Presentation on theme: "SPORTS MARKETING An international perspective Michel Polski 2006 BIB."— Presentation transcript:
SPORTS MARKETING An international perspective Michel Polski 2006 BIB
2 SESSION 1 Introduction to the course History of sports and definitions Workshop on Ancient and Modern Olympic Games
3 Course outline Session DateTopicGroup research presentation History of sport and its economics The sport systems Discovery of sport marketing« Sport in your country » The sport participant The sport spectator The sport purchaser Segmenting, positioning, targeting« Sport Consumer Behaviour » Branding, licensing, distributing Promoting with or without media Sport sponsorship and partnership Designing & managing a sport event« Sport good/service marketing » Final case study
4 Grading Examination : 50% Continuous assessment: 50 %. 10% : class workshops 90% : 3 group workshops. 8 teams of 4 people These cases will evaluate students ability to look for information and synthetize it.
5 1) History of sports and its definition 1. History & definition 1. Historical outlook 2. Definition 3. Professionalization 4. Globalization
6 1) Ouutlook of evolutions A) Protosports Prehistoiry & antiquity Ethnic games Nomad games Sacred games B) Preindustrial games From Middle-Ages To the mid-19th Nobles games Peoples games C) Sports Mid-19th Gymnic & military games English & touristic games Popular games American sports Institutionalized sports Lumières French revolution Industrial revolution Decline of Aristocracy End of Antique times Decline of the Roman Empire & Christianism Conflict One common dimension:
7 A) « Protosports » Indians & Aztecs Central america Mediterranea African and Australian peoples China Central Asia Eskimos Anglo-saxons
8 A1) Ethnic & nomadic games
9 A2) Antique games Olympic games (776 bef JC) Religious games (« soft war ») Roman games Social games (slavery system)
10 B) Pre-industrial games B1) Popular games B2) Noble games Dimensions : - Recreation (meeting between families, …) - Symbolic (social status and position) Recreation, feasts et local competitions (betting on local champions, activities from daily life, local fairs, …) At the same time: recreational purpose and structuring the society
11 B1) Popular traditional games Combat games (boxing, wrestling,…) Instrumentalized gamed Jouts Throwing games Bouncing games Ball-on-foot games Cross games Skill Opposition Athletic 3 dimensions
12 La Choûle
13 Popular games from the daily life Bruegel the Elder, XVIth cent.
14 B2) Noblesgames From Knights to the Baron de Coubertin…
15 Knights Tournaments Le temps des chevaliers, C. Gravett, G. Dann, Gallimard.
16 « Paume », XIII-XVth cent.
17 « Pall-Mall » Lauthier, 1717
18 Duelling XVIII et XIXth
19 Hunting 1540
20 Modern Olympic Games, 1896 Baron Pierre de Coubertin1896 Opening Ceremony
21 Gymnic and military sports German gymnastics (F.L. Jahn)
22 Napoleonian Gymnastics Colonel Amoros
24 « English sports » Football-rugby Football-association Rowing
27 Other specialties Motor sports : Vive la France !
28 US sports From « Noble English » sports … … to popular immigrants sports … … to University sports … … To Professional sports. Priest Naismith, Springfield, Ma, : The Knickerbockers (1st team) 1869: Cincinnati Red Stockings (1st pro team) 1st game st league st pro league : 1920 Base-ball US Football Basket-ball
29 The origin of modern sport: the « industrial republic» Sociopolitics Secularity Education Geopolitics Nationalism Colonialism Economical factors Industrialization Urbanization English influence of the Public Schools « The University » « Dribbling Game » Germanic influence of gymnastics « The Army » « Hygienism » « Protestant ethics » (K. Weber)
30 2) A difficult definition… « Desport » (XIIth cent) = deport (« fun ») disport (pass-time) (XIVth cent) « sport » (1st apperaed in the XVth cent. in England, then imported in France in 1828) Littré, 1828 : « Any outdoor exercise as horse races, rowing, hunting, shooting, fishing,bowing, gymnastics, and sword » : « Le Sport, The newspaper of the Gentry » Bescherelle 1870 : « Futile activity and pleasure of hunting and fishing » Sport : coded game with a voluntary physical activity engaged for pleasure What differences with contemporary sport ?
31 Modern definitions « Sport is Regular and voluntary practice of Intensive muscular exercise In a will of progress That can lead to risk » (P. de Coubertin, Pédagogie sportive, 1922) Principle of « ruled fighting » « Physical activity, Coded and ruled By a superior organization In a limited time and space To compete And to acheive a loyal performance. » (P. Arnaud, 1995)
32 Public or private institution ? Aristocratic and conservative view Fortune, family, education The « Chic » before the victory Amateurism & disinterested game No show, emphasis on practice NO BUSINESS ! Liberal and republican view (freedom of association) Open clubs (ages, genders, origins, revenues, beliefs…) Systematic training for victory Professionalism and look for show, record, event, … Building of huge infrastrucutres Commercialization et professionnalization Organization of sport events with commercial goals by private and organized firms (Tour de France (1903) LAuto (Michelin tyres and Clément bicycles)…)
33 Professionalization Case of football and rugby Football-association (UK,1888) Professional Football League 1895 : Rugby League : à XIII, professional & labour Rugby Football Union : à XV, amateur & aristocracy XXth cent. : Professionalization of Football « Grey Amateurism gris » in rugby Ambitions of a pionneer : Rupert Murdoch 1996 : Professionalisation of rugby in France 2006 : Labour contracts in Sports Entry to stock-exchange in France (?)
34 Globalisation At first, « inter-NATIONALISM » XIXth cent. In the USA & GB Americas Cup (1851) 1st « International » Competition Davis Cup (1900) Modern OG (Athens, 1896) 13 countries The Thirties Development of tourism and exchanges Development of international federation (1914 FIFA, 14 countries) First world competitions (1927 cycling, 1930 football (Rimet Cup)) Nationalism and rivalry (fascism & nazism) International Red Sport (1921) International Socialist and Labour Sport (Labour Games, Antwerp 1927) Sport & Cold war Sport = tool of propaganda for superpowers