2 Principles of Training For any training programme to improve an athletes performance, the coach, or the athlete themselves should follow some basic training principles.Basic training programmes sometimes use the FITT principles.
3 The FITT PrincipleThe FITT Principle is a basic framework for training programmes that will improve performance:Frequency: how often you exerciseIntensity: how hard you workTime: how long you spend exercisingType: of training you are doingWe will look at some more detailed principles which are derived from the FITT Principle.However, firstly lets look at FITT.
4 FrequencyThe training frequency, or, how often you will train is dependent on;The type of training that is being done (strength or endurance, etc, etc) and…..The type of sport or activity you are training for.We can, however, make the following general statements:Endurance athletes: Should train times per weekNon-Endurance athletes : 2-4 times per week
5 FrequencySummaryTraining needs to be regular and consistent for your body to be able to adapt and improve.The frequency of training sessions is important, because…….If you don’t train frequently enough, you will not produce enough stimulation for the body to make positive adaptations and improve and…..if you train too often, you risk being too tired to train effectively, becoming stale or getting injured.
6 IntensityKnowing how hard to work during a training session is important if you want to improve in performance.If intensity is too high you risk fatiguing too early and not finishing a training session. If intensity is too low you risk not working hard enough and you will not get improvements in fitness or performance.
7 IntensityTraining intensity can be managed many different ways, because there are many different ways & reasons to train.You can train using different target heart rate zones.You can train for longer sessions (60mins instead of 30)You can train for longer periods of time (6 wks instead of 4)You can increase resistance in resistance trainingYou can decrease rest periods between exercisesYou can train at a faster tempoYou can run dragging a tyre or paddle towing a bucket
8 TimeThe length of a training session will be determined by a number of factors including:What type of training you are doingWhat you are training forWhich fitness component(s) you are working at developing
9 Type Types of Continuous Resistance Plyometric Training Circuit IntervalCallisthenicsPlyometricContinuousTypes of
10 The Principles of Training Progressive OverloadVarietySpecificityReversibilityRest
11 Progressive OverloadThis is the foundation principle behind all training programmes.If an individual wants to improve their fitness or performance they must exercise at an intensity greater than his or her existing capacity.If the training load exceeds the load to which the body is accustomed, the body will adapt and make improvements.
12 Progressive OverloadThe body cant adapt overnight to increased demands. It can only adapt gradually or progressively.Exercising too hard or too soon, can lead to injury, over tiredness and premature burn out.Also; your training program must get harder & harder (increase in intensity) as your skill and fitness levels get better and better, or….. you will plateau and stop improving.
13 VarietyThey say ‘variety is the spice of life’. This saying applies equally to the training situation.A variety of activities in a training programme have benefits for the athlete. These include:Improved motivationPreventing boredomHelp overcome plateaus in trainingVariety can be added to a training programme by:Using different training methodsTraining in different locationsUsing a range of games at training
14 SpecificityBasically, ‘you get what you train for’. You should train the energy systems and muscle groups specific to the sport/activity being played.This means:You must first decide what you want to improveThen choose suitable exercises
15 ReversibilityThe gains you make when training for a period of time can quite easily be lost if you stop frequently training. As a general rule, the longer the build up, the slower the loss of adaptations.This means:You must keep to the training programme if you really want to improve performanceIf you take a break because of injury / illness / holiday, you need to start again at a lower level.E.g. The gains from weight training will be lost if you stop training. That is a big strong weight lifter will not be as strong when he stops lifting weights.
16 RestPerhaps the most important thing about rest is when it takes place.Rest plays a key role in recovery after training and competing and preventing overuse injuries as a result of overtraining.