supporting Skills/Examples) Indicator 1: Students are able to apply various reading strategies to comprehend and interpret text. Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples 3.R.1.3 Students are able to identify organizational features and their purpose in fiction and informational text. For example: Fiction-table of contents, chapter headings, title page, illustrations, poetic forms; informational-glossary, table of contents, index, headings, bold print, italics Indicator 4: Students are able to retrieve, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate a variety of informational texts. Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples 3.R.1.3 Students are able to gather information to research a topic. To meet this standard, students may: use text marking and organizing strategies to identify essential ideas (for example: sticky notes, highlighting and guided note-taking, webbing, computer applications) use text marking and organizing strategies to identify essential ideas (for example: sticky notes, highlighting and guided note-taking, webbing, computer applications) Locate information from multiple sources for reference purposes (for example: atlas, web sites, maps, CD ROM, traditional encyclopedia) Locate information from multiple sources for reference purposes (for example: atlas, web sites, maps, CD ROM, traditional encyclopedia) Use features of books to locate information (for example: table of contents, headings, bold print, italics, index, topic sentences, key words, guide words, illustrations, charts, maps, tables, graphs, diagrams.) Use features of books to locate information (for example: table of contents, headings, bold print, italics, index, topic sentences, key words, guide words, illustrations, charts, maps, tables, graphs, diagrams.)

15 Reading Reading Activities Digital Curriculum Digital Curriculum Expand classroom library to include nonfiction trade books and Expand classroom library to include nonfiction trade books and magazines for children. Ask for Rapid City Journal subscription? magazines for children. Ask for Rapid City Journal subscription? Brief strategy lessons utilizing nonfiction texts such as read- Brief strategy lessons utilizing nonfiction texts such as read- alouds, listening centers, classroom displays, writer’s workshops, alouds, listening centers, classroom displays, writer’s workshops, author’s studies, themes, projects, content-area instruction, author’s studies, themes, projects, content-area instruction, home reading programs, and sustained silent reading home reading programs, and sustained silent reading Browse books and explore structure by actively involving students Browse books and explore structure by actively involving students in searching for and discovering the framework of a text in searching for and discovering the framework of a text Fountas and Pinnell: Teach Features of Informational Text and Fountas and Pinnell: Teach Features of Informational Text and Teach Key Words Teach Key Words Reader’s Handbook: Mini-lessons on Organizational Structure Reader’s Handbook: Mini-lessons on Organizational Structure Teaching Reading in Content Areas Lessons (Laura Robb) Teaching Reading in Content Areas Lessons (Laura Robb) “Clearly, research points to the need for teachers to set aside time to familiarize students with textbook and nonfiction trade book structures.” (Robb, 2003) “One of the challenges faced in education is how to help students read informational articles for understanding.” (Doyle, 1992)

16 Reading Reading Activities: Teaching Features of Informational Texts Guiding Readers and Writers: Fountas and Pinnell p. 401 Link to Digital Curriculum Link to Digital Curriculum “Readers of informational texts must analyze where information is located within the overall organizational framework”…they must know what to expect-to anticipate the kinds of organizational structures they may encounter. (Fountas and Pinnell, 2001) Features of Informational Texts Print Features  font  bold print  colored print  bullets  titles  headings  subheadings  italics  labels  captions Graphic Aids  diagrams  sketches  graphs  figures  maps  charts  tables  cross-sections  timelines  overlays Organizational Aids  table of contents  index  glossary  preface  pronunciation guide  appendix Illustrations  colored photographs  colored drawings  black and white photos  black and white drawings  labeled drawings  enlarged photographs  acrylic, watercolor, oil paintings

17 Reading Reading Activities: Teaching Text Structures Guiding Readers and Writers: Fountas and Pinnell p. 402 The language authors use can signal what type of text structure is utilized. When students possess a heightened awareness of text structures, and then utilize this awareness, they tend to read more strategically. (Robb, 2003) Patterns of Text Structure in Informational Texts Text Pattern Definition Key Words Description Use language to help the reader from images or visualize processes Descriptive details-words like on, over, beyond, within descriptive adjectives TemporalSequence Present ideas or events in the order in which they happen first, second, before, after, finally, then, next, earlier, later, last Comparison/Contrast Discuss two ideas, events, or phenomena, showing how they are similar and different while, yet, but, rather, most, either, like, and unlike, same, as opposed to, as well as, likewise, on the other hand, although, the, same, similarly, opposites Cause and Effect Provide explanations or reasons for phenomena because, since, thus, so that, if…then, therefore, nevertheless, due to, this led to, as a result, then…so, for this reason, on account of, consequently Problem/Solution Identify problems and pose solutions Propose, conclude, a solution, the problem or the question, research shows, the evidence is, a reason for

18 What About the Other Content Areas? “Problems in reading nonfiction text are most acute in the content areas of science, social studies, health, and math, in which students are expected to read a nonfiction text and acquire new information from it.” “Problems in reading nonfiction text are most acute in the content areas of science, social studies, health, and math, in which students are expected to read a nonfiction text and acquire new information from it.” (Robb, 2003)

19 Math Mathematics is “more than a collection of concepts and skills to be mastered; it includes methods of investigating and reasoning, means of communication, and notions of context. It involves the development of personal self-confidence. Information literacy, as presented within this curriculum area involves problem-solving, the use of estimation, thinking strategies for basic facts, formulating and investigating questions from problem situations, and use of computers, calculators, and other technologies.” (Doyle, 1992) Reading in math can be different from reading material organized in paragraphs. In solving problems, students must extract the information they need, eliminate extraneous information, plan strategies for solving problem Plan for 3 rd Grade Math August: Investigations Summer Camp August: Investigations Summer Camp Teach students how to extract information Teach students how to extract information from texts, questions, tables, graphs, and from texts, questions, tables, graphs, and charts. charts. Purposely teach math vocabulary Purposely teach math vocabulary Promote acquisition of basic facts. Promote acquisition of basic facts. Focus of evaluation will be using information in Focus of evaluation will be using information in meaningful ways to demonstrate understanding. meaningful ways to demonstrate understanding.

20 Social Studies 1994: National Council for Social Studies created a set of curriculum standards that have informational literacy skills embedded throughout. Rapid City Area Schools Social Studies Mission Statement: “The primary purpose of the social studies program in Rapid City Area Schools is to prepare young people to be positive and productive citizens who actively participate in civic affairs, who understand their role in a changing global society, and who can apply knowledge and skills from the social sciences in order to make informed and reasoned decisions for public and personal good Plan for 3rd Grade Social Studies Fall 2004: Introduce a student action research project to ascertain how students learn best. Introduce beginning research techniques. Utilize Weekly Readers to teach students how to extract information from charts, tables, graphs, etc.

21 Science “Science offers special insights and contributions to the development of informational literacy skills.” (Doyle, 1992) Rapid City Area Schools Philosophy Statement: “In the elementary grades, students will experience hands-on opportunities that encourage the active construction of scientific ideas, knowledge, and explanations. Students will investigate, process, and communicate earth, physical, and life sciences. Developmentally appropriate activities will be structured around the scientific processes. “Student’s difficulties in science may be related to their difficulties with informational text because science achievement is associated with the ability to read informational text but not with the ability to read narrative text.” (Bernhardt, et. al. 1995) Develop activities to monitor and assess students’ comprehension of informational text to determine if additional teacher-led instruction needs to occur.

22 Students with Special Needs  Informational text may be key to literacy success not experienced through story forms.  Informational text can cater to each student’s individual interests (i.e. weather, volcanoes, space, dinosaurs, etc.)  Research shows that when students are interested in what they are reading, their skills develop better and faster.  Informational text may provide motivation needed to persevere through decoding difficulties (Information adapted from Scholastic article: Using Nonfiction to Increase Reading Achievement and World Knowledge, Nell Duke 2004)  Help students understand structure and vocabulary of informational text.  Provide ample support for research/investigations. (Fountas and Pinnell, 2001) Low-achieving students often stumble with (informational literacy) because they experience “double jeopardy: (1) they possess ineffective reading processes which makes it difficult to use reading to gain information and (2) they lack background knowledge to bring to informational text. (Fountas and Pinnell, 2001)

23 Technology Integration and Informational Literacy “Information technology is the great enabler. It provides, for those who have access to it, an extension of their powers of perception, comprehension, analysis, thought, concentration and articulation through a range of activities that include: writing, visual images, mathematics, music, physical movement, sensing the environment, simulation and communication. Technology, in all its various forms, offers users the tools to access, manipulate, transform, evaluate, use and present information. Technology instruction in schools includes computers (Internet), televisions, video cameras, video editing equipment and TV studios. (Teacher Librarian, Eric Plotnick, 2000) 3 rd Grade Plan Make technology integration a priority/consistent inclusion into daily planning Make technology integration a priority/consistent inclusion into daily planning Introduce Beginning Research Techniques (utilize Big6 strategy and Information Introduce Beginning Research Techniques (utilize Big6 strategy and InformationBig6InformationBig6Information Process Adventure Process Adventure) Process Adventure) Process Adventure Collaborate with Library Media Specialist/5 th Grade Teacher Collaborate with Library Media Specialist/5 th Grade TeacherActivities:  Handheld Computer Project (Blue Tooth Technology?)  Digital Curriculum  Multimedia Presentations “There is some empirical indication that students who use technology as a tool may become better at managing information, communicating, and presenting ideas.” (Plotnick) (Plotnick)

24 Creating a Lifelong Learning Community The definition of literacy is changing…it no longer consists solely of mastery of the 3 Rs… “,,,to be literate (is) not only to recognize when information (is) required, but (involves) the ability to construct one’s own knowledge through a process that (gives) meaning and self-interest to the notion of learning throughout a lifetime.” (Langford, 1998) “…Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning.” (Lamb, 2003) If we are to promote the essence of a lifelong learning community, all members – administrators, teachers, parents, community and business partners will need to demonstrate their belief in the power of lifelong learning.

25 A Call for Action How can we weave informational literacy into our core curriculum? How can we weave informational literacy into our core curriculum? How can we collaborate with our Library Media Specialists in an effort to include them as vital agents of change? How can we collaborate with our Library Media Specialists in an effort to include them as vital agents of change? Do we begin with Action Research? Do we begin with Action Research? - Where are we at with informational literacy in our school? school? - Is there a need to include informational literacy within the scope of our teaching…SAT-10/D-STEP within the scope of our teaching…SAT-10/D-STEP results? results? - Where do we need to go with Informational Literacy? Can we create a long-term plan? Can we create a long-term plan? - What steps will it take for us to get there? - How will we evaluate the success of our efforts?

26 Conclusion “In this next century, an ‘educated’ graduate will no longer be defined as one who has absorbed a certain body of factual information, but as one who knows how to find, evaluate, and apply needed information. Our ability to be information literate depends upon our willingness to be lifelong learners as we are challenged to master new technologies that will forever alter the landscape of information.” “In this next century, an ‘educated’ graduate will no longer be defined as one who has absorbed a certain body of factual information, but as one who knows how to find, evaluate, and apply needed information. Our ability to be information literate depends upon our willingness to be lifelong learners as we are challenged to master new technologies that will forever alter the landscape of information.” (Breivik, 1998)

27 References  Berhnardt, E., T. Destino, M. Kamil, and M. Rodriguez-Munoz. "Accessing Science Knowledge in an English/Spanish bilingual elementary school." Cognosos, 4, (1995): 4-6  "Best Practices of Technology Integration: Action Research for Students." Madeja, Deborah. July 9,  Breivik, P.S. & Senn, J.A. (1998). "Information literacy: Educating Children for the 21st Century. (2ed.). Washington, DC: National Education Association. July 9,  Fountas, Irene and Pinnell, Gay Su. (2001). Guiding Readers and Writers Grades 3-6. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.  Harvey, Stephanie and Goudvis, Anne. (2000). Strategies That Work. Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers.  "Harnessing the Best of Technology for an Exceptional Information Literacy Library Program (Part 1)." Gallaher, Deborah and Roberts, Sue. July 14,  "I am a Lifelong Learner: The Information Process Adventure." July 22,  "Information Literacy." Colorado State University. July 10,  "Information Literacy." Doyle, Christina (July 9, 2004).  "Information Literacy." Lamb, Annette. July 9,

28 References   "Information Literacy: Learning How to Learn." Barton, Holly. July 22,  "Information literacy? Seeking Clarification." Langford, Linda. July 10,  "Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning: The Nine Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning." American Library Association. (July 9, 2004).  "Literacy-Middle and High School Reading Strategies Videos: After Reading Strategies." Kentucky Department of Education. July 9, Middle+and+High  Miller, Debbie Reading with Meaning. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.  Plotnick, Erc. "Definitions/Perspectives" Teacher Librarian, September, dy  Robb, Laura. (2002). Reader's Handbook: a Student Guide for Reading and Learning. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group.  Robb, Laura Teaching Reading in Social Studies, Science, and Math. New York, New York: Scholastic.  "Summary of Goals 2000: Educate America Act." North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. July 5,  "Understanding Information Literacy." Humes, Barbara. July 9,  "Using Nonfiction to Increase Reading Achievement and World Knowledge." Duke, Nell. July 9,


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