Presentation on theme: "Strategic Issue Assignment. Managers’ Mental Models Beliefs and Understandings about: Macro Env. Industry Env. Appropriate Size and Diversity How to Organize."— Presentation transcript:
Strategic Issue Assignment
Managers’ Mental Models Beliefs and Understandings about: Macro Env. Industry Env. Appropriate Size and Diversity How to Organize Decisions about Business Definition Mission and Objectives Decisions about Corporate Strategy and Diversification Decisions about Business Strategy Decisions about Organizational Structure and Implementation Activities, Resources and Capabilities Market Position Performance and Competitive Advantage Feedback (Reinforces or suggests changes in managers’ mental models)
Decisions about Where and How to Compete Corporate Level Strategy (Defines Scope: What industries should the firm compete in?) Business Level Strategy (Defines Positioning: How will the firm compete?) Functional Level Strategy (Maximizes resource productivity)
Decisions about Where and How to Compete Corporate Level Strategy (Defines Scope: What industries should the firm compete in?) (None) Business Level Strategy (Defines Positioning: How will the firm compete?) Best Cost (Value for Low Price) What are some of the key differentiators? Functional Level Strategy (Maximizes resource productivity) How do they do this?
Define the Issue Background and Boundaries of the Issue How is this issue related to your firm’s value proposition? What do customers want? What do you offer relative to what they want? Evidence What are the relevant external facts? (Consumers, Customers, Competitors, and the External Environment) What do you already know? What do you need to know? Alternatives and Implications Potential Impact (Strategic and Financial)
Rivalry Among Firms Competitor Analysis Managing Task Env. Relationships Demographic Economic Sociocultural Technological Political/Legal Supplies Substitute Products Buyers Potential Entrants Other Stakeholders Macro Environment Industry Environment Task Environment
What do you need to know? (External Analysis) Macro Environment Factors Economic Technological Political/Legal Social/Cultural
Economic Factors The state of the macroeconomic environment determines the general health and well-being of the economy. This in turn affects a company’s ability to earn an adequate rate of return. Examples: GDP trends, interest rates, money supply, inflation, unemployment levels, wage/price controls, energy availability, and costs, disposable and discretionary income. Globally: Monetary and Fiscal policies, currency convertibility, exchange rates, economic development, political economy
Social/Cultural Factors This category of factors describe the beliefs, values, attitudes, opinions, and lifestyles of persons in the firm’s external environment as developed from cultural, demographic, religious, educational and ethnic conditioning. Examples: Lifestyle changes, career expectations, age distribution, regional shifts in population, birth rates, life expectancies, growth rate in population, consumer activism, rate of family formation. Global: Human rights, literacy levels, language, social institutions, skill level of the workforce
Political/Legal Factors These factors define the legal and regulatory parameters within which a firm must operate. Examples: Antitrust regulations, environmental protection, tax laws, employment laws, stability of government, foreign trade protection Global: Form of government, political ideology, protectionist sentiment, terrorist activity, legal system, government’s attitude toward foreign firms.
Technological Factors This factor deals with the general technological infrastructure, the rate of change in technology, and those things impacting the development and introduction of new technologies. Examples: Total government spending for R&D, Total industry spending for R&D, focus of technological efforts, patent protection, new developments in technology transfer, productivity improvements through automation. Global: Regulations on technology transfer, information flow infrastructure, patent and trademark protection.
What do you need to know? Industry Boundaries and Substitutability 1. Helps firms to determine the relative attractiveness of different segments. 2. Helps firms to appropriately classify competitors into groups and determine direct and indirect competitors. 3. Helps firms to predict behavior of individual firms in light of ability to deliver value. Invisible Competitors Large Players from another industry moving secretly into the market Impending Competitors Small/Med players in growth mode Large players in related markets Immediate Competitors Large Players, well established
Industry Analysis What do you need to know? The Value of the Product/Service to Customers The Bargaining Power of Firms Relative to their Suppliers and Buyers The Intensity of Competition What’s driving change in the industry? (e.g., Shifts in competition, macro factors, entry/exit of major players)
Porter’s Five Forces Model Threat of New Entrants Threat of Substitutes Bargaining Power of the Suppliers Bargaining Power of the Buyers Inter-Firm Rivalry
Porter’s Five Forces Model (Competitive Forces) Bargaining Power of the Buyers Who are the Buyers? Factors impacting the bargaining power of the buyers: Standardized industry product Purchases are made in large volume Number of buyers is small Significant threat of backward integration Switching costs are low Buyers are well-informed about the seller’s costs
Porter’s Five Forces Model (Competitive Forces) Bargaining Power of the Suppliers Factors impacting the bargaining power of the suppliers: Product represents a significant % of purchaser’s final product Few suppliers Unique product or input Significant threat of forward integration Supplied product is less expensive for the purchaser to buy than make Strong? Medium? Weak?
Porter’s Five Forces Model (Competitive Forces) Threat of New Entrants Why are New Entrants a threat? Factors impacting the threat of New Entrants: Economies of scale Capital Requirements Access to Distribution Channels Other entry barriers (regulation) Competitive retaliation High industry profitability and growth Strong? Medium? Weak?
Porter’s Five Forces Model (Competitive Forces) Threat of Substitutes What is a substitute? Why are substitute products a threat? Factors impacting the threat of substitute products: Price of available substitutes Switching costs Industry growth and demand Comparability of substitute in terms of quality, performance, other features Strong? Medium? Weak?
Porter’s Five Forces Model (Competitive Forces) Inter-Firm Rivalry Factors impacting Inter-Firm Rivalry: Concentration Product Differentiation Excess Capacity Exit Barriers Cost Conditions Industry Life Cycle # of equally balanced competitors Strong? Medium? Weak?
Porter’s Five Forces Model (Competitive Forces) Threat of New Entrants Threat of Substitutes Bargaining Power of the Suppliers Bargaining Power of the Buyers Inter-Firm Rivalry Relative Power of other Stakeholders
Relative Power of Other Stakeholders Governments (particularly overseas) Special Interest Groups/Lobbyists Local Communities International Stakeholders (e.g., WTO, IMF, EU) Trade Associations Unions
What do you need to know? Key Success Factors How does the firm survive competition? What drives competition? What are the main dimensions of competition? How intense is competition? How can the firm obtain superior performance? What do customers want? Analysis of Demand Who are the customers? What do they want? Prerequisites for Success KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
Aerospace and Defense Industry Example
Key Segments Aerospace and Defense Industry: Broadly Defined Commercial Aircraft Military Weapons Space (Rockets and Satellites)
Maintenance Repair and Overhaul ($36.4 Billion) Large Commercial Jets ($49 Billion) Aerospace IndustryCommercial Aircraft Further Segmentation Business and Regional Aircraft ($21.1 Billion) Jet Engines ($33.1 Billion) Civil Avionics ($11.2 Billion) (Source: Standard and Poors Nov. 2006)
Economic Traits (2006) Commercial Aircraft Market Size (Defense and Aerospace): $468 billion Market Size (Commercial aircraft): $151 billion (slow growth) Types of Distribution Channels: Few (mostly direct) Economies of Scale: Present Capital Requirements: Extremely High Product Differentiation: High (needs explanation) Presence of Vertical Integration: Yes (Boeing and Airbus also produce jet engines)
Industry Structural Characteristics (Commercial Aircraft) Oligopoly Competition (Boeing/45% and Airbus/55%) Concentration (Yes) Economies of Scale (Present) Product Differentiation* (High) Barriers to Entry/Exit (Extremely High)
Driving Forces: Commercial Aircraft Driving Forces Long-Term Airline Industry Profitability Capacity Issues in Airline Industry Fuel Prices Air Traffic Forecasts Price Pressure from Customers (Delta, Northwest, etc) Globalization Presence of Low Cost Air Carriers
Key Success Factors: Commercial Aircraft Key Success Factors Excellence in R&D Effective Production Utilization Free Cash Flow On-Time Delivery
Company Mission and Objectives External Environment Macro Industry Operating Internal Environment Resources Current Strategy Costs Strategic Options and Choice Desired?Possible?