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PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA abridge. SMMRI2 For B92 conducted by SMMRI May 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA abridge. SMMRI2 For B92 conducted by SMMRI May 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA abridge

2 SMMRI2 For B92 conducted by SMMRI May 2001

3 SMMRI3 PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA contents methodological notes 2 trust and endagers 3 responsibility and culpability 6 what people know and what they believe in 17 are people familiar with “in search of truth” programmes22 sources of information during the wars and the impact of information collected on opinions27

4 SMMRI4 PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA Aim: What Serbs from Serbia know, who they trust and to what extent, who they fear, how they get informed and how they perceive the events which marked the Milosevic era in power. Methodology: Target population: Total adult population Sample frame: 1991 Census, vital statistics and migration data, and SMMRI estimates of population in 2000 Type of sample: Stratified three-stage random sample Stratums:Belgrade, Vojvodina, Central Serbia / urban-rural Stratification: Allocation in proportion to size of stratum according to 2000 data Sample stages: 1 stage: Local community centers – census rounds (PPS sample – 18+) 2 stage: Households - random pass (simulation of SRSWoR sample scheme) and 3 stageNext birthday method Sample size: 2171 completed questionnaires Sample selection: Lachirie method. Polling technique:Face to face Time: second half of April 2001

5 SMMRI5 TRUST AND ENDAGERS PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA

6 SMMRI6 TRUST IN OTHER PEOPLE AND OTHER NATIONALITIES MAJORITY OF SERBIAN CITIZENS ARE OF OPINION THAT OTHER PEOPLE SHOULD BE TREATED WITH UTMOST CAUTION (63.6%) MAJORITY OF SERBIAN CITIZENS ARE OF OPINION THAT OTHER NATIONS SHOULD BE TREATED WITH UTMOST CAUTION (55.8%) 39.9% CITIZENS OF SERBIA ARE OF OPINION THAT THE NATIONS WE WERE AT WAR WITH SHOULD NEVER AGAIN BE TRUSTED, EVEN IF GOOD OFFICIAL RELATIONS WERE RESTORED TRUST IN OTHER PEOPLE AND OTHER NATIONS IS LARGER IN YOUNG PEOPLE EXTREME DISTRUST IN OTHER NATIONS IS EXPRESSED BY 29.4% OF THE PEOPLE, AGED 18 TO 29, AND BY 44.2% OF THE PEOPLE OVER 60 EXTREME UNWILLINGNESS TO RECONCILE WITH THE NATIONS WE WERE AT CONFLICT WITH IS EXPRESSED BY 21% OF THE PEOPLE AGED 18 TO 29, AND BY 34.6% OT HE PEOPLE OVER 60

7 SMMRI7 WHICH ASPECTS OF SERBIA ARE ENDANGERED Territorial integrity of Serbia Economic independence Security of citizens Political independence National pride Tradition and customs Not at allVery much MORE THAN A HALF OF SERBIAN CITIZENS ARE OF OPINION THAT IT IS TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF SERBIA (76.6%) ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE (64.6%) SECURITY OF CITIZENS (53.5%)

8 SMMRI8 IS SECURITY OF SERBIA ENDANGERED TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY OF SERBIA IS ENDANGERED MOST BY ALBANIAN TERRORISM ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE IS ENDANGERED MOST BY INFLUENCE OF FOREIGN POWERS SECURITY OF CITIZENS IS ENDANGERED MOST BY CRIME POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE IS ENDANGERED MOST BY INFLUENCE OF FOREIGN POWERS NATIONAL PRIDE IS ENDANGERED MOST BY INFLUENCE OF FOREIGN POWERS TRADITION AND CUSTOMS ARE ENDANGERED MOST BY GENERAL LACK OF CULTURE

9 SMMRI9 WHO AND TO WHAT EXTENT PROTECTS THE INTERESTS OF SERBIA MOST CITIZENS OF SERBIA THINK THAT THE BEST WAY FOR SERBIA TO PROTECT ITS INTERESTS IS TO JOIN THE EUROPEAN UNION (59.6%) 82.3% OF CITIZENS THINK THAT KOSTUNICA PROTECTS THE INTERESTS OF SERBIA IN HIS CONTACTS ON THE INTERANTIONAL STAGE THE ARMY WAS EVALUATED AS THE INSTITTUION OF GREATEST IMPORTANCE FOR THE SECURITY OF THE COUTRY AND THE ONE WHICH IS TRUSTED MOST DSS (65.9%) I DOS (59.4%) THE POLITICAL PARTY AND THE COALITION EVALUTED AS DEFENDING NATIONAL INTERESTS OF SERBIA TO THE GREATEST LEVEL LSDV (78%) I SRS (66.6%) POLITICAL PARTIES EVALUATED AS THOSE WHICH REPRESENT THE GREATEST THREAT FOR NATIONAL INTERESTS OF SERBIA

10 SMMRI10 TO WHAT EXTENT DO POLITICAL PARTIES/COALITIONS DEFEND OR ENDANGER INTERESTS OF SERBIA? LSDV / Liga socijaldemokrata Vojvodine SRS / Srpska radikalna stranka SPO / Srpski pokret obnove SPS / Socijalistička partija Srbije SD / Socijaldemokratija DA / Demokratska alternativa SSJ / Stranka srpskog jedinstva GSS / Gradjanski savez Srbije DS / Demokratska stranka DOS / Demokratska opozicija Srbije DSS / Demokratska stranka Srbije Endangers the interestsDefends the interests 10% 50% 50

11 SMMRI11 RESPONSIBILITY AND CULPABILITY RESPONSIBILITY AND CULPABILITY A. NATO INTERVENTION A. NATO INTERVENTION B. DISINTEGRATION OF FRY AND THE OUTBREAK OF WARS B. DISINTEGRATION OF FRY AND THE OUTBREAK OF WARS C. EVENTS AND CRIMES IN CONFLICTS AND WARS D. PEOPLE – THE CULPRITS AND THE HEROES PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA

12 SMMRI12 THE MOST IMPORTANT REASON FOR NATO INTERVENTION

13 SMMRI13 WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR NATO INTERVENTION?

14 SMMRI14 DISINTEGRATION OF FRY AND THE OUTBREAK OF WARS ONLY CROATIAN NATIONALISM WAS EVALUATED AS A SLIGHLTY MORE IMPORTANT FACTOR (77.7%) IN DISINTEGRATION OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA THAN THE INTERESTS OF USA (73.5%) AND NATO (72.3%) USA BECOMING THE ONLY SUPERPOWER WAS EVALUATED AS AN EVENT SLIGHTLY MORE IMPORTANT IN DISINTEGRATION OF YUGOSLAVIA (25.9%) THAN MILOSEVIC`S RISE TO POWER (23%) USA BECOMING THE ONLY SUPERPOWER WAS EVALUATED AS AN EVENT SLIGHTLY MORE IMPORTANT IN DISINTEGRATION OF YUGOSLAVIA (25.9%) THAN MILOSEVIC`S RISE TO POWER (23%) 80.7% CITIZENS AGREE WITH THE STATEMENT THAT ALBANIANS PROVOKED THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO AND 69.5% THAT THE CONFLICT WAS FRUTHER INFLAMED BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY 50.6% OF CITIZENS THINK THAT MILOSEVIC`S REGIME DID NOTHING TO PREVENT THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO 50.6% OF CITIZENS THINK THAT MILOSEVIC`S REGIME DID NOTHING TO PREVENT THE CONFLICT IN KOSOVO

15 SMMRI15 HOW IMPORTANT ARE THE FOLLOWING FACTORS IN DISINTEGRATION OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA?

16 SMMRI16 A SINGLE EVENT WHICH WAS MOST IMPORTANT IN DISINTEGRATION OF SFRY

17 SMMRI17 DO YOU AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS?

18 SMMRI18 WHO IS MORE RESPONSIBLE-CULPABLE FOR DISASTERS? OTHERS ARE MORE RESPONSIBLE THAN WE ARE : INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY IS MORE RESPONSIBLE THAN ALL NATIONS OF SFRY MILOSEVIC IS MORE RESPONSIBLE THAN THE PEOPLE WHO VOTED FOR HIM INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS INTERESTS ARE MORE RESPONSIBLE THAN DOMESTIC BUSINESS INTERESTS USA IS MORE RESPONSIBLE THAN EUROPE

19 SMMRI19 WHO IS MORE RESPONSIBLE-CULPABLE FOR DISASTERS?

20 SMMRI20 EVALUATION OF BEHAVIOUR OF RELEVANT FACTORS ON SERBIAN SIDE

21 SMMRI21 NUMBER OF EVENTS STATED (MAXIMUM 3) EVENTS RELATED TO CONFLICTS AND WARS KOSOVO AND METOHIJA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA CROATIA ONLY A SLIGHTLY HIGHER PROPORTION THAN EVERY THIRD CITIZEN IS ABLE TO STATE 3 EVENTS RELATED TO CONFLICTS AND WARS

22 SMMRI22 WHICH THREE EVENTS DO YOU THINK OF FIRST WHEN YOU THINK OF CONFLICTS IN KOSOVO AND METOHIJA ? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered (% in population)

23 SMMRI23 WHICH THREE EVENTS DO YOU THINK OF FIRST WHEN YOU THINK OF CONFLICTS AND WARS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered (% in population)

24 SMMRI24 WHICH THREE EVENTS DO YOU THINK OF FIRST WHEN YOU THINK OF CONFLICTS AND WARS IN CROATIA? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS 96% of those who answered (96% in population)

25 SMMRI25 NUMBER OF STATED WAR CRIMES COMMITED AGAINST SERBS IN THE LAST 10 YEARS COMMITED BY SERBS IN THE LAST 10 YEARS More than a half of the citizens are not able to state a single crime committed by Serbs

26 SMMRI26 CAN YOU STATE THREE EVENTS-WAR CRIMES COMMITTED AGAINST SERBS IN THE LAST TEN YEARS? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered (% in population)

27 SMMRI27 CAN YOU STATE THREE EVENTS-WAR CRIMES COMMITTED BY SERBS IN THE LAST TEN YEARS? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered (% in population)

28 SMMRI28 THE MAIN CULPRITS FOR WARS (in the last decade of 20th century) AND THE BIGGEST DEFENDERS OF SERBS NUMBER OF PEOPLE STATED AS THE GREATEST DEFENDERS OF THE SERBIAN NATION NUMBER OF STATED CULPRITS The culprits are easier to state than defenders of Serbs

29 SMMRI29 THE BIGGEST CULPRITS FOR WARS - spontaneous Although the blame is usually laid upon the World, names of leaders from former Yugoslavia are stated as the biggest culprits SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered the question 4.3% did not state anybody

30 SMMRI30 THE GREATEST DEFENDERS OF THE SERBIAN NATION IN WARS IN THE LAST DECADE OF 20TH CENTURY - spontaneous SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered the question 26% did not state anybody

31 SMMRI31 WAR AND CRIMES-GENERAL ATTITUDE

32 SMMRI32

33 SMMRI33 WHAT PEOPLE KNOW AND WHAT THEY BELIEVE IN PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA

34 SMMRI34 ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE FOLLOWING EVENTS? Most people who are familiar with events related to Serb suffering believe that these events are true (percentage of the total population is given in brackets)

35 SMMRI35 ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH THE FOLLOWING EVENTS? Fewer people believe that crimes commited by the Serbs are true than those committed against the Serbs (percentage of the total population is given in brackets)

36 SMMRI36 WHEN DID THE WAR IN SLOVENIA START

37 SMMRI37 WHEN DID THE WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA START

38 SMMRI38 WHEN DID THE WAR IN CROATIA START

39 SMMRI39 WHEN DID THE WAR IN KOSOVO START

40 SMMRI40 NUMBER OF REFUGEES SERBS FROM CROATIA SERBS FROM BOSNIA- HERZEGOVINA FROM KOSOVO AFTER BOMBING

41 SMMRI41 NUMBER OF DISPLACED PEOPLE IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA OF PEOPLE KILLED IN SARAJEVO OF PEOPLE MISSING IN SREBRENICA

42 SMMRI42 NUMBER OF PEOPLE KILLED IN WARS OF PEOPLE WHO LEFT SERBIA

43 SMMRI43 ARE PEOPLE FAMILIAR WITH “IN SEARCH OF TRUTH” PROGRAMMES AND WHAT DO THEY THINK OF THEM PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA

44 SMMRI44 HAVE YOU HEARD OF SPECIAL TV AND RADIO “IN SEARCH OF TRUTH” PROGRAMMES?

45 SMMRI45 DO YOU THINK THAT PROGRAMMES LIKE THESE ARE NECESSARY AND SHOULD RADIO AND TV STATIONS START DELING WITH THESE TOPICS ?

46 SMMRI46 WHICH TV STATIONS SHOULD DEAL WITH THESE TOPICS? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered the question (% of population)

47 SMMRI47 WHICH RADIO STATIONS ARE DEALING WITH THESE TOPICS? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who answered the question (% of population)

48 SMMRI48 HAVE YOU WATCHED OR LISTENED TO ANY OF THESE PROGRAMMES?

49 SMMRI49 WHICH TV STATIONS HAVE YOU SEEN THESE PROGRAMMES ON? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who watched the programmes (% of population)

50 SMMRI50 WHICH RADIO STATIONS DID YOU HEAR THESE PROGRAMMES ON? SPONTANEOUS ANSWERS % of those who lisstened to these programmes (%in population)

51 SMMRI51 IS THERE A SINGLE EVENT THAT YOU PERSONALLY WOULD LIKE TO FIND OUT ABOUT MORE?

52 SMMRI52

53 SMMRI53 SOURCES OF INFORMATION DURING THE WARS AND THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION COLLECTED ON OPINIONS PERCEPTION OF TRUTH IN SERBIA

54 SMMRI54 SOURCES OF INFORMATION

55 SMMRI55 TO WHAT EXTENT DID YOU TRUST THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION?

56 SMMRI56 IF SOME TRUTHS WHICH ARE UNFAVOURABLE FOR US WERE TO BE REVEALED SHOULD THEY BE PRESENTED PUBLICLY BY THE MOST COMPETENT - MULTIPLE RESPONSE

57 SMMRI57 WHO SHOULD UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES BE IN A POSITION TO PRESENT THE TRUTH -MULTIPLE RESPONSE

58 SMMRI58 Have you ever been in a position that a newly discovered fact, from any source of information, about any event related to conflicts/wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina or Kosovo influenced you to change your opinion about/ attitude towards responsibility of conflicting sides?

59 SMMRI59 TO WHAT EXTENT WERE ORDINARY CITIZENS, IN THEIR OWN JUDGEMENT, TOLD THE TRUTH UP TO 30% UP TO 50%

60 SMMRI60 WOULD YOU SAY THAT YOU ARE WELL INFORMED ABOUT THE FOLLOWING


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