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1 Project Management: A Managerial Approach Chapter 2 – Strategic Management and Project Selection.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Project Management: A Managerial Approach Chapter 2 – Strategic Management and Project Selection."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Project Management: A Managerial Approach Chapter 2 – Strategic Management and Project Selection

2 2 Overview Project Selection and Criteria Project Selection and Criteria Project Selection Models Project Selection Models Uncertainty and Risk Uncertainty and Risk Information for Project Selection Information for Project Selection Project Portfolio Process (PPP) Project Portfolio Process (PPP) Project Proposals Project Proposals

3 3 Project Maturity and Reality Many projects fall outside company mission Many projects fall outside company mission Projects without organizational goal/objective “fit” Projects without organizational goal/objective “fit” Project budgets not tied to cost-benefit analysis Project budgets not tied to cost-benefit analysis

4 4 Multiple Project Management Issues Delays in one project impacting others Delays in one project impacting others –Resource conflicts –Technology dependencies Lack of resource “smoothing” Lack of resource “smoothing” –Peaks and valleys of resource utilization Bottlenecks with scarce resources Bottlenecks with scarce resources –Lack of workarounds

5 5 Project Selection Evaluation process -- individual projects or groups of projects Evaluation process -- individual projects or groups of projects Choosing some set of project options Choosing some set of project options Organizational objectives achieved Organizational objectives achieved Managers use decision-aiding models Managers use decision-aiding models Models represent the problem’s structure Models represent the problem’s structure Aid in evaluating risks and options Aid in evaluating risks and options

6 6 Criteria for Project Selection Models Realism - reality of manager’s decision Realism - reality of manager’s decision Capability- able to simulate different scenarios and optimize the decision Capability- able to simulate different scenarios and optimize the decision Flexibility - provide valid results within the range of conditions Flexibility - provide valid results within the range of conditions Ease of Use - reasonably convenient, easy execution, and easily understood Ease of Use - reasonably convenient, easy execution, and easily understood Cost - Data gathering and modeling costs should be low relative to the cost of the project Cost - Data gathering and modeling costs should be low relative to the cost of the project Easy Computerization - must be easy and convenient to gather, store and manipulate data in the model Easy Computerization - must be easy and convenient to gather, store and manipulate data in the model

7 7 Nature of Project Selection Models –2 Basic Types of Models Numeric Numeric Non-numeric Non-numeric –Two Critical Facts: Models do not make decisions - People do! Models do not make decisions - People do! All models are only partial representations of reality All models are only partial representations of reality

8 8 Non-Numeric Models Sacred Cow - project is suggested by a senior and powerful official in the organization Sacred Cow - project is suggested by a senior and powerful official in the organization Operating Necessity - the project is required to keep the system running Operating Necessity - the project is required to keep the system running Competitive Necessity - project is necessary to sustain a competitive position Competitive Necessity - project is necessary to sustain a competitive position Product Line Extension - projects are judged on how they fit with current product line, fill a gap, strengthen a weak link, or extend the line in a new desirable way. Product Line Extension - projects are judged on how they fit with current product line, fill a gap, strengthen a weak link, or extend the line in a new desirable way. Comparative Benefit Model - several projects are considered and the one with the most benefit to the firm is selected Comparative Benefit Model - several projects are considered and the one with the most benefit to the firm is selected

9 9 Q-Sort – A Comparative Benefit Technique Usually undertaken by a selection committee Usually undertaken by a selection committee Project descriptions on separate cards Project descriptions on separate cards Divide into high and low benefit groups Divide into high and low benefit groups Form a medium benefit/priority group from a selection of high and low projects Form a medium benefit/priority group from a selection of high and low projects Subdivide remaining high level projects into very high priority and high priority Subdivide remaining high level projects into very high priority and high priority Repeat subdivision for low level projects Repeat subdivision for low level projects Review the ranking for appropriateness and consistency Review the ranking for appropriateness and consistency

10 10 Q-Sort Project Selection

11 11 Numeric Models: Profit/Profitability –Payback period - initial fixed investment/estimated annual cash inflows from the project –Average Rate of Return - average annual profit/average investment –Discounted Cash Flow - Present Value Method –Internal Rate of Return - Finds rate of return that equates present value of inflows and outflows –Profitability Index - NPV of all future expected cash flows/initial cash investment

12 12 Financial Selection Criteria Payback Model Payback Model –Time to recover project investment Investment €/Annual Net Savings = PB Investment €/Annual Net Savings = PB –Widely used –Emphasis on Cash Flow Net Present Value (NPV) Net Present Value (NPV) –Desired rate of return (Est. Annual Cash Flow/Project Cost) X 100 = RoR (Est. Annual Cash Flow/Project Cost) X 100 = RoR –Compare “RoR” of project(s) to “target”

13 13 Payback Period Estimated project costs: €100,000 Estimated project costs: €100,000 Annual cash inflows: €25,000 Annual cash inflows: €25,000 Payback period: €100,000/€25,000 = 4 yr Payback period: €100,000/€25,000 = 4 yr Rapid payback reduces risk to the firm Rapid payback reduces risk to the firm

14 14 Average Rate of Return Emphasises the annual profitability of the project investment Emphasises the annual profitability of the project investment Annual profits: €15,000 Annual profits: €15,000 Average Rate of Return: €15,000/€100,000 = 0.15 (15%) Average Rate of Return: €15,000/€100,000 = 0.15 (15%) Simple but ignores impact of inflation or cost of finance Simple but ignores impact of inflation or cost of finance

15 15 Net Present Value (NPV) Also known as Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Also known as Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) NPV discounts the value of future returns by taking into account the predicted inflation rate p i for each period i NPV discounts the value of future returns by taking into account the predicted inflation rate p i for each period i Initial investment I o is a negative cash flow Initial investment I o is a negative cash flow NPV = I o + Σ F i / (1 + p i ) i NPV = I o + Σ F i / (1 + p i ) i F i is the cash inflow in the period i F i is the cash inflow in the period i

16 16 NPV Example with IIR A required Internal Rate of Return (IRR), k, may be incorporated in an NPV determination A required Internal Rate of Return (IRR), k, may be incorporated in an NPV determination NPV = I o + Σ F i / (1 + k + p i ) i NPV = I o + Σ F i / (1 + k + p i ) i €100,000 investment predicted to produce a net cash inflow of €25,000 pa for period of 8 years with p i = 3% pa and k = 15% €100,000 investment predicted to produce a net cash inflow of €25,000 pa for period of 8 years with p i = 3% pa and k = 15% NPV = - €100,000 + Σ €25,000 / (1 + 0.15 + 0.03 i ) I = + €1,939 NPV = - €100,000 + Σ €25,000 / (1 + 0.15 + 0.03 i ) I = + €1,939 Since this figure is positive the project meets the financial requirement for selection Since this figure is positive the project meets the financial requirement for selection

17 17 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Profitability Index (PI) Given a set of expected cash inflows and outflows for a project, the IRR is the discount rate that equates the present values of the two sets of flows. Given a set of expected cash inflows and outflows for a project, the IRR is the discount rate that equates the present values of the two sets of flows. The value of IIR may be determined by trial and error or using (say) Excel The value of IIR may be determined by trial and error or using (say) Excel The Profitability Index is the NPV of all future cash inflows divided by the initial cash investment – if PI > 1 the project may be accepted The Profitability Index is the NPV of all future cash inflows divided by the initial cash investment – if PI > 1 the project may be accepted

18 18 Numeric Models: Scoring Unweighted 0-1 Factor Model Unweighted 0-1 Factor Model Unweighted Factor Scoring Model Unweighted Factor Scoring Model Weighted Factor Scoring Model Weighted Factor Scoring Model Constrained Weighted Factor Scoring Model Constrained Weighted Factor Scoring Model Goal Programming with Multiple Objectives Goal Programming with Multiple Objectives Chapter 2-6

19 19 Risk Versus Uncertainty Analysis Under Uncertainty - The Management of Risk Analysis Under Uncertainty - The Management of Risk –The difference between risk and uncertainty Risk - when the decision maker knows the probability of each and every state of nature and thus each and every outcome. An expected value of each alternative action can be determined Risk - when the decision maker knows the probability of each and every state of nature and thus each and every outcome. An expected value of each alternative action can be determined Uncertainty - when a decision maker has information that is not complete and therefore cannot determine the expected value of each alternative Uncertainty - when a decision maker has information that is not complete and therefore cannot determine the expected value of each alternative

20 20 Risk Analysis Principal contribution of risk analysis is to focus the attention on understanding the nature and extent of the uncertainty associated with some variables used in a decision making process Principal contribution of risk analysis is to focus the attention on understanding the nature and extent of the uncertainty associated with some variables used in a decision making process Usually understood to use financial measures in determining the desirability of an investment project Usually understood to use financial measures in determining the desirability of an investment project

21 21 Risk Analysis Probability distributions are determined or subjectively estimated for each of the “uncertain” variables Probability distributions are determined or subjectively estimated for each of the “uncertain” variables The probability distribution for the rate of return (or net present value) is then found by simulation The probability distribution for the rate of return (or net present value) is then found by simulation Both the expectation and its variability are important criteria in the evaluation of a project Both the expectation and its variability are important criteria in the evaluation of a project

22 22 Risk Analysis

23 23 Aggregate Project Planning

24 24 Project Portfolio Process - Purpose Identify Projects that Meet Strategic Needs Identify Projects that Meet Strategic Needs –Support Multiple Goals –Direct Organizational Improvement –Enhance/Enable Key Areas Prioritize Potential Projects Prioritize Potential Projects –Limit Active Projects to Manageable Level –Identify Risk-intensive Efforts –Balance Short, Medium, Long-term Returns Reduce Projects from Getting in via “Backdoor” Reduce Projects from Getting in via “Backdoor”

25 25 Project Portfolio Process - Steps 1. Establish a Project Management “Governance” Structure –Senior Leaders and Technical Experts 2. Identify (Common) Project Selection Criteria –Tied to Strategic Vision, Mission, Goals, Objectives 3. Collect Project-specific Data –Project Attributes Tied to Selection Criteria 4. Assess Available Resources –Internal and External –Financial and Other

26 26 Project Portfolio Process - Steps 5. Reduce Project List -Screen for Potential “Differentiators” 6. Prioritize within Categories -Assuring Balance of Portfolio -Avoid Overabundance of Similar Projects 7. Select Primary and “Reserve” Projects -Leave Budget for “Surprise” Opportunities 8. Implement the Project Process -Communicate Results to Selectees and Non-selectees -Fund Projects to Promised Levels

27 27 PPP – Plan of Record

28 28 Project Proposals Which projects should be bid on? Which projects should be bid on? How should the proposal-preparation process be organized and staffed? How should the proposal-preparation process be organized and staffed? How much should be spent on preparing proposals for bids? How much should be spent on preparing proposals for bids? How should the bid prices be set? How should the bid prices be set? What is the bidding strategy? Is it ethical? What is the bidding strategy? Is it ethical?

29 29 Project Proposal Contents Executive Summary Executive Summary Cover Letter Cover Letter Nature of the technical problem Nature of the technical problem Plan for Implementation of Project Plan for Implementation of Project Plan for Logistic Support & Administration of the project Plan for Logistic Support & Administration of the project Description of group proposing to do the work Description of group proposing to do the work Any relevant past experience that can be applied Any relevant past experience that can be applied

30 30 Project Selection Evaluation Factors Production Production –Interruptions, learning, process Marketing Marketing –Customer management issues Financial Financial –Return on investment Personnel Personnel –Skills and training, working conditions Project Selection Administrative Administrative –Regulatory standards, strategic fit


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