8.2 ns 1 ns 2 ns 2 np 1 ns 2 np 2 ns 2 np 3 ns 2 np 4 ns 2 np 5 ns 2 np 6 d1d1 d5d5 d 10 4f 5f Ground State Electron Configurations of the Elements
Electron Configurations of Cations and Anions Na [Ne]3s 1 Na + [Ne] Ca [Ar]4s 2 Ca 2+ [Ar] Al [Ne]3s 2 3p 1 Al 3+ [Ne] Atoms lose electrons so that cation has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. H 1s 1 H - 1s 2 or [He] F 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 F - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] O 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 O 2- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] N 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 N 3- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] Atoms gain electrons so that anion has a noble-gas outer electron configuration. Of Representative Elements 8.2
Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements 8.2
Na + : [Ne]Al 3+ : [Ne]F - : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] O 2- : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne]N 3- : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 or [Ne] Na +, Al 3+, F -, O 2-, and N 3- are all isoelectronic with Ne What neutral atom is isoelectronic with H - ? H - : 1s 2 same electron configuration as He 8.2
Electron Configurations of Cations of Transition Metals 8.2 When a cation is formed from an atom of a transition metal, electrons are always removed first from the ns orbital and then from the (n – 1)d orbitals. Fe: [Ar]4s 2 3d 6 Fe 2+ : [Ar]4s 0 3d 6 or [Ar]3d 6 Fe 3+ : [Ar]4s 0 3d 5 or [Ar]3d 5 Mn: [Ar]4s 2 3d 5 Mn 2+ : [Ar]4s 0 3d 5 or [Ar]3d 5
Effective nuclear charge (Z eff ) is the positive charge felt by an electron. Na Mg Al Si Z eff Core Z Radius (pm) Z eff = Z - 0 < < Z ( = shielding constant) Z eff Z – number of inner or core electrons 8.3
Effective Nuclear Charge (Z eff ) 8.3 increasing Z eff
Atomic Radii 8.3
Comparison of Atomic Radii with Ionic Radii
Cation is always smaller than atom from which it is formed. Anion is always larger than atom from which it is formed. 8.3
The Radii (in pm) of Ions of Familiar Elements
Ionization energy is the minimum energy (kJ/mol) required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state. I 1 + X (g) X + (g) + e - I 2 + X + (g) X 2 + (g) + e - I 3 + X 2+ (g) X 3 + (g) + e - I 1 first ionization energy I 2 second ionization energy I 3 third ionization energy 8.4 I 1 < I 2 < I 3
Filled n=1 shell Filled n=2 shell Filled n=3 shell Filled n=4 shell Filled n=5 shell 8.4 Variation of the First Ionization Energy with Atomic Number
General Trend in First Ionization Energies 8.4 Increasing First Ionization Energy
Ionization Energy Trends DOWN a Group Ionization Energy decreases as you move down a group because the electrons that are being lost are in successively higher energy levels – further from the nucleus – requiring less energy to remove them. (Note – although the nuclear charge is greater (more protons), there is more shielding because of the additional electrons… so the overall effective nuclear charge doesnt really change)
Ionization Energy Trends DOWN a Group Which has a higher ionization energy, Na or Rb? Explain why. Which has a higher ionization energy, Br or Cl? Explain why.
Ionization Energy Trends ACROSS a Period Ionization Energy increases as you move across a period because there is an increase in the charge on the nucleus, which increases the effective nuclear charge – requiring more energy to remove electrons from the same energy level. Note: The increase is not totally smooth. Between group 2 and 13 there is a dip (decrease) in ionization energy because the electron removed from the element in group 13 is in a p-subshell which is slightly higher in energy than the s-subshells of group 2 and 1. This electron is slightly higher in energy already, so it takes less energy to remove it than it does to remove an electron from the s-subshell. A similar glitch occurs between groups 15 and 16. In group 15 the element has only 1 electron in each p-subshell. In group 16, one of the p-subshells has a pair of electrons. The resulting greater electron- electron repulsion counteracts the effect of the increased nuclear charge... which lowers the activation energy.
Ionization Energy Trends ACROSS a Period Which has a lower ionization energy, Na or Cl? Explain why. Which has a higher ionization energy, B or Be? Explain why. Which has a higher ionization energy, O or N? Explain why.
Electronegativity Trends – Why? Down a Group – EN decreases Valence electrons further from nucleus Effective nuclear charge isnt changing Atoms ability to attract an electron further away from the nucleus is diminishing Across a Period – EN increases Charge on nucleus increases (more protons) Electrons in valence shell are more attracted to nucleus – closer Atoms ability to attract an electron is increased due to closer distance to nucleus and increase effective nuclear charge.
Electronegativity Trends – Why? Which has a higher electronegativity, Na or Rb? Explain why. Which has a higher electronegativity, Br or Cl? Explain why.
Melting Point Trends – Why? Down a Metal Group – MPt decreases slightly Valence electrons further from nucleus Effective nuclear charge isnt changing Atoms ability to attract an electron further away from the nucleus is diminishing Across a Period – MPt increases… then decreases (MPt reflects strength of forces between particles in solid vs liquid states. Gps 1&2 - Strength of metallic bond increases with inc nuclear charge, inc # mobile valence electrons, atomic radius decreases Gps 14 – giant covalent structures… v. strong covalent bonding in all directions Gps – molecular structures… nonpolar… only weak van der Waals forces… mpt depends on mass and size of molecules Gp 18 – single atoms, v wk vdWaals… very low mpt
Melting Point Trends – Why? Which has a higher melting point, Na or Cl 2 ? Explain why. Which has a higher melting point, Na or Rb? Explain why. Which has a higher melting point, C or O 2 ? Explain why.