Background Botswana ratified the UNFCCC in 1994 2001 submission of the INC to the UNFCCC INC offered opportunities for policy refinement. INC sells national opportunities for foreign and local investment for safeguarding the environment.
Background (Cont.) The TNA for Botswana was undertaken in 2004 by consultants. Objective of the TNA to identify and assess environmentally sound technologies. These technologies to have synergy between reducing impacts of CC and GHG emissions in Botswana with National Development objectives
Specific Objectives Assess past efforts (INC) to identify GHG mitigation technologies and adaptation measures in critical economic and vulnerable sectors. Define priority sectors for which technologies are needed. Identify suitable technologies that mitigate GHG emissions, their sources, cost-effectiveness, barriers to adoption and adaptation/mitigation potential. Review Government national policies. Investigate social acceptability of some technologies.
Methodology Secondary data collection involved review of past literature on: –V &A in Water and Agriculture –Mitigation studies in both energy and non-energy sector. –BINC –Vision 2016, NDPs, sectoral policies, projects and programmes. –Best practices in Botswana and other countries in relation to integrating CC programmes NDPs.
Methodology (cont) Primary data entailed: –Interviews of Govt policy / decision makers –Interview of users and potential users of recycled/treated water. –Consultation with technology suppliers in and outside –Workshop of Govt decision makers, technology providers and other experts.
TNA--Energy Energy contributes to National GDP, as it is input to all production facilities and is a basic welfare need. Overview of energy –Coal –Wood –Petroleum –Electricity –Solar
Energy technologies identified –Solar:PV, Cooling, Passive Designs, Cooking, Water Pumping, Solar Water Heating, Thermal Electricity Generation. –Biomass: Wood Chip Briquetting, Elephant Grass –Biogas:Sewerage, Slaughterhouse, Household, Landfill –Biofuel:Jetropha –Coal:Coal washing, coal bed methane –Energy Efficiency: CFL, Passive Solar Designs, Energy Management Systems –Other: Decentralized Generation, LPG, Fuel Cells, Modern Wind Technologies, Hybrid Systems
Barriers High capital costs Lack of expertise in the country. Lack of confidence in some of the new technologies. Lack of raw materials Lack of infrastructure Lack of info and fear Jetropha could be a weed and degrade the rangeland
Water –Wastewater Treatment: technologies are: Activated Sludge, Percolating Filter, Bio Contactors, Stabilization Ponds, Constructed Wetlands, Lime/Limestone, Vacuum Sewerage –Water Treatment: Reverse Osmosis, Polymer Technology, Demineralization –Rain Water Harvesting: Ground Catchment Tank, Roof Catchment Tank
Barriers Expensive Lack of knowledge Social acceptability of recycled water
Agriculture –Livestock: Reducing Livestock Numbers, Animal Productivity, Ionophores, Probiotics, Manipulating Nutrient Composition, Animal Breeding, Livestock Methane Vaccine –Tillage: Conservation Tillage, Soil Carbon Uptake, Tractor Operation and Selection –Usage of Variety with short growing period crops
Barriers Reluctance to reduce numbers Lack of knowledge and information
WHERE WE ARE TODAY Several municipal sewerage works running on methane CBM being extracted Water recycling being done mainly for irrigation Coal washing being implemented Solar water heaters being promoted Small scale solar power stations available and being promoted Some policies being reviewed. Non Motorized Transport project implemented. Ministry of Agric. Working on coming up with more drought resilient crops.