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The Synergetics of Science and Spirituality: Action Research in the Practical Integration of TOK and Group Four Presented by Lorne Young to VRA April 21-23,

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Presentation on theme: "The Synergetics of Science and Spirituality: Action Research in the Practical Integration of TOK and Group Four Presented by Lorne Young to VRA April 21-23,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Synergetics of Science and Spirituality: Action Research in the Practical Integration of TOK and Group Four Presented by Lorne Young to VRA April 21-23, 2006

2 Why Synergetics? Why the Synergetics of Science and Spirituality? Synergy is one of the fundamental General Principles of the Universe and one of the least understood

3 Synergy The whole is greater than the sum of its parts The behaviour of the whole is unpredictable by knowing the behaviour of the individual parts taken separately. RBF Corollary: If you know the behaviour of the whole and the behaviour of some of the parts, you may be able to discover some of the others parts. RBF Examples: 1. Gravity 2. Solar System 3. Salt

4 General Principles A generalization in an English or History essay usually means that the material was covered too superficially to be convincing or of much use. A generalization in Science means a concept, idea, or law that has been found to be true in every case. For example: Leverage

5 Buckminster Fuller employed Synergy in many areas

6 Synergetics of Science and Spirituality By applying the General Principle of Synergy to Science and Spirituality we can anticipate discovering new, emergent and previously unpredictable behaviours. We can anticipate discovering previously unknown parts. This is discovery and one discovery often leads to further discoveries.

7 TOK What do we know? How do we know? Science What do we know? How do we know?

8 Brain Research Left and Right Brain Left Brain Logical Sequential Rational Analytical Objective Looks at parts Right Brain Random Intuitive Holistic Synthesizing Subjective Looks at wholes

9 Two different paradigms, two different ways of knowing. Science and Spirituality

10 Paradigms The 5 Monkey Experiment 'A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.' Max Planck

11 Two different paradigms Science Rational Logical Outward looking Reductionist Rigorous investigations Machines, telescopes, lasers, particle accelerators Spirituality Intuitive Faith Inward looking Holistic Insight No machines only the mind and meditation

12 Parallels between Scientific methodology and the Left Brain Science Rational Logic Outward Reductionist Rigorous investigations Machines, telescopes, lasers, particle accelerators Energetic Spirituality Intuitive Faith Inward Holistic Insight No machines, the mind and meditation Left Brain Rational Logical Sequential Analytical Objective Reductionist (Looks at parts) Energetic Right Brain Random Intuitive Holistic Synthesizing Subjective Looks at wholes

13 Philosophy and Methodology of Eastern and Western Cultures East the Right Hemisphere Turned inward Search for truth through introspection, intuition Spirituality West the Left Hemisphere Turned outward Search for truth by reductionism, analysing and through reason Science

14 A Brief History and the Main Players Western Science Heraclitus Pythagorus Socrates/Plato/Aristotle Galileo/Copernicus Newton Einstein Planck/Heisenberg/Schroedinger/ Bohr/Pauli/Oppenheimer Hawking Bohm, Bell, Pribram, Aspect Buckminster Fuller Eastern Science/Spirituality Siddhartha Gautama-Buddha Lao Tzu Ashvaganda Nagarjuna Lodro Taye Gen Lamrimpa D.T. Suzuki Lama Govinda Tenzin Gyatso- the 14 th Dalai Lama

15 Nagarjuna and Buckminster Fuller

16 Heisenberg and the Dalai Lama

17 Galileo and D.T. Suzuki

18 Buddha and David Bohm

19 Murti and Erwin Schrodinger

20 Einstein and Lao Tsu

21 Our Western paradigm Our Western paradigm tends to be skeptical of the intuitive, inward method and places more value on the scientific method, especially in the areas of describing reality, how the universe and the cosmos works, and our ideas of space, time, matter, energy, and even our consciousness

22 The concept of Space according to the Buddha and Einstein Who Said What? The concept of space, detached from any physical content does not exist If there is only empty space, then space loses its substantiality

23 Who said what? Is there any difference?

24 Buddha and Einstein Buddha and Einstein lived over 2 thousand years apart and separated by several continents and yet, although they were brought up in different cultures and were schooled in completely different methodology ie Science and Spirituality, they both discovered many of the same truths…the same understanding, the same realizations.

25 The concept of Space according to the Buddha and Einstein Who Said What? The concept of space, detached from any physical content does not exist If there is only empty space, then space loses its substantiality

26 The Concept of Time from the Western Scientific Paradigm and the Western Scientific Paradigm Eternally and always there is only now, one and the same now; the present is the only thing that has no end. The past and future are both rolled up in this one moment of now. Schroedinger DT Suzuki

27 Paradox from East and West Everything is held together by being pulled apart. Be vacant and you will remain full, Lao Tsu Buckminster Fuller

28 On Truth Einstein Nagarjuna Truth is what stands the test of experience The real meaning of the truth …must be directly experienced

29 On the Human Experience The true value of a human being is determined by his liberation from the self. The perfect man has no self.

30 Unity and Duality Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two. Unity is plural and at minimum two

31 Spiritual Traditions Buddhist, Taoist, Hinduism, Zen, Sufism, (and for that matter Kaballah and Mystical Christianity) do differ in the some of the details of their beliefs BUT they are in general agreement in possibly the most fundamental of all aspects….

32 …the awareness of the unity and the interrelatedness of all things and events. Everything is part of the One. Different aspects of the same ultimate reality.

33 In Taoism it is called the Tao In Buddhism it is called Dharmakaya In Hinduism it is called Brahman

34 Buddhists also call it Tathata or Suchness What is meant by the soul as suchness, is the oneness of the totality of all things, the great all-including whole Ashvaganda

35 Everyday Life according to Eastern Mystics The Two Truths The two truths doctrine in Buddhism differentiates between two levels of truth, a commonsense truth, and an "ultimate" truth or between a relative and an absolute truth.Buddhismtruth In our everyday existence we are not aware of this unity, but rather see and experience things as separate objects and events. Mystics understand that this experience is necessary to live in this environment but that it is not the fundamental aspect of reality. This is an abstraction created by our mind, our intellect.

36 They would say that these abstractions are illusions (maya). These illusions are based on ignorance The way to see through the illusion is to center and train the mind through meditation. The Sanskrit word for meditation is samadhi or mental equilibrium

37 Entering into samadhi of purity, one obtains all-penetrating insight that enables one to become conscious of the absolute oneness of the universe. Ashvagosha

38 Theory of Emptiness This view states that all things and events are empty of any intrinsic and absolute existence. They come into being due to the aggregation of multiple causes and conditions. Their material existence is dependent upon their relationships to other things "emptiness" is considered to be the ultimate truth of all things and events. this fundamental truth about the nature of reality is understood best through a language of interdependence and interrelationship of things.

39 Einsteinian Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and the Theory of Everything The same notion of oneness and interconnectedness of all things also emerges as a fundamental concept in atomic science. This hasnt always been the case. This is a new revelation (early 20 th century) as it goes against the classical, Newtonian-Gallilean, Cartesian, reductionist ideas of reality

40 Descartes, Galileo and Newton (late 16 th -early 17 th Centuries) The model of the universe that they developed dominated and influenced thought for almost 300 years.

41 The Newtonian, Cartesian, Reductionist Model or Classical Physics The universe is made up of separate individual parts that are assembled like the components of a clock. Hence the term Mechanistic view of the world, and clockwork universe.

42 By breaking something down into its parts (reductionism) we could understand how the whole worked.

43 Cogito ergo sum I think, therefore I am. This quote from Descartes identifies man with his mind instead of with his entire being. The mind is separate from the body and needs to control it

44 This sets up the internal separation and conflict between consciousness and the body. This inner split seemed to mirror the outer world with its separate objects and phenomena

45 This fragmentation, separation, division was then extended to: -cultures, races and societies, us against them -the environment: man against nature, our ecological problems

46 Paradox This mechanistic paradigm provided great advances in science and technology (we used Newtons equations to put men on the moon) but simultaneously led to serious problems

47 The 16 th Century Paradigms The world/universe is a machine, a thing All particles separate from everything else Man and nature are separate from each other Time and Space are absolute, the same everywhere for everyone

48 Evolution of the Revolution The end of the 19 th century saw the Michelson-Morley experiment which measured the speed of light. Discovery of the electron (Thompson). The invisible becomes visible and real. Didnt make the news at first…it was invisible. Einsteinian Relativity 1905, the Universe is not a thing but a process. Matter and energy are one: E=mc 2 –Time and Space are NOT absolute but are relative –ie NOT THE SAME FOR EVERYONE!!! Quantum Physics subatomic particles had no meaning in isolation…they only had meaning in relationship with everything else. They only became real once we observed them. Planck, Schrondinger, Heisnberg, Bohr, Pauli, Bell, Bohm String Theory, M Theory, 11 Dimensional Universe, Parallel Universes

49 Quantum Mechanics Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Elementary particles do not exist separate from the measurement made of them. The position or location of an electron only has a tendency, a potential, a probability to exist in a certain place

50 Quantum Physics Found that: -the tiniest bits of matter were not even matter (we measure their mass in energy units!!) -sometimes they were one thing and sometimes something else -Sometimes they were many possible things all at the same time

51 Matter and Energy Matter is energy

52 There are no Solids in Universe (RBF) The constituents of atoms are dynamic patterns of energy, which do not exist as isolated entities, but as integral parts of an inseparable network of interactions. Fritjof Capra

53 This is the illusion that both Eastern Mystics and High energy physics speak of. All phenomena in the world are nothing more but an illusion of the mind and have no reality on their own. Einstein or Ashvagonda Ashvagonda "Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one." Einstein or Ashvagonda Einstein

54 Hopi Indians of North America Where we would say, "That is a tree," the Hopi would say, "That appears to be a tree."

55 Common Sense If the idea of an objective, independent, solid, real world is wrong, then why does it seem so right?

56 Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and Bells Theorem One of the more fascinating ideas to come out of the Quantum physics theory is John Bells Theorem and Alain Aspects experiment Bells Theorem, Alain Aspects experiment Invisible information

57 Entaglement

58 Both/And versus Either/Or This is what we see on the screen with the light passing through one slit. This is the corresponding wave pattern with the light passing through one slit.

59 This is what we actually see on the screen with the light passing through two slits This is the actual wave pattern with light passing through two slits.


61 This golfer graphic reminds us of the reality we are all experiencing, but golf ball interference patterns are unthinkable. The golfer tries to hit the blue-color tainted golf balls through the slits, where those who get through make two imprint lines.

62 Electron (Matter) Waves! Electrons demonstrate Interference. Electrons are Waves?

63 Even though just one particle is fired at a time, we see interference patterns on the screen. However, we do not see the paths of the particles as in the drawing, but they represent the Feynman explanation for the particle passage through the two slits. This is the multiple Feynman paths for just one particle from the particle gun to the screen. The explanation requires the particle to pass through all possible paths and thus on the way interfere with itself after passing through the two slits

64 This is what we actually see at the moment that the photoelectric cell detector is switched on at either of the two slits. This is the actual wave pattern with light, or individual particles, being detected with photoelectric cells, passing the slits.

65 "Quantum theory forces us to see the universe not as a collection of physical objects, but rather as a complicated web of relations between the various parts of a unified whole... All (physical) particles are dynamically composed of one another in a self-consistent way, and in that sense can be said to 'contain' one another. In (this theory), the emphasis is on the interaction, or 'interpenetration,' of all particles." Fritjof Capra

66 Revolution and New Paradigm Revolution: from the word revolve, or to go around, return to where it once was, coming around full circle. New Paradigm: will come as a result of synergy and the integration of the latest experimental results from science with the most ancient spiritual beliefs on the planet, coming around full circle.

67 Are we on the Verge of a Revolution? A revolution of the way we understand the Universe and our place in it? A revolution of how we understand our very consciousness? A revolution of a new paradigm?

68 Integration Either/Or; Both/And The misconceptions regarding the contradictions and incompatability between the Scientific Way of Knowing and the Mystic/Spiritual Way of knowing may be a little clearer now.

69 Both recognize that to understand/perceive reality we need to see that: 1. All phenomena are connected in a web of relationships…(synergy) 2. Every perspective is relative and changed by the observer 3. All things are in process of change and are therefore impermanent 4. Matter and energy are 2 aspects of the same thing, 2 sides of the same coin

70 Common Sense If the idea of an objective, independent, solid, real world is wrong, then why does it seem so right?

71 Incompleteness Flat earth, round earth Geocentric, heliocentric Our experience is limited But it is useful…Newtonian mechanics is very useful. Expand our experience to include more subtle observations…synergy

72 Change the Paradigm As our knowledge becomes wider, we must always be prepared…to expect alterations in the point of view best suited for the ordering of our experience. Neils Bohr

73 Three examples of areas of practical integration 1. Synergy/Synergetics (wholism) and Energetics (reductionism) 2. Holographic brain, Holographic Universe (science) and the Microcosm/macrocosm of ancient eastern mysticism 3. Magnetic Field Resonance, synergy of East and West

74 Holograms A hologram is a 3 dimensional image made from the interference pattern of laser light. Holograms can be seen from different perspectives. You can walk around and see different sides of the object, but when you reach for it…it is not there. It is not real … it is a projection of the information stored in the interference pattern.

75 A Very Famous Hologram

76 Holograms Holograms are formed from a phenomenon known as interference. When 2 waves cross each other, whether they be water waves, sound waves, radio waves or light waves, they will produce interference patterns By splitting a beam of laser light, and allowing one beam to reflect off an object, and the other to go directly to a photographic film, they will produce an interference pattern (information) that is recorded on the plate.



79 When you look at the plate all you see are concentric circles of alternating dark and light bands…the interference patterns as you might see in a pond after throwing in a pebble or two. However, when you shine a laser light through the plate the 3-D image of the object appears in the space above the plate.

80 The most incredible characteristic of the hologram however is: If you break the holographic plate, every piece of the plate contains the entire image!!!

81 The parts are the whole! Every fragment of the hologram contains all the information of the entire hologram. The parts are the whole!!! The Tao gives birth to One. One gives birth to yin and yang. Yin and yang give birth to all things.... The complete whole is the complete whole. So also is any part, the complete whole. Lao TzuLao Tzu (c B.C.)

82 The Holographic Brain/Mind Karl Pribram Karl Pribram, neurophysiologist at Standford University, author of Languages and the Brain.

83 Karl Pribrams Holographic Brain Memories can be distributed throughout the brain and not only in specific locations. Every part of the brain could contain all the information to remember an entire memory.

84 It was believed that there was a one-to-one correspondence between what you saw, what was projected on the retina and what was represented in the brain. Penfield (engrams) and Eccles Pribram showed that this one-to-one correspondence was not occurring and that the hologram was definitely a possible explanation. It would explain Lashleys experiments

85 Vision is Holographic Lashley discovered that after removing 90% of a rats visual cortex, the rat could still perform tasks that required complex visual acuity. 98% of a cats optic nerves could be severed without seriously impairing its ability to perform complex visual tasks. This would be similar to saying that you could enjoy a movie with 98% of the screen missing.

86 David Hawkins Power Versus Force The Hidden Determinants of Human Behavior The proposition that Dr. Hawkins presents in this book is "…the human mind is like a computer terminal connected to a giant database. The database is human consciousness itself… with its roots in the common consciousness of all mankind. …The unlimited information contained in the database has now been shown to be readily available to anyone in a few seconds, at any time and in any place."

87 David Bohm, physicist at the University of London, protégé of Albert Einstein

88 The Implicate and Explicate Order Bohm recognized that there was a level of reality that was underlying and producing the visible, physical reality that we experience daily. He called this the Implicate Order (hidden order) in his book Wholeness and the Implicate Order. The Explicate Order was the everyday reality that we experience

89 The ink-in-glycerine model for explicate and implicate order. Two concentric cylinders (top view) of unequal size. The space between the cylinders is filled with glycerine, and a droplet of insoluble ink is placed onto the fluid. When the outer cylinder is rotated (arrow), the ink droplet will be drawn out into a long thread.

90 The droplet is drawn out into a thread that eventually becomes so thin that it disappears from view; the ink particles are enfolded into the glycerin.

91 But if the cylinder is then turned in the opposite direction, the thread-form reappears and re-becomes a droplet; the droplet is unfolded again.

92 Bohm realized that when the ink was diffused through the glycerin it was not in a state of "disorder" but possessed a hidden, or nonmanifest, order. What he called the Implicate Order.

93 Bohm and the Two Truths? In Bohm's view, all the separate objects, entities, structures, and events in the visible or explicate world around us are relatively autonomous, stable, and temporary "subtotalities" derived from a deeper, implicate order of unbroken wholeness. (my emphasis).

94 Bohm theorized that our brains are smaller pieces of the larger hologram. That our brains contain the whole knowledge of the universe. The enfolded ink in the glycerin is like the interference pattern (the hidden information) in the hologram

95 The whole universe as Hologram Bohm suggests that the whole universe can be thought of as a kind of giant, flowing hologram, or holomovement, in which a total order is contained, in some implicit sense, in each region of space and time.

96 Bohm and the Theory of Emptiness? The explicate order is a projection from higher dimensional levels of reality, and the apparent stability and solidity of the objects and entities composing it are generated and sustained by a ceaseless process of enfoldment and unfoldment, for subatomic particles are constantly dissolving into the implicate order and then recrystallizing. (my emphasis)

97 Matter and Energy Matter is energy

98 Our brains are our windows of perception. So, you can see how each mind has a limited perspective of the universal hologram. Our brains are our windows of perception. Each mind always contains the whole picture, but with a limited and unclear perspective.

99 We each have different experiences in our lives, but each perspective is valid. Our brains mathematically construct objective reality by interpreting frequencies that are ultimately projections from another dimension, a deeper order of existence that is beyond both space and time.

100 Bohm and Pribram both independently arrived at a holographic model of the universe and the brain It has been able to explain phenomena as far ranging as: 1. Near death experiences 2. Telepathy 3. Precognition 4. Mystical feeling of oneness with the universe 5. Jungs idea of the collective unconscious and archetypal experiences

101 Integration with Eastern Philosophy This very scientifically based holographic brain and universe concept has a parallel in the Eastern Mystic traditions. The paradigm of everything being connected to everything else and the idea that the whole is contained in the parts and that the parts are the whole can be found in the many mappings of the body on different parts of the body, from TCM and acupuncture.

102 Mapping of the body on the Hand

103 Mapping of the body on the Feet

104 Mapping of the Motor Cortex

105 Mapping of the body on the Iris

106 Mapping of the body on the Ear

107 Mapping of the body on the Abdomen

108 Synergy Apply synergy to Eastern and Western Science DSM demonstration

109 SyRF Systems Research -Research on the synergetic effects of energy resonance fields and acupuncture energy fields. -Integrating, synergizing modern physics and ancient eastern spirituality. -Magnetic Resonance and Acupuncture points for increase in energy, strength, stamina and focus. -Meditation

110 Magnetic Fields around the earth

111 Magnetic Fields around galaxies

112 Magnetic Fields around plants

113 Kirlian Photograph of magnetic fields surrounding human fingertip

114 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI


116 Integrating Electricity and Magnetism--Electromagnetism

117 Resonance in a vibrating string

118 Been there?

119 Done that?



122 Resonance

123 Muscles, Nerves Nerves stimulate muscles to contract by way of electrical impulses. During a contraction only a small (5-10 %) percentage of the muscle fibres contract During an extremely strenuous contraction about 20% of the available fibres contract

124 Acupuncture points used to balance and increase energy

125 Phase1 of the SYRF Systems Research Synergetic Energy Field Resonance Informational Fields Magnetic fields (informational fields) can produce a movement of electrons. By placing magnets at precise acupuncture points we can produce a magnetic resonance that can stimulate more of the muscle fibres to contract on any given contraction, thereby increasing strength, stamina, endurance and overall energy.

126 Early Stages of the Research at Upper Canada College Basketball Rowers Tennis

127 Phase 2 of the SyRF Systems Research Effect of Moving Meditation on Strength, Focus and Stamina Findings of Research on 250 Grade 8-12 boys. After 15 minutes of moving meditation 75% of the boys showed an increase in the number of push-ups Of that group of boys they showed an increase of 39%

128 Some comments from the Grade 8 boys after the moving meditation Felt better physically. I felt very calm and very relaxed and very light. When stressed this would be very useful. More relaxed. Easier, stronger. Lots of thoughts and emotions, no stress. Happier.

129 More comments from the Grade 8 Boys During the meditation my mind was clear and I wasnt thinking of anything except for the movements. Felt the energy building between my hands, relaxed, energetic. Calmer. Performance was good, I feel good about myself.

130 Grade 11 Male Student "Anyone who plays a musical instrument knows that playing under testing or performance conditions is one of the most nervewracking experiences one can face. I was forced to confront such a situation in my practical piano exam. In previous exams, I was overcome by anxiety which often lead to mistakes and sometimes a more superficial treatement of the music. However, my experience in the SYRF Systems dynamic synergetic meditiation club changed this. Before this piano exam I underwent a slow meditation process using DSM, slowing my breathing, and calming my body. This calmed my nerves as I went into the examination room. This initial meditation, coupled with several short meditations preceding each peice, drastically changed the overall effect of my exam. I found myself much more engaged in the music, and hence, played the pieces with a greater passion that up to that point I did not know I possessed." Grade 11 student.

131 Grade 12 male Student Here are a few instances where SyRF Systems, DSM meditation prior to an event has improved my performance: Before our OFSAA volleyball quarter final we all meditated and although we did not win we played well (meditation was a good way to relax prior to warm up) I meditated before my IB English oral exam this past December (I often get nervous before presentations and I found that the meditation relaxed me and improved the quality of my presentation because it was more continuous and less chopped up by pauses)

132 Teachers I felt stronger, a sense of ease, quietness, a purposefulness, lost myself during the meditation. 53 year old male teacher. Feeling more energized. Felt quiet and connected. 44 year old female teacher. Calmer but more alert (awake). 55 year old female teacher I felt a force between my hands with the circle hands technique. Feeling more capable. 47 year old female teacher

133 Bibliography and Suggested Further Reading 1. The Tao of Physics, Fritjof Capra, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, Gary Zukav, Synergetics, Volume 1 and 2, R. Buckminster Fuller, Essays in Science, Albert Einstein, The Evolution of Physics, Einstein and Infled, On Physical Reality, A. Einstein, The Essence of Buddhism, D.T. Suzuki, A Policy of Kindness, Tenzin Gyatso, the 14 th Dalai Lama, Physics and Philosophy, W. Heisenberg, Physics and Beyond, W. Heisenberg, The Upanishads, trans. By Juan Mascaro, Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu, trans. Chu Ta Kao, Wholeness and the Implicate Order, David Bohm, Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge, Neils Bohr, The Philosophy of Physics, Max Planck, Discussions of Probability Relations Between Separated Systems, Erwin Schrodinger, Space, Time and Medicine, Larry Dossey, Einstein and Buddha, edited by Thomas McFarlane, A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking, Singularities in the Geometry of Space-Time, Stephen Hawking, 1966

134 Fig 1. Single slit diffraction, artificially modeled without wave propagation effects







141 Synergy as General Principle The whole is greater than the sum of its parts The behaviour of the whole is unpredictable by knowing the behaviour of the individual parts taken separately. RBF Corollary: If you know the behaviour of the whole and the behaviour of some of the parts, you may be able to find some of the others parts. Examples: 1. Gravity 2. Solar System 3. Salt

142 Bucky discovered the following: 1. Observe and experience, for yourself, Nature and the Universe to find out What is going on. How does Nature work? What is the truth? 2. Be factual and accurate about your experiences and thereby determine what information has integrity and what is misinformation.

143 Bucky observed 1. That the square and the cube, are used by science, industry and technology as the basic structures for construction and measurement of Nature and the Universe.

144 BUT… They are NOT stable structures This is NOT the way Nature/Universe works

145 He found that Natures fundamental structure is The tetrahedron

146 Tetrahedrons, Octahedrons and Icosahedrons are the basic structures of Universe

147 The Simplest Stable Structure in the Universe The Tetrahedron- made of 6 sticks, 4 equilateral triangles, all 60 degrees, each vertex is part of 3 triangles the strongest structure for its volume and Surface area. Eg; diamonds All biology and chemistry is based on it

148 From the observation of Nature, from experience, new discoveries can arise. Max Planck, one of the founders of quantum physics, revolutionized physics in 1900 with his discovery of the quantum, or fundamental unit of energy.

149 Plancks Constant Planck's constant, symbolized by h, relates the energy in one quantum (photon) of electromagnetic radiation to the frequency of that radiation.quantumphotonfrequency E = hf where h= x joule- seconds

150 Consider this Why would the smallest package of energy in the universe NOT be a whole number??? Why do we need to multiply the smallest unit by x joule-seconds to get it right.

151 Look at the constant x joule- seconds. Ignore the scale ie the Concentrate on the Now look at the first 2 sig figs. 6.6 or 0.66 What fraction is this?? 2/3=0.66

152 Why do you suppose we have to multiply the smallest, most fundamental package of energy in the universe by 2/3???

153 Plancks constant is based on the cgs system. This is based on the square and the cube. These are not stable structures Nature and Universe do not use squares and cubes Nature and Universe uses…

154 The tetrahedron The volume of the tetrahedron as compared to the volume of a cube that it exactly fits into is….

155 2/3

156 In other words If we used the fundamental structure of the Universe, the tetrahedron, as the fundamental unit of the Universe, then we wouldnt need to correct the error of.66 or 2/3.

157 The units would work out right the first time. Because it would be based on the truth


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