Presentation on theme: "Skillful Leader II PA Rounds Walk Jan 2010. MAKING THE SHIFT TO LEARNING-FOCUSED AND COMMUNITY-FOCUSED SUPERVISION Skillful Leader II."— Presentation transcript:
Skillful Leader II PA Rounds Walk Jan 2010
MAKING THE SHIFT TO LEARNING-FOCUSED AND COMMUNITY-FOCUSED SUPERVISION Skillful Leader II
Traditional Balance of Attention CONTENT RIGOR TEACHER ACTIONS Student Performance Skillful Leader II
Discriminating between Wide-spread Patterns and Individual Development Needs Discriminating between Wide-spread Patterns and Individual Development Needs Skillful Leader II
See a concern Check Other Classrooms Pattern across the district/ school Professional Development Characteristic of 2-3 individuals only Feedback to school Supervision and Evaluation Focused Improvement Skillful Leader II
Sci A Sci B Math C Math D Soc Stud E Health F Calling only on students with hands raised Same 4-5 students speak Teacher talks 1-2 minutes for every 30 sec of student response Call-response recitation exclusively on 3 walks Primarily low-level, recall questions; no follow up to responses Seeing a Pattern Skillful Leader II
Classrooms Communities Widespread Needs/Limitations Whole school feedback Professional Development Initiatives Coaching Skillful Leader II
Supervision Supervision is the act of stimulating, supporting, facilitating, and problem solving with staff to promote student achievement through effective instruction. Evaluation Evaluation is the act of judging whether performance meets district standards.
Purpose of Rounds To utilize walks (“rounds”) as a school/district change strategy that spreads implementation of desired practices into more classrooms. To collect data on the instructional core focused on academic tasks, re what students will know how to to relative to questioning and provide guidance on the next level of work that would be required for the students to perform at higher levels (p.38) Skillful Leader II
Purpose of Rounds Build high performing accountable (problem solving) communities by designing walks focused on school/district defined problems of Practice involving all district administrators in collecting data and formulating a Theory of Action to guide implementation. Build district capacity to sustain Skillful Leader development. Skillful Leader II
The challenge of ….. moving research based vision into practice in all classrooms. building a district collaborative network to meet this challenge. Skillful Leader II Beyond: Rays of Hope and Pockets of Excellence
Skillful Leader II Implication for School Improvement Getting change to scale in every classroom…..may mean…. Less dependence on pilots/volunteer participants because…. pilots can lead to pockets of excellence where the learning is not transferred.
Visions confront the “messiness” of schools– the composites and collections of previous “solutions” once thought compelling “Systems and schools are not blank slates waiting to be written on by leaders” Skillful Leader II Confronting the Undermining Conditions
Skillful Leader II Activator: Medical Rounds What are they ? How do they apply?
Skillful Leader II Activator: Classroom Rounds What are they ? How do they apply? CollaborativeAccountableto
Skillful Leader II ROUNDS Require participants to focus on a common problem of practice that cuts across all levels of the system. Breaks down isolated cultures and builds Accountable Communities
Skillful Leader II The purpose of rounds is to deepen the understanding of crucial instructional problems (“Problems of Practice”), develop common language decide how to scale up implementation into all classrooms.
Skillful Leader II “Our goal is to support systems of instructional improvement at scale not just isolated pockets of good teaching in the midst of mediocrity.” (p.5)
Skillful Leader II Problem of Practice= the specific problem of instructional improvement that the school and the school system is working on and want feedback about.
Skillful Leader II The formulation of the problem is more important than the solution (Einstein)
The Instructional Core INSTRUCTIONAL CORE TEACHER STUDENT CONTENT (Cohen & Ball, 1999) Skillful Leader II
The interaction of students and teachers in the presence of content. Teacher: what a teacher does in the classroom. Depends on teacher’s skill and knowledge (repertoire and ability to match) Student: what students do in the classroom. Level of ACTIVE student learning Content: how concepts are presented and the tasks students are asked to complete. Difficulty of content; level of challenge; activity vs. mastery focus Skillful Leader II
23 What is the level of skill and knowledge that the teacher brings to teaching the content? What are the instructional decisions the teacher is making (repertoire and matching)? Skillful Leader II TEACHER
24 Life in Classrooms (1968) Teacher as decision maker Do you recall how many decisions teachers make in a typical school day? Skillful Leader II
CURRICULUMPLANNING MOTIVATION INSTRUCTIONALSTRATEGIES MANAGEMENT FOUNDATION OF ESSENTIAL BELIEFS KEY CONCEPTS Areas of Performance Repertoire Matching Overarching Objectives Curriculum Design Objectives Assessment Learning Experiences Personal Relationship Building Class Climate Expectations Clarity Principles of Learning Models of Teaching SpaceTimeRoutines AttentionMomentumDiscipline Planning
BELIEF #1- ABILITY-BASED BELIEF
CONFIDENCECONFIDENCE Ability + + EFFECTIVE EFFORT EFFECTIVE EFFORT Hard Work Hard Work Strategies ACHIEVEMENTACHIEVEMENT Belief #2 (Learning Goal Orientation) Skillful Leader II
29 Are students actively engaged? Do students know what they are doing and why they are doing it? Do they perceive value in the tasks they are being asked to do? Skillful Leader II STUDENT
30 Are the tasks related to asking or answering questions students are being asked to do, challenging but attainable? Skillful Leader II CONTENT
31 The TASK Skillful Leader II CONTENT
32 first principle: Increases in student learning occur only as a consequence of improvements in the level of content, teachers’ knowledge and skill, and student engagement second principle: If you change any single element of the instructional core, you have to change the other two third principle: If you can’t see it in the core, it’s not there Skillful Leader II
33 There are only three ways to improve student learning at scale: 1. You can raise the level of the content that students are taught. 2. You can increase the skill and knowledge that teachers bring to the teaching of that content. 3. You can increase the level of students’ active learning of the content. That’s it. Everything else is instrumental. Schools don’t improve through political and managerial incantation; they improve through the complex and demanding work of teaching and learning. (Instructional Rounds, Richard Elmore, et al) Skillful Leader II
34 If we change any single element of the instructional core we have to change the other two to effect student learning TEACHER STUDENT CONTENT Skillful Leader II
35 If you change any single element of the instructional core, you have to change the other two to affect student learning For example, what happens if we only change the level of content (a new math or ELA curriculum), but not the expertise and skill level of teachers to effectively teach that new content? Or, what if you raise the level of content and the knowledge and skill of teachers without changing the role of the student? “Teachers are doing all, or most, of the work, exercising considerable flair and control in the classroom, and the students are sitting passively, watching the teacher perform.” Instructional Rounds in Education, Elmore et al, pp. 25-26 Skillful Leader II
36 Therefore…. Any innovation or intervention must take into account all three elements of the instructional core TEACHER STUDENT CONTENT Skillful Leader II
37 first principle: Increases in student learning occur only as a consequence of improvements in the level of content, teachers’ knowledge and skill, and student engagement second principle: If you change any single element of the instructional core, you have to change the other two third principle: If you can’t see it in the core, it’s not there Skillful Leader II
– The core defines points of entry for instructional improvement – Should be observable (“if you can’t see it, it’s not there”) Skillful Leader II
39 fourth principle: Task predicts performance “What predicts performance is what students are actually doing” Skillful Leader II
40 fourth principle: Task predicts performance What predicts performance is what students are actually doing …the instructional task is the actual work that students are asked to during the process of instruction-not what teachers think they are asking students to do or what the official curriculum says that that student are asked to do...” (23) fifth principle: The real accountability system is in the tasks that students are asked to do Skillful Leader II
41 STOP and PROCESS re:L Instructional Core Insights or Sharper Thoughts? Skillful Leader II
42 sixth principle: We learn to do the work by doing the work seventh principle: Description before analysis, analysis before prediction, prediction before evaluation. You build a common culture of instruction by focusing on the language that people use to describe what they see Description Analysis Prediction Evaluation Skillful Leader II
43 seventh principle: Description before analysis, analysis before prediction, prediction before evaluation. You build a common culture of instruction by focusing on the language that people use to describe what they see Description Analysis Prediction Evaluation Skillful Leader II
44 Description Analysis Prediction Evaluation Skillful Leader II Data Collection--& Grouping and Looking for Patterns
45 Description Analysis Prediction Evaluation Skillful Leader II Making causal inferences about the kind of learning we would expect as a consequence of the instruction. (Task predicts performance)
46 Description Analysis Prediction Evaluation Skillful Leader II What is next level or work?
47 Individual Processing Skillful Leader II Read through notes and collected data With a different color highlight /annotate notes with anything that relates to the Problem of Practice or targeted focus Identify 5-10 salient points of data.
48 The PA ROUNDS ROUND VISITS & DATA GATHERING DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS SHARING AND PREDICTION NEXT STEPS Skillful Leader II
49 The OBEN ROUNDS Sources of data: Wall reading; literal notes on interaction; student interviews Student artifacts e.g. journals, worksheets Insterviews with students Skillful Leader II
Skillful Leader MOVING and REMOVING IMPEDIMENTS= LEADERSHIP
Skillful Leader MOVING and REMOVING IMPEDIMENTS= LEADERSHIP ROOT CAUSES What explains these patterns?
Quote or set of quotes particularly relevant to helping students exert effective effort to meet the objective Actions or decisions particularly relevant to helping students exert effective effort to meet the objective Missed opportunities (MO’s) to take an action that would help student exert objectives focused effective effort. Salient Data Salient Data Skillful Leader II
Skillful Leader THINKING SKILLS MASTERY ACTIVITIES What activities could students do to gain understanding or to develop these skills? INVOLVEMENT How can I get students really engaged? COVERAGE What knowledge, skill, or concept am I teaching? Chunked instruction Alignment with instruction Variety of processing structures Students summarizing and making connections Checking for understanding across all students not just an eager few
Organizations embody beliefs and practices deeply rooted in people’s identities A school represents an equilibrium state– however dysfunctional– that reflects the comfort zone of people who work in it Skillful Leader II THEORY OF ACTION
Skillful Leader II “ Organizations resist vision not because of some perverse instinct..to resist change but because existing structures and practices provide a story line people understand” p.40 A new vision often fails to provide people a persuasive and understandable alternative The Undermining Conditions
Vision for Instructional Improvement (identifies the students who will benefit from improving instructional quality in a specific content area) Strategy (reflects actions and initiatives related to improving instruction in the content area identified in the vision) Instructional Improvement Map (reflects priorities for instructional improvement in this content area) IF we….THEN… Skillful Leader II
The theory of action emerges from the outcome and the specific problem of practice Goal (Intended Outcome) + Problem of Practice _______________________ Theory of Action (If …Then) Skillful Leader II
If (the development strategy we’ll use to address our Problem of Practice) ….. Then (this will result in the Intended Outcome we have identified as desirable) Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action- What is it? is the story line that makes a vision and strategy concrete provides the map that carries the vision through the organization cuts through the organizational clutter to the instructional core allows the vision for teaching and learning to be realized within the context of the individual school. The theory of action: Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action- The Ethos Skillful Leader II Trial and error--ongoing revision Double Loop Learning reflecting about how we learn High risk= must share failures and face plants with everyone Collective learning beyond boundaries of closest colleagues
Theory of Action- Requirements has three main requirements: it is a statement of causal relationship that describes what I do – in my role as a superintendent, principal, teacher, coach, etc.-- and what constitutes a good result in the classroom it is empirically falsifiable – it must be able to be disproved based on evidence of what is happening in the classroom it is open-ended and needs to be further revised as more is learned about the consequences of actions. Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action- an hypothesis Stated as if- then propositions: to stress the causal nature of the statements to reinforce that these are testable propositions that are subject to revision if the goal is improved student learning Picture of scientist??? Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action- In addition it … needs to be concrete and relate to the specific context in which the participants work provides a through line to the instructional core and provides information about the vital activities that need to happen to improve teaching and learning tends to tighten up accountability requirements because it shows the interdependence of roles Remember: even if it is a simple and incomplete theory, it is better than no theory at all– this is a learning process Fail Forward! Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action: Examples IF we monitor students’ progress through multiple assessments over time, THEN we will be able to assess our instructional effectiveness and develop focused intervention strategies. IF we develop a deep understanding of the pedagogical knowledge base among our instructional leaders, THEN administrators and curriculum instructional leaders can support and impact high quality teaching by providing teachers with specific, results-oriented feedback that impact student learning. Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action? IF the algebra-for-all vision is compelling and people have good motives and work hard, THEN students will take algebra and succeed at it. At your tables use the criteria to determine why this example is not an effective theory of action Skillful Leader II
Theory of Action- Second Thoughts The key implications for practice are these: We need to have a vision that reflects where the school is going. A theory of action should be developed collaboratively to reflect how the vision will be realized and how teachers will operate in the classroom. The theory of action should be a living document and should be reflected upon regularly. Discussions about the validity of the theory of action should incorporate a wide range of opinions. Skillful Leader II
67 Skillful Leader II
68 Observable data and experiences I select: data I add: meanings I make: assumptions I draw: conclusions. I adopt: beliefs (about the world.) I take: actions (based on my beliefs) Skillful Leader II Recognizing and Climbing Down From the Ladder of Inference Source: Peter Senge et al, Schools that Learn, 2000, 71.