Presentation on theme: "AS Level - Week 4 Theory Module 1 The Principles of Training."— Presentation transcript:
AS Level - Week 4 Theory Module 1 The Principles of Training
Principles of Training (text book cross reference pg 145 to 146) “The principles of training are essentially the rules or laws that underpin a training programme.” Without these principles, the benefits of any training undertaken will be small and inconsequential.
What are the principles? Specificity Specificity Any training undertaken should be relevant or appropriate to the sport for which the individual is training. Example; it would be inappropriate for a swimmer to do the majority of their training on land. Although there are certain benefits to land base training the majority should be performed in water. Also energy systems used in training should replicate that used by the athlete when performing. Example; a shot putter would weight train using the same muscle groups and fibres as he would to throw the shot. The type of training undertaken should also be trained in isolation of each other. Aerobic one day, anaerobic another.
Progressive Overload Progressive Overload For improvement and adaptation to occur the training should be at an intensity where the individual feels some kind of stress and discomfort – this signifies overload. Progression is needed to maintain overload. Example; Run further or faster each time you train. Or lift heavier weights or do more repetitions each time you train. This may not always be achievable but it must be strived for. Reversibility Reversibility Also known as regression. Performance deteriorates when training ceases or intensity of training decreases for extended periods of time. “If you don’t use it you lose it” In 7 weeks you can lose 27% cardio capacity. Strength and muscle mass deteriorates at a lesser degree but you lose it all the same. Explains why pre-season is so tough after just 6-8 weeks inactivity.
Moderation Moderation To prevent overtraining it is essential that the training programme is planned sufficiently well to include a variation in training intensities and to include regular rest days. Your body needs time to recover and adapt to the new stressors of your programme. Example; Marathon runners will vary the miles the train each week. One hard day, one medium day and one easy day. They also have active rest days as well as total rest days. Variance Variance To prevent boredom, staleness and injury through training, it is important to ensure that the training programme employs a range of methods and loads. Indeed varying the type and intensity of training keeps our bodies “on their toes” and encourages better response and results in fitness.