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Forensic Science. Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Copyright and.

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Presentation on theme: "Forensic Science. Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2011. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Copyright and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Forensic Science

2 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright © Texas Education Agency, These materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have.TEA Copyrights 2

3 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Forensic Use of Light – an understanding of light energy, its properties, its uses, and its technological applications is fundamental in the study of forensics  Location/Collection of Evidence with Light  Observation of Evidence with Light  Analysis of Evidence with Light 3

4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Both travel in the form of waves  Both are frequencies  Our eyes and ears cannot detect all of the frequencies  Light waves are much faster than sounds waves  Sound waves require a medium to travel through, but light waves can travel through a vacuum 4

5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Wave – when some form of energy (light, sound, water) is transferred by a disturbance in a medium (light waves do not require a medium)  Longitudinal (or compressional) waves – travel like a flexible helical spring toy that somersaults down steps (i.e. sound waves)  Transverse waves –like ripples in a puddle (i.e. light waves) 5

6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Wavelength ( λ ) – the distance from the top of one wave to the top of the next  Larger waves have a longer wavelength  Smaller waves have a shorter wavelength  The unit used for light wavelength is the meter (m)  Wave Speed (c) – different wave mediums travel at different speeds  The speed of light is 3.0 x 1010 cm/s or 3.0 x 108 m/s (speed is considered as though in a vacuum)  The unit of speed of a wave is meters/second 6

7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Frequency (v) – the number of waves that pass per unit of time; wavelength and frequency are inversely related  Longer wavelength means shorter frequency and vice versa  The unit for frequency showing cycles per second is the Hertz (Hz)  Frequency and wave energy are synonymous 7

8 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Wave Formula (c = λν )  Wave formula in words – speed equals wavelength times frequency  So the speed of a wave is a product of frequency and wavelength  Symbols  c = speed of the type of wave (can be the speed of light)  λ = wavelength (meters)  v = frequency (Hz) 8

9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Amplitude – the height of the wave from the bottom (trough) to the top (crest)  Amplitude is also thought of as the energy the wave carries  Wavelength, speed, and frequency do not change just because the height (amplitude) of the wave changes 9 Low Frequency, Long Wavelength High Frequency, Short Wavelength Amplitude*

10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  The entire range of known light waves is called the electromagnetic spectrum 10 Increasing Wavelength Increasing Frequency

11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  There is an array of different light waves (electromagnetic radiation or “radiation”) with characteristic colors, invisibilities, wavelengths, and frequencies  R adio waves and microwaves  Infrared light  Visible Spectrum  Ultraviolet light (black light)  X-rays and gamma rays 11

12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Light (sunlight/electric light bulb) or white light  Allows us to see  Is actually a combination of all known colors  Can be any color we see  An object absorbs most of the visible wavelengths and reflects some of the wavelengths – this is what we see as color (i.e. plants absorb all wavelengths (colors) except for green)  Any object will absorb and reflect different light wavelengths depending on its composition  The chemical compounds the object is made of  Or the chemical compounds of the paint on the object 12

13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Investigators should use all forms of light possible when gathering evidence  Regular white light  Ultraviolet (UV) light  Infrared (IR) light  A good forensic light source is made up of a powerful lamp containing all of the light wavelengths 13

14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Light (electromagnetic spectrum) behaves like a wave in the way it travels; however, light also acts like a particle in the way it transfers energy to electrons  This is called the Dual-Theory of Light 14

15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Photon – an energized packet of light energy  In the late 1800’s/early 1900’s, scientists noticed light behaving sometimes like a wave and sometimes like particles  This idea of particles was combined with the Atomic Theory to create new light theories (Quantum Physics)  Photons of light are absorbed (energy gained) and emitted (light is given off) 15

16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  In general, “light” refers to the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that we see  Incandescence (hot) (i.e. light bulb)  Luminescence (cold) (i.e. fluorescent lights)  Chemiluminescence  Thermoluminescence  Photoluminescence  Two Types that Absorb Ultraviolet Energy  Fluorescence  Phosphorescence 16

17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Phosphors – any substance that causes an object to show photoluminescence  Causes certain objects to glow in the dark, or light up under UV radiation  Used in radar detection and plasma screen TV’s  Examples: rare earth minerals, transition metals, nucleic acids found in DNA, and biomolecules  Because many different types of phosphors found in the human body and other types of forensic evidence, UV lights are irreplaceable in evidence collection 17 Semen under UV light

18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Emission  Absorption  Transmission  Reflection  Refraction  Dispersion  Intensity  Diffraction  Interference  Polarization 18

19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Macro-View (magnifiers and stereomicroscopes)  Micro-View (compound microscope)  Microscopic Refractive Index  Micro Colorimetry  Chromaticity Diagram  Types and Techniques of Microscopy  Bright Field Microscope  Dark Field Microscope  Phase Contrast  Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) or Nomarski Microscopes  Polarized Light Microscope  Fluorescence  Infrared/Ultraviolet Light  Digital Microscopes  Electron Microscopes  Other Microscopes 19

20 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  A spectroscope uses prism or diffusion grating to break apart incoming wavelengths; the specific emission/absorption of wavelengths can be used to identify the unknown element in the composition of evidence  Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy  Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroscopy  Reflectance Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (RUVIS)  Raman Spectroscopy  Microspectroscopy  X-ray Diffraction/Absorption  Atomic Emission/Absorption Spectroscopy  Microwave Spectroscopy  Types of Spectrometry that Don’t Use Light 20

21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) – radio waves and magnetic fields are used to penetrate unknowns and collect information from hydrocarbons  Valuable because it is nondestructive – evidence can still be analyzed again later  Can be used to analyze DNA and/or dangerous samples such as explosives  A form of NMR is used to determine time of death by finding brain metabolite levels  Electron Paramagnetic Resonance – uses microwave (not radio) waves for similar purposes  X-ray Fluorescence, Neutron Activation Analysis (with infrared spectra), Inductive Couples Plasma – other examples of the many technological advances that use various forms of the EM spectrum to analyze and identify forensic evidence samples 21

22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Immersion Test – a transparent object (glass) is immersed in several liquids with known refractive indexes to compare the refractive indexes  Glass appears to be “invisible” or disappear in liquid that has the same refractive index  If the liquid has a lower or higher refractive index than the glass, the glass can still be seen (with a halo around it)  Examples  Methanol RI = 1.33  Glycerin RI = 1.47  Clove Oil RI = 1.54  Pyrex Glass RI = 1.47 (would disappear in glycerin)  Lead Glass RI = 1.56 (would disappear in clove oil) 22

23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Immersion Test – a transparent object (glass) is immersed  Other Large Scale Uses of Refractive Index  Refractometer – determines the refractive index of various solids and liquids  Used to determine the identity of unknowns in forensics  Can be handheld for fieldwork or larger for a laboratory counter  Also used to determine the density of liquids and the concentrations of various components in the liquids (sugar in urine, drugs in the blood, etc.) 23

24 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Finding the Diameter/Width of a Minute Object – Thomas Young’s Double Split Patterns (interference/ diffraction of light): an experiment that showed that specific light patterns are dependent on the number of slits through which light is shown  Using the known frequency of light and measurements of interference patterns you can determine the actual width of the solid that caused the light to split  To find the diameter or width of an object: d = lL  10S  d = diameter of a minute object in micrometers (µm)  I = wavelength of the light (nm)  L= distance from the light source to the screen (m)  S = the average distance between bands (cm) 24

25 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Uses of Infrared Light (Thermal Radiation) – many materials are sensitive to thermal or infrared (IR) radiation (IR waves are longer waves in the EM spectrum)  Used in night vision goggles/equipment  Many types of crime scene evidence are located because they will absorb visible light and show IR  IR luminescence is used for many types of document analysis  Illegal Alteration  Erased Writing  IR absorption or glow from different inks  Revelation of charred document contents  Used in conjunction with other technology 25

26 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Uses of Ultraviolet Light (Black Light)  Mostly used in evidence collection  Many bodily fluids (biomolecules) fluoresce when illuminated by a source of UV light  Detection of crime scene stains such as saliva, semen, vaginal fluids, urine, and perspiration  Many times latent fingerprints will fluoresce for detection purposes  UV light analysis is recommended as a first choice by the FBI for examining and identifying biological evidence  Also used for authenticating signatures, paintings, and ink stains  Used in the detection of trace evidence and illegal substances  Used to see the light of luminol in order to find blood evidence 26

27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Forensic Light Source  A powerful lamp with ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths of light that has many components to enhance visualization  Direct lighting, such as a strong white light, is very useful to reveal trace evidence  Oblique or parallel lighting will also reveal small particles  Used with all types of magnifiers and microscopes  A multiple color band can penetrate many skin depths to reveal details of a bruise pattern  White light is normally used first, with other wave lengths, chemicals, goggles, polarizers, and colored lenses are used after the initial observation 27

28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Cameras use refraction and polarization properties (various lenses, including colored lenses) to capture permanent proof of evidence and its analysis  Used in evidence collection, observation, and analysis to record results  Used with  Spectroscopy  Scanning electron microscopes  Fluoresce of IR or UV radiation  Luminol (to record the chemicaluminescence of a reaction with blood evidence) 28

29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Location and Collection of Evidence with Light – light, and all of its sources, are used to locate evidence  Examples  Flashlight  Ultraviolet or black light  Light sources with all wavelengths  Colored goggles or filters  Many types of digital photography 29

30 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Observation of Evidence with Light – once evidence has been located and collected, light is used to observe it  Examples  Magnifying glass  Microscopes (stereomicroscopes, polarizing microscopes, etc.) 30

31 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Analysis of Evidence with Light – science has made many discoveries about light, and these are applied to analyze forensic evidence  Some Examples  Microscopes of all types, including electron and ion microscopes  Spectroscopes – used to identify trace evidence  Emission spectroscopy  Gas and mass spectroscopy  Infrared and ultraviolet applications  Microwave, X-Ray, and nuclear forms also  Mass Spectrometry – identification purposes  Gas and liquid chromatography specializations 31

32 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.  Saferstein, Richard. Forensic Science: An Introduction. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall,  Bertino, Anthony J. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009  Deslich, Barbara; Funkhouse, John. Forensic Science for High School Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2006  Texas Education Agency, Forensic Certification Training, Sam Houston State University  Do an Internet search for a video using the following: Flame Test


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