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1 How to use this Presentation unite and deliver effective support for countriesUnite and Deliver Why UN organizations need to work together and provide more coherent, effective and relevant support to countries Inyang Ebong-HarstrupWe need to unite the UN system and provide more effective and efficient development assistance.Three key points:Why the UN needs to change to increase its impact in developing countries.How UN organizations in the pilot countries are Delivering as One.What we have done so far, and what we’re going to do.How to use this PresentationUse “presenter view” when showing it so you can read the notes.Print the notes pages as a script for yourself and a handout for audiences.For a 30-minute presentation use the whole deck.For a 5-minute presentation just make the key points on the slide titles.
2 As countries develop, the world is changing As countries develop, the world is changing. We have a chance to serve this world.1975The world has changed. We can’t really talk about “developing countries” as a generic group anymore.As rates of development have diverged, most of the countries where the UN provides development assistance have attained middle income status. Meanwhile, some countries remain trapped in abject poverty, forming the “bottom billion.”These countries need very different things from the UN.The least developed countries still need the type of assistance the UN has long provided, such as projects and capacity-building. They need more and better assistance.But more advanced developing countries require a different range of services, primarily specialized public policy advice. In these countries, the UN should focus less on operations and more on advocacy and bringing people together to resolve development challenges.This requires a dramatic shift in the way the UN approaches program countries. One size clearly does not fit all.2005
3 We have the vision and the opportunity to make the UN more coherent and effective. The international community has embraced poverty reduction as the central objective of the global development agenda.The UN, with its global legitimacy, should be driving and implementing that agenda.There are windows of opportunities for the UN system to seize.Reform momentum in the interest of many countriesThe World Conferences, Millennium Declaration and Millennium Development Goals have given the UN a broad set of policy objectives to mobilize the system, provide greater common ownership and a sense of commitment.The Monterrey Consensus on financing for development called for “mutual accountability” between recipient countries and donors, and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness lays out shared principles for the “how to” of effective development cooperation.Through the Triennial Comprehensive Policy Review resolutions of 2004 and 2007, the General Assembly has mandated the UN system to become more coherent, effective and efficient, and to simplify and harmonize its business practices.And the UN Secretary-General has said the UN system urgently needs more coherence and synergy so it can perform as one and be more than the sum of its parts.
4 UN Programme Countries The UN system’s global presence gives it unique advantages in supporting countries.The UN system has unique advantages in helping countries develop. We are a strong and reliable partner with a unique depth of capacity and breadth of voice.Our presence is global, with teams in 136 countries and programmes in 180 countries, conducting activities worth over $16 billion each year to promote social and economic progress.Our support is universal, multilateral, impartial, and flexible.We’re guided by a globally agreed normative framework of human rights and development goals. At the same time, its unconditional assistance follows national priorities.This translates into a unique ability to link national and international goals, both in advice and implementation.UN Programme Countries
5 To be more than the sum of our parts, we have to work together strategically. The breadth and diversity of the UN system is also a weakness, because it’s often difficult for these very different organizations to plan and work together strategically.Some donors still see the UN’s field operations as too cumbersome and plagued by duplication in programming.Developing country governments, particularly small ones, often find dealing with the UN incurs excessive transaction costs.Cooperation is hindered by competition for funding, governance bodies that set divergent priorities, and different business practices.Even when mandates intersect, UN organizations tend to operate alone with little synergy and coordination between them.Meanwhile, the international aid architecture has changed dramatically. There are now many more donors, including middle income countries with different approaches.Funding patterns are changing significantly. A bigger share of aid is going directly to governments’ budgets, to vertical funds and to small NGOs. Donors have many more choices about where to put their money. Most money is now flowing bilaterally.
6 We need to focus on our comparative advantages in the new aid environment. Multilaterals only disburse 12 percent of total aid (official plus private; 30% of DAC ODA). The European Commission and the World Bank Group have grown to become the major multilateral players.Total funding for the UN’s development cooperation work is rising and reached $17 billion in But UN funding has failed to keep pace with overall development assistance. It rose by only 4% in the past decade, while contributions to the EC rose 56%, the International Development Association rose by 43%, and regional banks’ funding climbed 33%.The OECD countries provided USD billion in ODA in 2007, a decrease of 8.4% in real terms over the previous year. The fall was expected: ODA had been exceptionally high in 2005 and Decrease of ODA in real terms by 8.4% (OECD 2007)Still, donors are not on track to meet their aid volume commitments, which the 2005 G8 summit in 2005 estimated would raise ODA to $130 billion by While there was an encouraging upsurge in bilateral aid to sub-Saharan Africa (an increase of 10% in 2007, excluding debt relief), donors still face a real challenge in doubling total aid to Africa by 2010.Most of the UN’s increase is from non-core, earmarked program or supplementary funding, which has encouraged supply-driven approaches to development assistance. UN System core funding for development fell 26% betweenThis undermines the principle of country ownership and the UN’s ability to formulate long-term strategies.Net ODA from OECD DAC countries to multilateral institutions at constant 2006 prices and exchange rates (millions USD)
7 The 2015 deadline is approaching. The Millennium Development Goals give the UN system a common framework for action.While the UN’s role in global norm-setting and monitoring is not in doubt, its viability as a major actor on the ground in poor countries is in question. The risk is that the UN will gradually cease to be a significant source of policy advice, programming or funding for development in these countries.The playing field has changed and to remain a relevant player, the UN needs to strengthen its own coordination and capacity to deliver public goods to the developing countries that count on it.We need to realign ourselves to a more demand-driven approach with programmes delivered as close to beneficiaries as possible.We need to harness our core comparative advantages, respond to operational and policy needs of programme countries while also advocating for global norms and standards.It requires strengthening the UN’s roles of convener, standard-setter, advocate, expert, monitor, coordinator, and manager of programmes.It requires the UN to focus in each country on areas where it can add the most value and withdraw from other areas.And where the UN has the expertise and authority, it should strategically position itself to influence policy debates in support of human development.The 2015 deadline is approaching.
8 We also need to adapt the UN development system to new threats and challenges. Food CrisisFinancial and Economic CrisisClimate Change and DisastersNotes:Today we face significant challenges: ours is the era of global change unprecedented in its speed, scope and scale. As the world becomes more interdependent we are increasingly exposed to sharp and growing social and economic inequalities. Poverty and lagging development exacerbate vulnerability and instability to the detriment of us all. In addition, we have seen a worrisome increase in the number and severity of natural disasters (some 75 percent of the world’s population live in areas that have been affected at least once by either an earthquake, a tropical cyclone, flooding or drought between 1980 and 2000) and environmental threats are on the rise (global warming, air pollution, etc.). The United Nations played a crucial role in articulating the MDGs. Now it needs to take action to achieve these and the other development goals, and support governments implement their national plans (we have “less than 10 years before the deadlines on most of the MDG goals are up”).However, without ambitious and far-reaching reforms the United Nations will be unable to deliver on its promises and maintain its legitimate position at the heart of the multilateral system.The OECD has just released key data on official development assistance (ODA) in OECD Development Assistance Committee provided USD billion in aid last year. This represents a decrease of 8.4% in real terms over the previous year. The fall was expected: ODA had been exceptionally high in 2005 (USD billion) and 2006 (USD billion) because of debt relief in Iraq and Nigeria.Overall, donors are not on track to meet their aid volume commitments, which the Gleneagles G8 summit in 2005 estimated would raise ODA from USD 80 billion in 2004 to USD 130 billion in While there was an encouraging upsurge in bilateral aid to sub-Saharan Africa (an increase of 10% in 2007, excluding debt relief), donors still face a real challenge in doubling total aid to Africa by 2010, as foreseen at Gleneagles.8
9 UN Coherence builds on the existing reform agenda set by Member States. Efforts to make the UN system more coherent were given new momentum with Secretary-General Kofi Annan's 1997 reform agenda.Since 2002, the General Assembly and other governing bodies have welcomed the UN family’s efforts to work together more coherently. The Paris Principles on Aid Effectiveness expanded on this agenda, stressing to make agreed policies operational.The General Assembly’s 2004 and 2007 Triennial Comprehensive Policy Reviews mandated the UN system to become more coherent, effective and relevant, and to simplify and harmonize business practices.It also endorsed the UN Development Assistance Framework as the common planning tool for all the funds and programmes as a framework for the full UN system. The GA also urged the UN system to use all opportunities to increase aid effectiveness.The UN system is urged to provide further financial, technical and organisational support for the RC System.The UN Funds, Programmes and Specialized Agencies should further harmonize and simplify their business procedures to reduce transaction costs and step up their efforts to rationalize their country presence through common premises, where appropriate, to implement the joint office model, and expand common shared support services and business units in order to reduce overhead costs.
10 Triennial Comprehensive Policy Review Highlights Acknowledges ongoing efforts to become more coherentReaffirms need to enhance relevance, effectiveness, accountability and credibility of UN systemUNDAF as UN system’s common programming toolEmphasizes national ownershipSays UN orgs should further harmonize and simplify their business procedures to reduce transaction costs and step up their efforts to rationalize their country presence through common premises, and expand common shared support services and business units in order to reduce overhead costs.The TCPR says that UN Funds, Programs and Specialized Agencies should further harmonize and simplify their business procedures where this reduces transaction costs.The TCPR acknowledges the added value of different UN development institutions, and says the funds, programmes and specialized agencies should “step up” their efforts to rationalize their country presence through common premises, and where appropriate to implement the joint office model, and expand common shared support services and business units in order to reduce overhead cost.It calls for a focus on effectiveness and impact of the activities, rather than process.It calls for more regular/core funding .It highlights the need for UN support in middle income countries’ development agendaAlso stresses the need for the UN to participate in the aid effectiveness agenda, using the new aid modalities
11 The UN Development Group has become the third pillar of the Chief Executives Board. CEBHLCMUNDGHLCPHigh-level policy decisionsGlobal policies and coordinationThe UN Development Group (UNDG) unites the 32 UN funds, programmes, agencies, departments, and offices that play a role in development. The group’s common objective is to deliver more coherent, effective and efficient support to countries seeking to attain internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals.Established by the Secretary-General in 1997, the UNDG designs system-wide guidance to coordinate, harmonize and align UN development activities. The group strengthens the UN development system at the country level, prepares it to meet future challenges and ensures that operations are conducted in accordance with mandates from UN governing bodies such as the General Assembly.The UNDG is now one of the three pillars of the UN Chief Executives Board (CEB), which furthers coordination and cooperation on a wide range of substantive and management issues facing UN system organizations. The CEB brings the executive heads of UN organizations together on a regular basis under the chairmanship of the Secretary-General. Within the CEB structure, the High-Level Committee on Management works on system-wide administrative and management issues, the High-Level Committee on Programmes considers global policy issues, while the United Nations Development Group deals with operational activities for development with a focus on country-level work.
12 The UNDG focuses on coordinating operations at the country level. Chief Executives BoardCHAIRHigh-Level Committee on ManagementUnited Nations Development GroupWorking Group on Resident Coordinator System IssuesWorking Group on Joint Funding, Financial and Audit IssuesWorking Group on Country Office Business Operations IssuesWorking Group on Programming IssuesUNDG-ECHA Working Group on Post-Crisis TransitionExecutive Committee on Humanitarian AffairsUNDG Advisory GroupDevelopment Operations Coordination OfficeHigh-Level Committee on ProgrammesCEB SecretariatThe UNDG supports the Resident Coordinator System and UN country teams by providing guidance on business operations, coordination, planning and programming, and by promoting coherent and effective oversight of country operations. The group establishes inter-agency agreements on the operational aspects of topics such mainstreaming gender, HIV/AIDS and the human rights-based approach.In cooperation with UN Regional Directors/Managers Teams, the UNDG also helps country team members develop and apply new and better ways of working together. This work includes special support for the eight “Delivering as One” pilot countries that are experimenting with ways to increase the coherence, effectiveness and efficiency of UN operations at the country level.The UNDG meets regularly in full and through working groups. It has also established an Advisory Group of 13 UNDG members, some of whom participate on a rotational basis. The Advisory Group provides the UNDG Chair with advice and guidance on managing the operational dimensions of the UNDG and the Resident Coordinator System. This group convenes at the level of heads of agencies and at the Assistant Secretary-General/Assistant Director-General level.The UNDG’s five working groups help to make development operations more effective at the country level by providing consistent, up-to-date, high quality, and demand-driven guidance to UN country teams. The working groups provide recommendations, update existing guidance documents, and provide support and feedback during the roll-out of new initiatives.Regional Directors Teams (6)UN Country Teams (136)
13 DOCO supports UNDG common policies and the RC System. 1. We provide direct support for effective UN country operations that deliver high-quality development results.2. We strengthen the role of the UN at the country level by facilitating UNDG dialogue on development policies and efforts to build consensus on coordination.3. On behalf of the UNDG, we act as the guardian of the Resident Coordinator System.4. We collect and disseminate UN development system knowledge and best practices.The UN Development Operations Coordination Office (DOCO) promotes social and economic progress by helping UN organizations deliver coherent, effective and efficient support to countries. The Secretary-General created DOCO (formerly the Development Group Office) and the UN Development Group (UNDG) in 1997 to unite the UN system and improve the quality of its development assistance.Coordination leads to more strategic UN support for national plans and priorities, makes operations more efficient, reduces transaction costs for governments, and ultimately helps people attain the Millennium Development Goals and other internationally agreed development objectives.Much of DOCO’s work focuses on supporting and strengthening the Resident Coordinator System with funding, policy guidance and training. DOCO advises RCs on how to make country programmes more efficient, effective and aligned with national priorities, and work to streamline coordination mechanisms.At UN Headquarters, DOCO provides technical support for the UNDG’s work. DOCO staff work with UNDG members to prepare system-wide issues, policies and guidelines for decisions by the group and the UN Chief Executives Board. This includes helping to implement General Assembly resolutions on development operations.1. We provide direct support for effective UN country operations that deliver high-quality development results.2. We strengthen the role of the UN at the country level by facilitating UNDG dialogue on development policies and efforts to build consensus on coordination.3. On behalf of the UNDG, we act as the guardian of the Resident Coordinator System, protect its role and integrity, and sustain the gains it has made at all levels.4. We collect and disseminate UN development system knowledge and best practices in support of UNDG efforts to set global standards for country operations.
14 Development Operations Coordination Office DirectorateSupport to UNDG Meetings and Working GroupsBusiness UnitProgramme Support and Global Quality StandardsResident Coordinator System SupportProgramme Support and Global Quality Standards With assistance from DOCO, the UNDG and its working groups develop policies, procedures, protocols, and guidance for UN country offices. Key tools include the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), Common Country Programming Process, and methodologies for promoting aid effectiveness, national ownership, results-based management, capacity development, human rights, environmental sustainability, gender equality, climate change, food security, and the MDGs. DOCO also assists the RC System’s global quality support and assurance mechanism, which aims to provide timely technical support to UNCTs and enhance the quality of programming results.Resources for Country Teams and RC Offices DOCO administers the UN Country Coordination Fund, which provides Resident Coordinators with resources to improve their capacity to coordinate. DOCO allocates and monitors these resources, and works with UNDG Regional Directors Teams to provide oversight and help country teams to plan and work together strategically. In partnership with the UN System Staff College, DOCO provides coordination training and learning services. DOCO also supports the process of selecting and assessing Resident Coordinators. Country Office Business Operations and Funding DOCO helps the UNDG develop and introduce simplified and harmonized policies and procedures that are vital to country office operations in areas such as communications and IT systems, human resources, procurement, financial rules and regulations, standardized auditing and financial reporting, cost recovery, and funding to partner organizations. For example, the office has helped UN agencies agree on a harmonized and simplified approach to cash transfers to implementing partners, and provided country teams with guidance in reducing their overhead costs.Crisis and Post Conflict Coordination SupportCountry Office Business Operations and Funding, Delivering as One, Expanded Funding Window
15 Key requirements for UN Coherence, Effectiveness and Relevance Keep the momentumApply lessons learned from Delivering as OneManage complexity of parallel security, humanitarian and development structuresBalance inclusiveness with effectivenessImplement UNDG Management and Accountability SystemStrengthen capacities of UN system staff151515
16 UNDG is driving the UN development system to become more strategic, coordinated and aligned with national priorities.Common Country Assessments and UN Development Assistance FrameworksHarmonized and simplified programming cycles, tools and proceduresMore joint programmesStronger Resident Coordinator SystemReduced transaction costsBetter quality assurance and oversightWe’ve made significant progress.The UN Development Assistance Framework, which the General Assembly has now endorsed, helps agencies to plan together and analyse the best response to development needs.Our Common Country Assessments and UN Development Assistance Frameworks are becoming more strategic and better aligned with national priorities, aligning the UNDAF process with national planning as well.Agencies are increasingly working in Country Teams and theme groups, developing more joint programmes, using the same processes and timetables.We have harmonized and simplified programming cycles, tools and procedures.The Resident Coordinator System is becoming stronger and more accountable.UN Houses are becoming more common, and our country presences are becoming more cost-effective.In essence, we’ve identified most of the problems and created guidelines and tools to address them. The challenge now is to put these new policies into practice.
17 Delivering as One is an effort to provide more coordinated, effective and relevant support. The United Nations launched the “Delivering as One” pilot initiative in 2007 to respond to the challenges of a changing world and test how the UN family can provide development assistance in a more coordinated way in eight countries. When the Secretary-General launched Delivering as One, the governments of eight countries — Albania, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Pakistan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uruguay, and Viet Nam — volunteered to become “Delivering as One” pilots. The pilot countries agreed to work with the UN system to capitalize on the strengths and comparative advantages of the different members of the UN family. Together they are experimenting with ways to increase the UN system’s impact through more coherent programmes, reduced transaction costs for governments, and lower overhead costs for the UN system.It is critical to emphasize here that the objective of these efforts is to deliver as one – working and planning together in a coordinated way.As we continue to coordinate, we have to respect the individual governance mandates and rules of each UN family member.The objective is not to merge UN agencies into one large organization, or even two or three large organizations. That’s just not realistic.But what we can do is reduce duplication, increase efficiency, and encourage donors to pool their funds so we can be more strategic and deliver real impact.Uruguay
18 The eight pilots have developed different models to Deliver as One. During 2007, the eight pilots developed different models to “Deliver as One", looking at how the UN could best respond to varied needs while drawing on all parts of the UN system, whether based in the country or not.The exercise has already helped us to align our programmes and funding more closely to national priorities.It has strengthened government leadership and ownership.And it’s ensuring that governments have access to the experience and expertise of a wider range of United Nations organisations in responding to their national priorities.Several issues we work on have seen increased emphasis, notably support to the productive sector, employment, trade, protection of the environment, and adaptation to climate change.This improvement has emerged from a process where UN agencies that aren’t physically present in the pilot countries have been able to spend more time advising their governments without having to set up costly offices.
19 We set priorities based on national needs, UNCT capacity and comparative advantage, and the support of key partners.At any point in time, these priority setting criteria (three circles) are shifting and shiftable to differing degrees:National challenges shift due to factors largely beyond UNCT’s controlUNCT comparative advantage (mandate plus capacity plus ability to perform better than others) can shift over time through decisions and actions by RC and CT Representatives and staffsAlignment can increase through processes of negotiation and consensus building, which RC/RR/Agency heads can lead and/or participate inRef. Three CirclesTop priorities (area 1) are the situations where all three criteria are met. UNCT can take action now and do some good.Potential high priorities (areas 2 and 3)Area 2: situations where there is a national challenge and UNCT capacity to meet the challenge, but key actors aren’t yet in alignment to support UNCT action. UN RC/RR/Agency Rep. can take strategic action through negotiation and consensus building to increase alignment. However, it may be impossible to gain support of key actors, in which case UNCT should not proceed.Area 3: situations where there is a challenge, and key actors are in principle supportive of UNCT action, but UNCT doesn’t actually have the comparative advantage to act. UNCT may be able to draw on regional/global UN capacity, something that will usually take time. Critical questions are whether capacity can be built quickly enough to respond effectively, and whether others are already better positioned and UNCT would be duplicative.Lower priorities (area 4) are situations where the Country Team has capacity and other actors are supportive, but action by the UNCT isn’t likely to make a significant contribution to major national challenges. These may be the hardest internal negotiations for UNCTs. There will be a strong temptation to do it “because we can.”Rwanda signs its One Programme. The Government strongly supports Delivering as One.
20 The host Governments now have a more comprehensive overview of UN assistance. One ProgrammeOne Empowered Leader and TeamOne Budgetary FrameworkOne OfficeInnovative mechanisms under Delivering as One have provided the host Governments with a comprehensive overview of the scope of assistance provided by the UN System, strengthening National Leadership and Ownership.Mechanisms of One Programme, One Budgetary Framework, Joint Resource Mobilization, Joint Communication Strategy, Common Business Practices and One Leader set up in the DaO countries provide the host Governments with a comprehensive overview of the scope of assistance provided to their countries by the UN System, facilitating their leadership in the identification of priorities for UN support.
21 Delivering as One helps “decrease fragmentation, duplication and internal competition for resources.”Delivering as One mechanisms also help “decrease fragmentation, duplication and internal competition for resources among UN organizations”.Also helped establish the Resident Coordinator as the ‘One Leader’ of an empowered UN Country Team, who has the authority to “negotiate the ‘One Programme’ with the host government and to shape the related allocation of funding, while being subject to a clear accountability framework and effective oversight mechanism and with authority in turn to hold members of the UN Country Team accountable”
22 Remaining challenges include funding, business practices, transaction costs, alignment and use of national capacities.Constraints that continue to impinge on the full and accelerated implementation of Delivering as One:lack of predictability and timeliness of funding;lack of harmonization and simplification of business practiceshigh transaction costs of the UN generallypoor alignment of UN capacities with the priorities of programme countries; andlow level of use of national operational capacities.
23 More countries are taking steps to work together better as they roll out new UNDAFs. Meanwhile, a growing number of UNDAF roll out countries from recent years are also advancing the work on coherence, effectiveness and efficiency along the lines of TCPR resolutions. Work among these ‘self-selecting’ countries is ongoing with support from UNDG. The Report of the Co-Chairs has recognized the efforts of the self-starter countries.23
24 The UNDG is taking further steps to improve coherence, effectiveness and relevance. Integrated approach to operations and programmingUNDAF Guidelines revisedAdopting “UNDAF Action Plan”Strengthened RC/UNCT performance appraisal and accountabilities242424
25 The UNDG is taking further steps to improve coherence, effectiveness and relevance. UNDG Toolkit for Improved Functioning of the UN Development SystemExpanded Delivering as One Funding WindowProposal for enhanced UNCT supportPlan to simplify country reporting requirementsCommitment from Spain, UK and Norway of $150m (2009) and $250m (2010) for country level ‘One Funds’ – countries adopting DaO approach and having an approved ‘One Programme’ .252525
26 Member states agree on the way forward: “the continuing and deepening intergovernmental work of the General Assembly on system-wide coherence will focus exclusively and in an integrated manner on ‘Delivering as one’ at country and regional levels, harmonization of business practices, funding, governance, and gender equality and the empowerment of women”
27 Delivering as One Pilots UNDAF roll-out countries The UNDG is following two tracks in its accelerated response to the TCPR.Delivering as One PilotsContinue special support, share lessonsUNDAF roll-out countriesMore support to improve coherence and UNDAFsMore countries formulating good smart UNDAFs and adopting increased coherent practices leading to increased government leadership and alignment of UN with national development priorities and use of national systems
28 Thank you for your attention www.undg.org unite and deliver effective support for countriesThank you for your attentionHow to use this PresentationUse “presenter view” when showing it so you can read the notes.Print the notes pages as a script for yourself and a handout for audiences.For a 30-minute presentation use the whole deck.For a 5-minute presentation just make the key points on the slide titles.28