# Waves.

## Presentation on theme: "Waves."— Presentation transcript:

Waves

Waves Wave: a disturbance that transfers energy from place to place.
Medium: the material through which the wave can pass. Waves are classified by: 1. the way they move. 2. the medium through which the wave can pass.

Transverse waves: Particles of the medium move
perpendicular to the direction of wave motion. (looks like a jump rope) 2. Can travel through liquids, gases, empty space and SOME solids. Ex) Ocean waves

Longitudinal Waves Particles of the medium move parallel
to the direction of wave motion.(looks like a slinky) Ex) sound and water

Wave Components

Crest Crest - maximum positive distance from the rest position, top of the wave Peak

Trough Crest - maximum positive distance from the rest position, bottom of the wave Valley

Amplitude Amplitude - the height of the wave, either rest position to crest or rest position to trough Amplitude is 1/2 the total displacement Tells the strength, power, intensity of a wave Ex: sound - volume, light - brightness, earthquakes - power Units = Meters

Wavelength Wavelength - the distance from one corresponding point on a wave to the same point on the next wave Crest to crest, or trough to trough Units are Meters

Frequency Frequency - the number of waves that pass a fixed point in a given amount of time Greater frequency, greater the energy Units are waves per second, Hertz (Hz)

Velocity Velocity - the speed and direction of the wave, distance divided by time Units are m/s The velocity of a wave changes in every new medium it enters Medium - the material a wave is traveling through Sound travels at ~343 m/s and light at ~300,000,000 m/s

Velocity = frequency x wavelength
Wave Formula Wave formula v = f x w Velocity = frequency x wavelength Ex: A wave traveling at 3.0x108 m/s has a frequency of 10,000Hz. What is the wavelength of the wave? 3.0x108 m/s = 10,000Hz x w w = 3.0x108 m/s / 10,000Hz = 30,000m

Reflection Reflection - waves strike a surface they reflect and invert. Ex: Sonar - sound, radar - radio waves, echoes for sound, satellites

Part 2 - Reflection Reflection from a mirror: Mirror Normal
Incident ray Reflected ray Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Mirror

Only red light is reflected
Seeing color The color an object appears depends on the colors of light it reflects. For example, a red book only reflects red light: Homework White light Only red light is reflected

A white hat would reflect all seven colours:
A pair of purple trousers would reflect purple light (and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue): Purple light A white hat would reflect all seven colours: White light

A white hat would reflect all seven colours:
A pair of purple trousers would reflect purple light (and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue): Purple light A white hat would reflect all seven colours: White light

In different colours of light this kit would look different:
Red light Shirt looks red Shorts look black Shirt looks black Blue light Shorts look blue

Refraction Refraction - waves bend when entering a new medium, the change in density causes the wave to change speed Ex: Pencil bends in water, fish look bigger in water

Diffraction Diffraction - waves bend around an obstacle in their path
Ex: sound can bend around corners, light can fan out through small openings

Interference Interference - two or more waves traveling in the same medium can interact. They can reinforce each other called constructive interference (in-phase) or oppose each other called destructive interference (out-of-phase) Ex: Waves can add or subtract to form a new wave (Rogue wave in ocean)

The Doppler Effect Doppler Effect - change in frequency of a wave based on the motion of the source or observer the frequency of a wave appears higher when approaching and lower when moving away from the observer Works for all waves

Doppler Effect - Sound Sounds appear higher in frequency (pitch) when approaching and lower when moving away Ex #1 - An police siren sounds higher frequency (pitch) when approaching and lower when moving away

Doppler Effect - Light Light appears higher in frequency (closer to purple) when approaching and lower (closer to red) when moving away Ex #2 - Light appears higher frequency when approaching (Blue-Shift) and lower frequency when moving away (Red-Shift). Hubble proved the universe is expanding because light is shifted towards the red frequencies.

Sound Sound - mechanical wave caused by objects vibrating, which compresses and expands air molecules Speed of sound increases with temperature

Sound - Compressional Compressional (longitudinal) wave, moves faster through dense objects, can’t go through a vacuum

The Ear

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic waves - energy caused by vibrating charged particles such as electrons All move the speed of light = 3.0 x 108m/s Can travel through nothing at all (vacuum), and go faster through less dense mediums Are ordered based on energy, frequency, and wavelength Order: radio, microwaves, infrared (heat), visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma ROYGBIV are the colors of visible light

Electromagnetic continued…
Energy of electromagnetic waves are electron volts (eV) We only see the colors of visible light, but many of the other waves can be detected with special instruments, some animals don’t see with visible light (insects, reptiles) Overexposure to the waves higher in energy than visible light (UV, x-ray, and gamma) can be harmful causing cancer and genetic mutations Electromagnetic energy is often aborbed into heat

Daily Quiz Questions #1-5 labels the parts of the wave on the board
6. What is it called when a wave bends in a new medium? 7. What is it called when a wave bounces off a surface? 8. What is it called when a wave bends around an obstacle?

Daily Quiz 9. What part of the wave tells you the intensity of the wave? 10. What is the length of the wave called? 11. What is the number of waves per second called? 12. What are the units for wavelength? 13. What are the units for frequency?

Daily Quiz 14. Which type of wave vibrates parallel to the direction it travels? 15. Which type of wave vibrates perpendicular to the way it travels? 16. True or False. Sound is produced by vibrating objects. 17. True or False. Sound can travel through a vacuum. Bonus #1 - What is the change in frequency called when an object approaches and leaves/ Bonus #2 - What does Mach 2 mean (Think sound)?

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