2Write a sentence to describe what the phrase ‘survival of the fittest’ means to you
3Species Organisms that belong to the same species are able to breed together toproduce fertile offspring
4Natural SelectionHardy-Weinberg principle cannot be true if individuals of a particular genotype are –More likely to die before reproducingUnable to grow sufficiently well to reproduce successfullyUnable to attract a mateIn all cases, organisms with one particular genotype will reproduce less successfully than others in the population, and leave fewer, if no, offspring. There is a differential reproductive success between the genotypes in the population
5Natural SelectionWithin a population, a characteristic has more than one phenotype. These phenotypes result from genetic variation in the genotypes controlling this characteristic
6Natural Selection2. There is different reproductive success between different phenotypes
7Natural SelectionOrganisms with a greater reproductive success leave more offspring than those with less reproductive success
8Natural SelectionOrganisms with greater reproductive success will pass their favourable allele to their offspring. As a result, the frequency of this allele will increase in the population, ie natural selection has occurred.
9Natural Selection (Summarised) Frequency of an allele within a population changes.Not all individuals are as likely to reproduce.More advantageous alleles, increase likelihood of survival there more chance of these being passed on.Greater proportion of next generation inherit beneficial allele.They in turn are more likely to survive.Frequency of allele increasesNATURAL SELECTION!
11Directional Selection Acts against one of the extremes in a range of phenotypes. As a result one phenotype becomes rare, and an alternative phenotype becomes more common.
12Directional Selection The upper graph represents in the frequency of phenotypes in a population. The graph has a normal distribution with a fairly large standard deviation, this is before natural selection has occurred.The second graph is a frequency distribution of the same population after natural selection has occurred. The standard deviation of this curve is less than the upper curve and its mode has shifted to the right on the x-axis.Natural selection has caused a genetic change in this population, favouring organisms with a characteristic towards the upper range of the frequency distribution
13Stabilising Selection Stabilising Selection acts against both extremes in a range of phenotypes. As a result the variation about the mode is reduced.After selection, the mode is in the same position: This is the most advantageous phenotype. Stabilising selection has reduced the variation about this modal value.
16SpeciationFormation of a new species by natural selection is known as SPECIATIONGeographic Isolation:This can happen when a species are physically separated into two.It could be due to a mainland population being separated from a population on an islandA creation of a volcano and therefore the two populations are unable to reproduceThis prevents gene flow within the popuation
17DrosophilaThere are many different species of fruit fly. The differences between them are so small, you may not be able to tell one species from another. But the flies can!Before mating, male and females undergo a courtship ritual
18The whole sequence, including the response from the female is controlled by genes and is species-specificIf the male does not have the correct courtship dance, the female does not allow him to mate with her
19If the fruit fly is homozygous recessive for wing length, it will not kill him, however his courtship dance will not attract a female, and he will be unable to pass on his alleles of the gene for wing length.His mutated gene for wing length will not be passed on. However, suppose these genetic changes had occurred not in an individual but in an entire population that was isolated from another population of the same species – This will be conditions in which speciation can occur
20Geographic IsolationGeographic isolation will lead to a population of a species being isolated, and as a result there will be no GENE FLOW to neighbouring populationsGene mutations occur at a constant and low rate, some are beneficial and result in increasing the organisms reproductive success. This mutation will therefore be passed on.An accumulation of mutations can occur, which could mean that if the population was reintroduced to the original population, that it would be unable to reproduce. This has resulted in SPECIATION
21Speciation This can occur if two populations have been separated The conditions for each populationwill now be slightly differentAs a result selection may occur in differentdirections, some alleles maybe favouredby one population but selected against inanother.
23SpeciationAn experiment was conducted with fruit flies. One population was split into two and each was fed on different food. After many generations the two populations were placed together and it was observed that they were unable to breed together.What evidence shows speciation has occurred?(1)Explain why the experiment resulted in speciation. (3)Suggest two possible reasons why members of the two populations were not able to breed together (2)
24Answers The new species were unable to breed with each other (1) Populations were isolated and fed on different foods (1)This caused changes to allele frequencies between the populations (1)Which made them reproductively isolated and eventually resulted in speciation (1)Seasonal changes (1)Mechanical changes (1)Behavioural changes (1)