2Chapter Objectives:AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:• Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture (including cultural variations) inthe determination of behavior.• Explain the process of conception and gestation, including factors that influence successful fetal development (e.g., nutrition, illness, substance abuse).• Discuss maturation of motor skills.• Describe the influence of temperament and other social factors on attachmentand appropriate socialization.• Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities (e.g., Piaget’s stages, informationprocessing).• Compare and contrast models of moral development (e.g., Kohlberg, Gilligan).• Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence, including related familyconflicts.• Characterize the development of decisions related to intimacy as people mature.• Predict the physical and cognitive changes that emerge as people age, including steps that can be taken to maximize function.• Describe how sex and gender influence socialization and other aspects ofdevelopment.• Identify key contributors in developmental psychology (e.g., Mary Ainsworth,Albert Bandura, Diana Baumrind, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Carol Gilligan,Harry Harlow, Lawrence Kohlberg, Konrad Lorenz, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky).
3What Are We Doing Today? By the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture (including cultural variations) in the determination of behavior.
4Introduction: Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology – the study of physical, intellectual, social, and moral changes across the life span from conception death.
5Developmental Theories 1. Nature versus NurtureHow much is human development influenced by our heredity (nature) and how much by our experience (nurture)?2. Continuity versus Discontinuity (Stages)Is development gradual and continuous or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages?3. Stability versus ChangeDo our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?
6Nature vs. Nurture refresher: Nature = heredityNurture = experiencesSome argue that we are “pre-wired”Some argue that life experiences and parenting determine what we’re like.How do we decide?
7What we know about Nature vs. Nurture What we do know – Maturation – we all go through orderly changes in behavior, thought, or physical growth, regardless of experience.How do we study this issue – identical twins
8Continuity vs. (Discontinuity) Stages: Change Happens.Is developmental change gradual or continuous?Or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages.Do people go through stages at different times? What if they “miss” a stage?
9Cont. Behaviorists often focus on quantitative changes (ht. and wt.) Other theorists focus on qualitative changes (stages) – Piaget, Kohlberg, etc.The resolution of conflicts is key – everyone passes in the same order but at different times in life.
10Stability versus Change How much do we change?For many years psychologists believed that once a person’s personality forms, it hardens like clay.They are now doing longitudinal studies to see how much the past influences a person’s future.
11Stability versus Change – Cont. Are the effects of early experiences enduring or temporary? (abuse, starvation, isolation, etc.)Will the cranky infant grow up to be the irritable adult?Do we grow into older versions of our early selves, or do we become new persons?Social attitudes are more likely to change than temperament.
12Lesson Two Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Describe several perspectives that aim to show the origin of gender roles.2. Identify several key terms that relate to gender roles.
13To get us started…. Gender roles play a big part in our lives: Gender – male or femaleGender Role Stereotypes – what is socially acceptable for boys and girls (colors, hobbies, etc.)Gender identity – our personal sense of being male or female.Androgyny – recognizing desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual.
14The Five Perspectives on Gender Roles: BiologicalEvolutionaryPsychoanalyticBehavioralCognitive
15The Biological Perspective: Cites hormonal differences as the reason why men may be more aggressive, muscular, and bigger in size.Therefore, men take on “hardier” roles in life.
16The Evolutionary Perspective: This perspective purports that males are more likely than females to be risk takers, show dominance, and achieve alpha status.Our behavioral tendencies prepare us to survive and ultimately, reproduce.
17The Psychoanalytic Perspective: Freud proposed that young girls learn to act feminine from their mothers and young boys learn to act masculine from their fathers.He also argued that children will identify better with their same sex parent, increasing the strength of his theory.
18The Behavioral Perspective: Social learning theory – children respond to rewards and punishments for their behavior.They observe, and imitate socially desirable traits in others.This helps them to acquire their gender identity.
19The Cognitive Perspective: Children have a “social filter” that allows them to sort out what is appropriate for their gender and what isn’t (gender schema). – Sandra BemThis theory uses the behavioral perspective as a stepping stone to explain the theory.
20Turn and Talk: 5 minutes1. Which of the following perspectives do you agree most with? Why?2. Do you think that our society will ever become completely androgynous? Why or why not?3. Now that you know about gender roles, do you think that you will knowingly channel your children (if you have them) towards “appropriate” gender stereotypes?
21Lesson Three Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Define the top four most widely used methods of studying development.2. Identify when each method would be applicable for research.
22How do Developmental Psychologists gather data? Developmental psychologists used naturalistic observations, experiments, correlational studies, and case studies to asses change over time.They use four basic research designs:1. Longitudinal studies2. Cross-sectional studies3. Cohort-sequential studies4. Retrospective studies
23Longitudinal Studies: Longitudinal study – follows the same group of people over a period of time (months to years)They evaluate changes in the individual(s)These studies can be quite costly, take a long time to produce results, and can lose participants over time.
24Cross-Sectional Studies: Cross Sectional – break up age groups and give the same test to each group (15, 25, 35, 45, 55, etc.)These studies are cheap, quick, and easyCohort – those within the same age group
25Cohort-Sequential Studies: Cohort-sequential – cross sectioned groups are assessed at least two times over a span of months or years.Results from one cohort are compared with others at the same age range.This method of study can help to eliminate the….Cohort effect. - Differences in the experiences of each age group as a result of growing up in different historical times.
26Retrospective Studies: Retrospective Studies – case studies that investigate development in one person at a time.It is typical to use older adults for this method.Questions are asked about the past and any changes that have occurred during the subject’s lifespan.
27A Class Divided:Turn and Talk: 3 min 1. What are you overall reactions to this study?2. From a developmental perspective, do you think that older/younger children/adults would act differently?3. From an ethical standpoint, could this study have been done the same way today?
28Lesson Four Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Describe the process of physical development in humans2. Identify several of the social issues that affect pregnancy.
29How are we feeling today? GreatGoodAverageNot so goodBad:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
30Physical Development: Physical development focuses on two things:1. Maturation – “like a bulldozer”2. Critical Periods
31Prenatal Development: Prenatal Development – Begins with fertilization and ends with birthZygote – 46 chromosomes that divide again and again until it turns into a embryo. (between the 3-8th week)While in embryonic stage, organs, placenta, and umbilical cord develop.
32A critical period refers to: Newborn developmentThe initial 2 minutes after a child’s birthThe preoperational stageA restricted time for learning20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
33Getting Bigger!! Once the 8th week hits, the embryo becomes a fetus. Organs systems begin to interact, bone replaces cartilage, sex organs become defined.Head eyes, limbs, and cartilage skeleton will develop.
34Newborn Behavior: Neonates – newborn babies Most newborn prefer being with mom – odors, touch, voice, etc.The sense of hearing is dominant for the first few months of life (they can see however)Sight becomes the primary sense at about 6 monthsThey get used to repeated stimulation - HabituationReflexes1. Babinski2. Grasping3. Moro/Startle/Heisman4. Rooting
35Birth Defects:Can be from a malfunctioning gene or environmental stimulusChemicals or viruses can cause birth defectsTeratogens – Chemicals (alcohol, drugs, tobacco, mercury) or viruses that can cause birth defects.
36Critical Periods: First 3 months – Eyes, arms, ears, legs, heart First and 2nd months – Reproductive systemAll three – Nervous system and brain
37Which one of the following is not considered a dangerous teratogen? 20TobaccoAlcoholHeroinMercuryThese all are dangerous teratogens123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
38Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Occurs in babies whose mothers drink alcohol during the early months of pregnancy.Leading cause of MR in USALow intelligence / mental retardationSmall head, flat face, misshapen eyes
39Other Teratogens: Cigarettes – Miscarriage, low birth weight Heroin and Cocaine – Baby goes through withdrawal symptomsPrescription drugs – Various birth defects
40Lesson Five Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Describe the changes that occur during adolescence.2. Discuss the changes that occur as we age.3. Identify the various stages of dealing with death.
41Introduction: Children grow up fast! Many brain cells and neural networks are created within the first few months of life.Walking, talking, and learning all happen at a rapid pace
42Adolescence: Puberty = sexual maturation During adolescence, both primary and secondary sex characteristics develop.Primary sex characteristics – Reproductive organs grow and become “useable”Secondary sex characteristics – Body hair, chest development, deepening of voice, menstrual cycle (menarche)Females develop faster than boys
43Getting Older:Bad news – physical output, vision, hearing all decreaseGood news – We can slow down and even reverse aging by:1. Maintaining a good diet2. Staying physically and mentally active
44Other Aging Terms / Concepts: Midlife crisis – some see this as a last chance to achieve their goals.“better to live one day as a lion, than an eternity as a sheep.”Death and Dying – Kubler-Ross developed “stages of grief/coping”1. Denial2. Anger3. Bargaining4. Depression5. Acceptance
45Lesson Six: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Define each of Erik Erikson’s stages of development.2. Describe how each of these stages applies to our lives.
46Who is Erik Erikson?Erikson was a developmental psychologist that created a series of stages he proposed we all go through.He suggested that healthy “success” in each stage would lead to a happy life.He hinted at the fact that struggle in any of these stages can lead to maladaptive behavior that can last a lifetime, therefore affecting your overall personality.
47Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development Crisis: must adaptively or maladaptively cope with task in each developmental stageRespond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for next developmental stageRespond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt to later problems
48Something to Remember: Stages 1-4, children are mostly dependent on their parents or guardians for successful development.Stages 5-8, young adults/Adults are responsible for successful development.
50Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Birth to age 1Totally dependent on othersCaregiver meets needs: child develops trustCaregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrustBasic strength: HopeBelief our desires will be satisfiedFeeling of confidence
51Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Ages 1-3Child able to exercise some degree of choiceChild’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with othersBasic Strength: WillDetermination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands
52Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt Ages 3-5Child expresses desire to take initiative in activitiesParents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout life“Let me do it!”Basic strength: PurposeCourage to envision and pursue goals
53Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority Ages 6-11Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacyBasic strength:CompetenceExertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
54Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion Ages 12-18Form ego identity: self-imageStrong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidenceIdentity crisis: confusion of ego identityErikson considered this to be the most CRUCIAL stage.Who am I?Basic strength: FidelityEmerges from cohesive ego identitySincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others
55Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation Ages (approximately)Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationshipsInability to establish intimacy leads to social isolationBasic strength: LoveMutual devotion in a shared identityFusing of oneself with another personBilly Mack: When I was young, I was greedy and foolish, and now I'm left with no one. Wrinkled and alone.
56Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation Ages (approximately)Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generationStagnation involves not seeking outlets for involvement / being self-centered.Basic strength: CareBroad concern for othersNeed to teach others
57Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair Ages 55+Evaluation of entire lifeIntegrity: Look back with satisfactionDespair: Review with anger, frustrationBasic strength: WisdomDetached concern with the whole of lifeJapanese runner Kozo Haraguchi, 95, celebrates after setting the new world record of the 100m dash, year-old class, in seconds.
58Despair Grief Stagnation Autonomy :20 According to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to a sense of __________ involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only.DespairGriefStagnationAutonomy:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
59Initiative and independence are fostered by Restricting a child’s play and creativityIdentity vs. role confusionEncouragement from parents when a child plans to do something on their ownMastering psychomotor skills:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
60Identity vs. Role Confusion Industry vs. Inferiority A child who is just starting school, trying to learn good habits and to do well, is in Erikson's stage of development calledInitiative vs. GuiltIdentity vs. Role ConfusionIndustry vs. InferiorityIntegrity vs. Despair:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
61Identity vs. Role Confusion Initiative vs. Guilt A toddler learning to use the toilet who sometimes feels bad when he or she "messes up" is at Erikson's stage calledIdentity vs. Role ConfusionInitiative vs. GuiltAutonomy vs. Shame and DoubtIntimacy vs. Isolation:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
62Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt Identity vs. role confusion According to Erikson, a major conflict in the first year of life is that betweenInitiative vs. GuiltTrust vs. MistrustAutonomy vs. Shame and doubtIdentity vs. role confusion:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
63Contributions of Erikson Personality develops throughout the lifetimeIdentity crisis in adolescenceImpact of social, cultural, personal and situational forces in forming personality
64Lesson Seven Objectives: Discuss the four main parenting stylesDefine the parenting style(s) you were raised with.
65The investment in raising a child buys many years not of only joy and love but of worry and irritation. Yet for most parents, a child is one’s biological and social legacy – one’s personal investment in the human future.Myers, 1998
66Parenting Styles:4 main parenting styles were determined by Diane Baumrind.1. Authoritarian2. Authoritative3. Permissive4. Rejecting-Neglecting, Uninvolved
67Authoritarian Parenting: Impose rules and expect obedience.Classic Phrases:1. Don’t interrupt me!2. Don’t leave your room a mess!3. Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded!4. Why? Because I said so!5. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
68Authoritative Parenting: Are both demanding and responsive.Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them.They also explain the reasons why.Example: Johnny, I can understand you are upset that you have to go to bed now. That is not a reason throw your toy at daddy though. Because you misbehaved, your consequence will be _________ and it IS time to go to bed.
69Permissive Parenting: Submit to their children’s desires.They make few demands and use little punishment.Example: “Mom, I’m going out to a party with Greg.Mom – yeah sure… see you when I see you.
70Rejecting-Neglecting Parents: These parents just don’t care.They invest little time with their children.Example: Mom, I have Senior Night tonight, are you going to be there?Mom – Probably not, The season finale of Biggest Loser is on.
71So, Which Parenting Style is Best? What do you think?Most research shows that children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, authoritative parents.These parents control but also communicate.They have standards but respect the child’s perspective.
72Why Does it Work the Best? People who have control in their lives are more motivated and self-confident.Those who experience little control often see themselves as helpless and incompetent.When rules seem more negotiated than imposed, older children feel more self-control. (Lewis, 1981)
73Lesson Eight: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
74Introduction:Lawrence Kohlberg modified and expanded upon Piaget's work to form a theory that explained the development of moral reasoning.Big Idea: proposed that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan.
75How Did He Conduct His Research? He based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of young children.A series of moral dilemmas were presented to children (and then later young adults, and adults).Then they were interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario.
76To Get Us Started:Has there ever been a time when you broke a rule (or law) because you felt it was the “right” thing to do?Describe your experience on a half sheet of paper that I will share with the class.
77Example Scenario:"Heinz Steals the Drug In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963)." Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to the question of whether Heinz was wrong or right, but in the reasoning for the participants decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of moral development.
78Level 1. Pre-conventional Morality Stage 1 - Obedience and PunishmentThe earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of reasoning.At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.
79Level 1. Pre-conventional Morality Stage 2 - Individualism and ExchangeAt this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was whichever best-served Heinz’s needs.Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one's own interests.
80Level 2. Conventional Morality Stage 3 - Interpersonal RelationshipsOften referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles.There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.
81Level 2. Conventional Morality Stage 4 - Maintaining Social OrderAt this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments.The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority.
82Level 3. Post-conventional Morality Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual RightsAt this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people.Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.
83Level 3. Post-conventional Morality Stage 6 - Universal PrinciplesKohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning.At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
84Criticism #1:1. Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral behavior? Kohlberg's theory is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions.
85Criticism #2:Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we should consider? Critics have pointed out that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the concept as justice when making moral choices. Other factors such as compassion, caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning.
86Lesson Nine Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Describe how researchers developed theories on attachment.2. Identify several key terms that relate to developmental psychology.
87I feel like I understand the concepts in this chapter: Very muchWellAverageCould be betterWhat chapter are we on?:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
88Early Emotional Attachment: Attachment – The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers.
89Attachment: (Changes) Attachment consists of two parts:1. Secure base – From which they can explore the world.2. Safe Haven – In times of stress.As we get older our secure base and safe haven shift from parents to peers and partners (husband or wife).
90Harlow Review: 1. Physiological needs must be met 2. Body contact is most importantWill children respond similar to monkeys?
91What About A Child’s Attachment? Some babies seem to more easily form a secure attachment.Mary Ainsworth assessed this during the 1970’s.On the next slide is a diagram of the “situation.”
92Contact Comfort Feeding Aesthetic Needs Incentive Theory Gender Schema Harlow’s experiment with the rhesus monkeys and surrogate mothers emphasized the importance of:Contact ComfortFeedingAesthetic NeedsIncentive TheoryGender Schema20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
95What Did She Find Out?In about 60% of the cases, the child shows a secure attachment.The parent leaves, the child is distressed, and when she returns the child seeks contact.The child was also much more likely to explore the room.Others showed insecure attachments.They were less likely to explore their surroundings, were upset when mom left, but indifferent when she came back.
96What is the response pattern of securely attached children in the Strange Situation when their mothers return?They tend to ignore their mothers because they are secure about her careSometimes they run over to their mothers and sometimes the do not; there’s no consistent pattern in their responsesThey tend to go to their mothers for comfortThey tend to run over to their mothers and beg them not to leave again.They hit their mothers20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
97Are Their Different Behaviors Inborn? Maybe.Temperament – includes the child’s inborn emotional reactivity and intensity.1. Difficult Babies – More irritable, intense, and unpredictable.2. Slow to warm up – Take awhile to get there.3. Easy Babies – Cheerful, relaxed, and predictable.
98Konrad Lorenz – Imprinting Konrad Lorenz studied new born ducklings (chicks).He found that the first moving object a duckling, or a chick sees during the short hours after hatching it will perceive as it’s mother.This is called imprinting and is formed during the “critical period.”Critical Period – The optimal period shortly after birth where events must take place if proper development is to occur.
99Imprinting:Imprinting – The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.He wondered what ducklings would do if HE was the first moving “creature” they observed.The ducks followed him everywhere that he went!!Once this attachment is formed, it is difficult to reverse.
100A critical period is a stage in development when: Specific stimuli have a major effect on development that they do not produce at other timesChildren are resistant to any kind of discipline by their parentsNew learning is prevented by older learningBonding between the child and parent first takes placeThe child first enters elementary school and needs positive reinforcement20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
101Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development: Lee Vygotsky emphasized the role of the environment and gradual growth in intellectual functioning.Internalization – the process of absorbing information from a specified social environmental context.Children learn from their environment (very quietly and discreetly at times)
102More Vygotsky:Zone of Proximal Development – The range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and when they can solve a problem with parental or peer assistance.When the goal is achieved without help, then the ZPD moves up a level and the child may need assistance.Educators use this to their advantage in the classroom. (Gradual Release Model)
103Leftover Terms: (part 1) Cognitive Changes in Adults:Gerontoligist Warner Schaie came up with these two terms:Fluid Intelligence – those abilities requiring speed (quick thinking) or rapid learning (diminishes with age)Crystallized Intelligence – learned knowledge and skills (improves with age)
104Fluid; fixed Fixed; fluid Fluid; crystallized Crystallized; fluid With aging there is a decline of __________ intelligence, but not of __________ intelligence.Fluid; fixedFixed; fluidFluid; crystallizedCrystallized; fluid20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
105Lesson Ten: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Describe Jean Piaget’s background2. Define each of his stages
106Cognition: How a Baby Thinks: “Children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world.”Jean Piaget – Developmental Psychologist
107The Questions that Piaget Had: 1. When and how do children begin to see things from another’s point of view?2. When do they begin to reason logically?3. How does a child’s mind grow?
108Where Did Piaget Start?In 1920, Piaget began to develop questions for children’s intelligence tests.He wanted to find out at what age children could answer certain questions.He became interested in their wrong answers.He noted that the errors made by children of any given age were very similar.
109What Did He Find Out?Young children understand the world in radically different ways than adults.Children are not “miniature adults” – think little HerculesFor example an 8 year old would understand things that a 3 year old couldn’t even come close to understanding.Example: “Getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your head.”