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Lead Awareness University of Maryland Department of Environmental Safety Martin Wizorek, Manager – Occupational Safety and Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Lead Awareness University of Maryland Department of Environmental Safety Martin Wizorek, Manager – Occupational Safety and Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lead Awareness University of Maryland Department of Environmental Safety Martin Wizorek, Manager – Occupational Safety and Health

2 INTRODUCTION

3 3 What is Lead? Heavy metal at room temperature Heavy metal at room temperature Bluish-gray Bluish-gray Low melting point Low melting point Pliable Pliable Corrosion resistant Corrosion resistant Can form lead compounds Can form lead compounds

4 4 In what products was lead commonly used? Gasoline (phase-out began 1980) Gasoline (phase-out began 1980) Smelting Smelting Lead batteries (25-78% of all lead used in U.S.) Lead batteries (25-78% of all lead used in U.S.) Paints and coatings Paints and coatings Solder Solder Auto manufacturing Auto manufacturing Printing Printing

5 5 History Late 1950’s – Paint manufacturers started to voluntarily reduced lead content of most paint for residential use. Late 1950’s – Paint manufacturers started to voluntarily reduced lead content of most paint for residential use. 1978 – CPSC limits paint for residential use to 600 ppm (essentially, lead-free paint). 1978 – CPSC limits paint for residential use to 600 ppm (essentially, lead-free paint). However, lead paint for non-residential use is still sold. However, lead paint for non-residential use is still sold.

6 6 So where is lead paint found? Homes built before 1950 Homes built before 1950 –Everywhere – inside and outside (all coatings) Homes built between 1950-1960 Homes built between 1950-1960 –Probably outside, may be inside –Trims, doors, windows, kitchens, bathrooms, etc. Homes built between 1960-1978 Homes built between 1960-1978 –May be outside, less likely inside ***Before 1978 we assume lead!!!

7 7 What is “lead paint” EPA/HUD/DHS Definition EPA/HUD/DHS Definition 1.0 mg/cm 2 5000 ppm 0.5% Maryland Definition Maryland Definition 0.7 mg/cm 2 OSHA and MOSH Definition OSHA and MOSH Definition Any detectable amount

8 8 Where could I find lead on campus?

9 9 Buildings on Campus & Year Built BuildingDate BuiltLast Renovated Rossborough Inn1798 Morrill Hall18981994 Taliaferro Hall19092003 Calvert Hall19131984 Skinner Building19171992 Baltimore Hall19201986 West Education Annex1922 Turner Hall19231964 LeFrak Hall1928 Energy Plant19311957

10 10 Buildings on Campus & Year Built BuildingDate BuiltLast Renovated Ritchie Coliseum19321996 Shoemaker Building1932 Francis Scott Key Hall1932 Preinkert Hall19321952 St. Mary's Hall19321987 Holzapfel Hall1932 Anne Arundel Hall19371991 H.J. Patterson Hall19371967 Agriculture Shed1938 Horse Barn1938

11 11 Buildings on Campus & Year Built BuildingDate BuiltLast Renovated Sheep Barn1938 Cattle Barn1938 Microbiology Building19391988 Service Building1940 Washington Hall19401986 Howard Hall19401986 Marie Mount Hall19401980 Symons Hall19402000 Main Administration Building19401964 Altogether, there are 169 numbered buildings on campus that were constructed prior to 1979.

12 EXAMPLES OF THE PRESENCE OF LEAD-BASED PAINT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND 12

13 Francis Scott Key Hall Exterior white door and door trim 13

14 Francis Scott Key Hall Cream colored door trim (white door and wall are non-LBP) 14

15 Cole Field House Interior window sill (men's room) 15

16 Cole Field House Exterior door trim (note deterioration) 16 Notice the deterioration

17 Cole Field House Painted “Maryland” sign 17

18 Cambridge Hall Interior drain pipe 18

19 Cambridge Hall Interior window sill (radiator cover is non-LBP) 19

20 Cambridge Hall Exterior white window trim 20

21 Jull Hall Main entrance white door, door trim, wall 21

22 Jull Hall Rear white door and white window trim 22

23 HEALTH HAZARDS

24 24 Ways in which lead enters the body Inhalation - Breathing lead fumes or dust. This is the most common route of entry in the workplace. Inhalation - Breathing lead fumes or dust. This is the most common route of entry in the workplace. Ingestion - Swallowing lead dust via food, cigarettes etc. Ingestion - Swallowing lead dust via food, cigarettes etc.

25 25 Health Effects Lead which is inhaled or ingested gets into the bloodstream. Lead which is inhaled or ingested gets into the bloodstream. Can be circulated throughout your body. Can be circulated throughout your body.

26 26 Health Effects Some is excreted while some remains in organs and body tissues. Some is excreted while some remains in organs and body tissues. If exposure continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you are absorbing more lead than your body is excreting. If exposure continues, the amount stored in your body will increase if you are absorbing more lead than your body is excreting.

27 27 Chronic Health Effects During prolonged chronic exposure, many body systems can be affected by lead, including: During prolonged chronic exposure, many body systems can be affected by lead, including: Brain Brain Kidneys Kidneys Muscles Muscles Bones Bones Blood forming organs Blood forming organs Reproductive systems Reproductive systems

28 28 Chronic Health Effects (Resulting from High Lead Exposure and Absorption Into Body) Severe damage to blood forming, nervous, urinary and reproductive systems Severe damage to blood forming, nervous, urinary and reproductive systems Loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic (with severe abdominal pain, lead line Loss of appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic (with severe abdominal pain, lead line Person is easily irritated and may become aggressive Person is easily irritated and may become aggressive

29 29 Chronic Health Effects Reproductive systems of both men and women may be affected Reproductive systems of both men and women may be affected –Decreased sex drive, impotence and sterility in men –Miscarriage and stillbirth in women whose husbands were exposed to lead or where they were exposed

30 30 Chronic Health Effects Children born of parents who were exposed to excessive lead are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood Children born of parents who were exposed to excessive lead are more likely to have birth defects, mental retardation, behavioral disorders or die during the first year of childhood

31 31 Other Chronic Health Effects Hypertension Hypertension Lead exposure has been consistently associated with increases in blood pressure in studies conducted in both workers and the general population. Lead exposure has been consistently associated with increases in blood pressure in studies conducted in both workers and the general population. Blood lead levels of less than 20 μg/dL sometimes are associated with increases in blood pressure. Blood lead levels of less than 20 μg/dL sometimes are associated with increases in blood pressure.

32 32 Other Chronic Health Effects Decreased kidney function Decreased kidney function Low to moderate levels of lead exposure also have been associated with adverse changes in kidney function. Low to moderate levels of lead exposure also have been associated with adverse changes in kidney function. This association may be even worse in people who have other risk factors for kidney disease, such as hypertension or diabetes. This association may be even worse in people who have other risk factors for kidney disease, such as hypertension or diabetes.

33 33 Acute Health Effects Acute health effects only appear when worker is exposed to extremely high amounts of lead Acute health effects only appear when worker is exposed to extremely high amounts of lead Acute encephalopathy (disorder or disease of the brain) may develop quickly followed by seizures, coma and death from cardio-respiratory arrest Acute encephalopathy (disorder or disease of the brain) may develop quickly followed by seizures, coma and death from cardio-respiratory arrest Again, highly unusual, but not impossible Again, highly unusual, but not impossible

34 34 "The Dangles" was an occupational hazard for printers THIS IS FROM VERY HIGH LEAD EXPOSURE!!!

35 CONFIRM PRESENCE/ NON-PRESENCE OF LEAD CONTAINING MATERIALS

36 36 Lead Identification Department personnel should contact the Department of Environmental Safety (DES) prior to the disturbance of painted surfaces unless it is known with certainty, either through documentation or testing, that the surface does not contain lead Department personnel should contact the Department of Environmental Safety (DES) prior to the disturbance of painted surfaces unless it is known with certainty, either through documentation or testing, that the surface does not contain lead

37 37 Lead Identification DES will use direct reading instrument (XRF) to determine if lead is present in any of the surfaces to be modified or demolished. DES will use direct reading instrument (XRF) to determine if lead is present in any of the surfaces to be modified or demolished.

38 38 How is lead exposure measured? PEL: You are allowed to be exposed up to the Permissible Exposure Limit established by OSHA of 50 ug/m 3 (micrograms per cubic meter of air) based on an 8-hour time weighted average. PEL: You are allowed to be exposed up to the Permissible Exposure Limit established by OSHA of 50 ug/m 3 (micrograms per cubic meter of air) based on an 8-hour time weighted average. Action Level: OSHA established an Action Level of 30 μg/m 3 based on an 8 hour time weighted average. Action Level: OSHA established an Action Level of 30 μg/m 3 based on an 8 hour time weighted average.

39 39 The All-Important Action Level If lead is present in any quantity in your workplace, OSHA has directed that an “initial determination” must be made by taking air samples while workers are performing their job that may result in airborne lead exposure If lead is present in any quantity in your workplace, OSHA has directed that an “initial determination” must be made by taking air samples while workers are performing their job that may result in airborne lead exposure The AL for lead is 30 µg/m 3. The AL for lead is 30 µg/m 3. If the results are below the AL, no further monitoring is necessary for that job, and the workers are not considered to be significantly lead exposed. If the results are below the AL, no further monitoring is necessary for that job, and the workers are not considered to be significantly lead exposed.

40 40 Air Sample Results (As performed by DES for Various Occupations) ActivityAverage(ug/m3Range(ug/m3)Comments Housekeeping0.11ND-.34Full shift samples Carpentry3.9ND-36Doors, windows Painting0.2ND-0.5Windows, exterior columns, radiators Plastering0.18ND-0.6Removal & Replacement of of drywall & plaster Maintenance0.8ND-3.7Air filter replacement

41 41 Conclusions Based on the results, typical maintenance tasks would not result in exposures above the AL. Based on the results, typical maintenance tasks would not result in exposures above the AL. Some activities, such as power sanding on painted surfaces, resulted in short-term exposures. However, these short-term exposures were still below the PEL. Some activities, such as power sanding on painted surfaces, resulted in short-term exposures. However, these short-term exposures were still below the PEL.

42 42 Awareness of Lead Standard OSHA Regulations state: OSHA Regulations state: Where there is a potential exposure to airborne lead at any level, the employee must be informed of the contents of OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1025, Appendix A & B. Because you may be exposed to lead, even in small quantities, the next three slides describe the contents of Appendix A & B Because you may be exposed to lead, even in small quantities, the next three slides describe the contents of Appendix A & B

43 43 Appendix A Substance Identification Substance Identification Health Hazard Data Health Hazard Data

44 44 Appendix B Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Exposure Monitoring Exposure Monitoring Methods of Compliance Methods of Compliance Respiratory Protection Respiratory Protection Personal protective Equipment Personal protective Equipment Housekeeping Housekeeping Hygiene Facilities Hygiene Facilities

45 45 Appendix B Medical Surveillance Medical Surveillance Medical Removal Medical Removal Training and Information Training and Information Signs Signs Record keeping Record keeping

46 HEALTH EXAM REQUIREMENTS (APPLICABLE TO LEAD WORKERS ONLY) 46

47 Lead Medical Surveillance OSHA standards require biological monitoring and medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of lead above the action level of 30 µg/m 3 for more than 30 days per year OSHA standards require biological monitoring and medical surveillance for all employees exposed to levels of lead above the action level of 30 µg/m 3 for more than 30 days per year The blood lead level of all employees who are exposed to lead above the action level is to be determined at least every six months. The blood lead level of all employees who are exposed to lead above the action level is to be determined at least every six months. The frequency is increased to every two months for employees whose last blood lead level was above 40 µg/100 g The frequency is increased to every two months for employees whose last blood lead level was above 40 µg/100 g 47

48 48 Health Protection/Medical Surveillance Obtain a Blood Lead Level (BLL) Obtain a Blood Lead Level (BLL) Maintain blood lead levels to below 40 micrograms per 100 grams of whole blood (40 µg/100g). Maintain blood lead levels to below 40 micrograms per 100 grams of whole blood (40 µg/100g). Recommend a level below 30 µg/100g for workers who intend to have children Recommend a level below 30 µg/100g for workers who intend to have children Blood lead measurements show the amount of lead circulating, but not the amount stored in tissue. Blood lead measurements show the amount of lead circulating, but not the amount stored in tissue.

49 Lead Medical Examination A medical examination is given to lead workers: A medical examination is given to lead workers: –Annually –Immediately, if an employee has developed signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead poisoning –Whenever an employee desires medical advice regarding lead exposure and the ability to procreate a healthy child –Immediately if the employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during a respirator fitting test or during respirator use 49

50 50 Lead Poisoning Prevention (For the Non-Lead Worker) Minimizing exposure to lead is the key to minimizing health effects Minimizing exposure to lead is the key to minimizing health effects

51 51 Housekeeping/Work Practices Use exhaust ventilation to capture dust/fumes whenever possible; Use exhaust ventilation to capture dust/fumes whenever possible; HEPA vacuum dust-covered work surfaces; dry sweeping or compressed air is prohibited; wet methods may be used; HEPA vacuum dust-covered work surfaces; dry sweeping or compressed air is prohibited; wet methods may be used; Do not eat, drink, smoke or apply cosmetics in areas where lead/lead dust is present; Do not eat, drink, smoke or apply cosmetics in areas where lead/lead dust is present; Wash hands and face after lead work; Wash hands and face after lead work; Wear protective clothing to avoid getting dust on your clothes and then bringing it home to spouse and children. Wear protective clothing to avoid getting dust on your clothes and then bringing it home to spouse and children. When working with products that contain lead, such as lead-based paints and lead blocks:

52 52 Lead Dust Control Recommend that HEPA vacuum be used to pick up lead paint of other lead dust. Recommend that HEPA vacuum be used to pick up lead paint of other lead dust.

53 53 You must use caution if you perform any of the following activities where lead containing coatings or paint are present You must use caution if you perform any of the following activities where lead containing coatings or paint are present It would be a good idea to coordinate these activities with DES to assure lead exposure is controlled It would be a good idea to coordinate these activities with DES to assure lead exposure is controlled –manual demolition of structures –manual scraping –manual sanding –heat gun applications –power tool cleaning –rivet busting –welding –cutting –torch burning –abrasive blasting –cleanup activities where dry expendable abrasives are used –abrasive blasting enclosure movement and removal Lead Dust Control

54 54 Prohibited Lead Removal Methods The contractor performing abatement of lead-based paint may not use the following methods to remove the paint: The contractor performing abatement of lead-based paint may not use the following methods to remove the paint: –Open flame burning –Dry sanding (unless used with a HEPA vacuum) –Open abrasive blasting –Uncontained hydro-blasting –Methylene chloride for interior use (exception, methylene chloride may be used in interior work areas for localized touch-up) –Dry scraping –Heat gun operating at or above 1,100°F

55 55 Approved Lead Control Methods Wet scraping Wet scraping Chemical stripping Chemical stripping Heat Gun Heat Gun

56 56 Approved Lead Control Methods Replacement Replacement –Any component part of a building may be abated by replacement with a part free of lead-containing substances For instance, the lead-painted component (such as a doorframe or a window frame) is removed entirely and in one piece.

57 57 Could I find lead outside of campus? If your home was built before 1978, it may contain lead based paint. If your home was built before 1978, it may contain lead based paint. Hobbies: stained glass, home remodeling or painting, recreational target shooting, melting lead for fishing weights, lead glaze in ceramics. Hobbies: stained glass, home remodeling or painting, recreational target shooting, melting lead for fishing weights, lead glaze in ceramics. Non-occupational exposures: backyard scrap metal recycling, leaded crystal tableware, cookware, folk remedies, pica, mine tailings, beauty products (eye make up, certain hair dyes). Non-occupational exposures: backyard scrap metal recycling, leaded crystal tableware, cookware, folk remedies, pica, mine tailings, beauty products (eye make up, certain hair dyes).

58 58 Questions?


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