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Project Management A Managerial Approach

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Presentation on theme: "Project Management A Managerial Approach"— Presentation transcript:

1 Project Management A Managerial Approach
Chapter 2 Project Selection

2 Project Selection Project selection is the process of evaluating individual projects or groups of projects, and then choosing to implement some set of them so that the objectives of the parent organization will be achieved Managers often use decision-aiding models to extract the relevant issues of a problem from the details in which the problem is embedded Models represent the problem’s structure and can be useful in selecting and evaluating projects

3 Criteria for Project Selection Models
Realism - reality of manager’s decision Capability- able to simulate different scenarios and optimize the decision Flexibility - provide valid results within the range of conditions Ease of Use - reasonably convenient, easy execution, and easily understood Cost - Data gathering and modeling costs should be low relative to the cost of the project Easy Computerization - must be easy and convenient to gather, store and manipulate data in the model

4 Nature of Project Selection Models
2 Basic Types of Models Numeric Nonnumeric Two Critical Facts: Models do not make decisions - People do! All models, however sophisticated, are only partial representations of the reality the are meant to reflect

5 Nonnumeric Models Sacred Cow - project is suggested by a senior and powerful official in the organization Operating Necessity - the project is required to keep the system running Competitive Necessity - project is necessary to sustain a competitive position Product Line Extension - projects are judged on how they fit with current product line, fill a gap, strengthen a weak link, or extend the line in a new desirable way. Comparative Benefit Model - several projects are considered and the one with the most benefit to the firm is selected

6 Numeric Models: Profit/Profitability
Payback period - initial fixed investment/estimated annual cash inflows from the project Average Rate of Return - average annual profit/average investment Discounted Cash Flow - Present Value Method Internal Rate of Return - Finds rate of return that equates present value of inflows and outflows Profitability Index - NPV of all future expected cash flows/initial cash investment

7 Numeric Models: Scoring
Unweighted 0-1 Factor Model Unweighted Factor Scoring Model Weighted Factor Scoring Model Constrained Weighted Factor Scoring Model Goal Programming with Multiple Objectives

8 Risk Versus Uncertainty
Analysis Under Uncertainty - The Management of Risk The difference between risk and uncertainty Risk - when the decision maker knows the probability of each and every state of nature and thus each and every outcome. An expected value of each alternative action can be determined Uncertainty - when a decision maker has information that is not complete and therefore cannot determine the expected value of each alternative

9 Risk Analysis Principal contribution of risk analysis is to focus the attention on understanding the nature and extent of the uncertainty associated with some variables used in a decision making process Usually understood to use financial measures in determining the desirability of an investment project

10 Risk Analysis Probability distributions are determined or subjectively estimated for each of the “uncertain” variables The probability distribution for the rate of return (or net present value) is then found by simulation Both the expectation and its variability are important criteria in the evaluation of a project

11 Risk Analysis

12 Information Base for Selections
Accounting Data Measurements Subjective vs. Objective Quantitative vs. Qualitative Reliable vs. Unreliable Valid vs. Invalid Technological Shock

13 Project Proposals Which projects should be bid on?
How should the proposal-preparation process be organized and staffed? How much should be spent on preparing proposals for bids? How should the bid prices be set? What is the bidding strategy? Is it ethical?

14 Project Proposal Contents
Executive Summary Cover Letter Nature of the technical problem Plan for Implementation of Project Plan for Logistic Support & Administration of the project Description of group proposing to do the work Any relevant past experience that can be applied

15 Summary Primary selection criteria are realism, capability,flexibility, ease of use, and cost In preparing to use a model, a firm must identify its objectives, weighting them relative to each other, and determining the probable impacts of the project on the firm’s competitive abilities. Models can be numeric or nonnumeric

16 Summary Numeric Models can be subdivided into profitability and scoring models To handle uncertainty, pro forma documents, risk analysis, and simulation with sensitivity analysis are helpful Special care should be given to data in project selection models. Of concern are data taken from accounting data base and the effect of technological shock

17 Summary Project proposals generally consist of several sections: the technical approach, the implementation plan, the plan for logistics support and administration, and past experience. The history of project selection models has shown an increase in the use of formal models, particularly profitability models.

18 Project Selection Questions?

19 Project Selection Picture Files

20 Project Selection Figure 2-1

21 Project Selection Figure 2-2

22 Project Selection Table Files

23 Project Selection

24 Project Selection

25 Project Selection

26 Project Selection

27 Project Selection

28 Project Selection

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