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External Environment in the Asia Pacific Region Asia-Pacific Marketing Federation Certified Professional Marketer Copyright Marketing Institute of Singapore.

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Presentation on theme: "External Environment in the Asia Pacific Region Asia-Pacific Marketing Federation Certified Professional Marketer Copyright Marketing Institute of Singapore."— Presentation transcript:

1 External Environment in the Asia Pacific Region Asia-Pacific Marketing Federation Certified Professional Marketer Copyright Marketing Institute of Singapore

2 Outline  Introduction  The Company’s Microenvironment  The Company’s Macroenvironment  The Competitors  Porter's Five Forces Model

3 Introduction Definition: The Company’s environment consists of "the actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management's ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers" Kotler et al, 1994

4 Introduction (cont’d)  Companies must evaluate both micro and macro- environment to identify  any trends that may affect their marketing strategies, and  opportunities that can be developed into competitive advantages  Porter's Five Forces model analyses market structures to determine market attractiveness taking into consideration the micro and macro environments in its construction

5 Company’s Microenvironment Relates to the internal forces or forces close to the company over which some control is possible  Top management  Other functions e.g. finance and accounting, R& D, manufacturing and purchasing  Suppliers  Marketing intermediaries (channel partners)  Customers  Competitors  Public

6 Company’s Macro-environment  Relates to the larger forces having an impact on society as a whole  A company has little influence on these forces and therefore can only adapt its marketing mix to account for the resulting opportunities and threats

7 Major forces of the macro- environment  Demographic  Economic  Natural  Technological  Cultural  Political/legal

8 Demographic Environment Demographic trends:  Changing age structure  Changing family structure  Geographic shifts in population  Higher education level & more white collar job holders  Increasing globalization of cities such as Singapore

9 Economic Environment Economic trends affecting consumers buying power and spending pattern  Change in per capital real income  Disposable  Discretionary  Income distribution  Savings & debt  Consumer expenditures  Change in interest rates and cost of living

10 Natural environment Natural trends include those natural resources used in production or those affected by marketing activities  Raw material shortages  Increase in energy cost  Increase pollution levels  Increase in Governmental intervention in natural resource management

11 Technological Environment Consists of forces that affect new technology, new product development and market opportunities  Faster pace of technological change  Shorter PLC  Higher R&D budgets  Concentration on minor improvements  Increased regulations

12 Cultural Environment Affect society's basic values, perceptions, preferences and behaviors  Core cultural values and beliefs  Secondary cultural values  Sub cultures

13 Legal and Political Environment Trends in the legal and political environment include  Increased legislation regulating business  Singapore’s Fair Trading Act (impending)  Changing government agency enforcement  Growth of public interest groups  Regional groupings  ASEAN FTZ

14 Competitive Analysis  Who are your competitors?  Do you know about your close competitors’ strengths and weaknesses?  How detail should we analyze the competition?  Use a systematic approach  Analysis competition at various levels (next slide)

15 Levels of Competition Generic Competition Form Competition Industry Competition Brand Competition

16 Levels of Competition (cont’d)  Generic competition—e.g. Honda against Silver Sea Cruise for the same consumer dollars  Form competition—e.g. Toyota against manufacturers of other vehicles that provide the same service such as Yamaha (motorcycle)  Industry competition—e.g. Honda against Mercedes, Lexus etc who make the same products or class of products (different prices)  Brand competition—e.g. Honda against Toyota, Nissan etc. who offer similar products and service to the same customers at similar prices

17 Industry Competition  Different industries can sustain different levels of profitability; partly due to the difference in industry structure  Porter’s Model of Industry Competition, commonly know as Porter’s Five Forces provides a framework for analyzing the influence of the forces on the industry to determine the industry’s profitability and competitiveness

18 Porter’s Model of Industry Competition Industry degree of rivalry BuyersSuppliers Barriers to Entry Substitutes (Source: Aakers pp.8487)

19 Porter’s 5 Forces— Barriers to Entry  Absolute cost advantages  Proprietary learning curve  Access to inputs  Government policy  Economies of scale  Capital requirements  Brand identity  Switching costs  Access to distribution  Expected retaliation  Proprietary products (Source: Michael Porter, “On Competition”)

20 Threats of Substitutes  Switching costs  Buyer propensity to substitute  Relative price performance of substitutes (Source: Michael Porter, “On Competition”)

21 Buyer Power  Bargaining leverage  Buyer volume  Buyer information  Brand identity  Price sensitivity  Threat of backward integration  Product differentiation  Buyer concentration vs. industry  Substitutes available  Buyers' incentives (Source: Michael Porter, “On Competition”)

22 Supplier Power  Supplier concentration  Importance of volume to supplier  Differentiation of inputs  Impact of inputs on cost or differentiation  Switching costs of firms in the industry  Presence of substitute inputs  Threat of forward integration  Cost relative to total purchases in industry (Source: Michael Porter, “On Competition”)

23 Degree of Rivalry  Exit barriers  Industry growth  Industry concentration ratio  Fixed costs/Value added  Product differentiation  Buyers' incentives (Source: Michael Porter, “On Competition”)


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