2DefinitionA right is a freedom to act or refrain from acting or an entitlement to be acted upon or not acted upon.A right is a power or privilege to which a person has a just claim.
3Questions to AskWho?- children, animals, workers, states, human beings in general.What actions or states or objects?- “free expression,” privacy, property, bodily.
4Questions to Ask Why? How justified?- moral, legal natural, tradition. How is the asserted right affected by the right-holder’s actions? Can it be forfeited? Can it be voluntarily given up?
5Natural RightsNatural rights are rights derived from Nature- they are universal; can’t be taken away (exist necessarily) “inalienable”Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness.
6Legal RightsA legal right is based on a society’s customs, laws, statues or actions by legislatures. These are called “civil rights”- and are culturally and politically relative. - right to vote
7Claim RightA claim right entails that another person has a duty to the right-holder. Imposes duties on others to act or refrain from acting.Life, liberty, property, informed consent.
8Liberty RightA liberty right is a privilege or freedom to do something and does not entail obligations on others.Permitted to do something only if no other person has a claim right forbidding.
9Positive- NegativePositive- Permission to do or entitlement to be done unto.Negative- permission not to do or entitlement to be left alone- non-interference.
10Individual or GroupGeneral sense of right is that it belongs to individuals.Group as entity in its own right-platoon of soldier or a tribe.Individual rights because of group- labor, disability, patient, prisoner, reproductive, animals, children, parents.
11Conflict of RightsA Major question for a an individual, society or moral system is how to resolve conflicts of rights?
12Human RightsThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948Preamble states: recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.
13PreambleWhereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
14Universal Declaration Asserts the four freedoms: freedom of speech, belief, freedom from want, and freedom from fear – which is "proclaimed as the highest aspiration" of the people.Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status
15Universal Declaration Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
16Universal Declaration Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense.
17Universal Declaration No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
18Universal Declaration Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
19Universal Declaration Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection
20Universal Declaration Everyone has the right to educationEducation shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
21Universal Declaration Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
22Universal Declaration Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.Everyone has the right to leave any country, including their own, and to return to their country.Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
23U.N. Rights ConventionsInternational Convention on Civil and Political Rights YesInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights NoConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women No
24U.N. Rights Conventions Convention on the Rights of the Child-2000- No Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities- NoConvention on the Rights of Migrant Workers NoAbolition of child labor No
25U.N. Rights ConventionsFreedom of association and collective bargaining- NoElimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation- NoConvention Against Torture YesConvention Against Genocide YesSupporting the Declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity
26CharterAdvocated for a restoration of Civil and Political Rights including the freedom of public expression, religious conviction, rights of family and private life.Demanded legal rights be upheld- lack of defense and rights of the accused.Reaffirmed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
27Charter 08-Affirmed the following principles: (1) Freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, demonstrate, protest.Affirmed human rights of all citizens.Affirmed equality and dignity of all regardless of social station, etc.Republicanism- balance of branches.
28Charter 08-New Constitution- Separation of Powers; Independent JudiciaryPublic control of public servants- military and othersGuarantee of human rightsElection of Public OfficialsRural-Urban equality
29Charter 08-Freedom to form groups, expression, religion and civic education (not indoctrination)Financial and Tax reform and social securityTruth in reconciliation- restoration and reparations.