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Human Development AP Psychology. Chapter Objectives: AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:AP students in psychology should be.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Development AP Psychology. Chapter Objectives: AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:AP students in psychology should be."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Development AP Psychology

2 Chapter Objectives: AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:AP students in psychology should be able to do the following: Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture (including cultural variations) in Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture (including cultural variations) in the determination of behavior.the determination of behavior. Explain the process of conception and gestation, including factors that influence successful fetal development (e.g., nutrition, illness, substance abuse). Explain the process of conception and gestation, including factors that influence successful fetal development (e.g., nutrition, illness, substance abuse). Discuss maturation of motor skills. Discuss maturation of motor skills. Describe the influence of temperament and other social factors on attachment Describe the influence of temperament and other social factors on attachment and appropriate socialization.and appropriate socialization. Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities (e.g., Piaget’s stages, information Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities (e.g., Piaget’s stages, information processing).processing). Compare and contrast models of moral development (e.g., Kohlberg, Gilligan). Compare and contrast models of moral development (e.g., Kohlberg, Gilligan). Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence, including related family Discuss maturational challenges in adolescence, including related family conflicts.conflicts. Characterize the development of decisions related to intimacy as people mature. Characterize the development of decisions related to intimacy as people mature. Predict the physical and cognitive changes that emerge as people age, including steps that can be taken to maximize function. Predict the physical and cognitive changes that emerge as people age, including steps that can be taken to maximize function. Describe how sex and gender influence socialization and other aspects of Describe how sex and gender influence socialization and other aspects of development.development. Identify key contributors in developmental psychology (e.g., Mary Ainsworth, Identify key contributors in developmental psychology (e.g., Mary Ainsworth, Albert Bandura, Diana Baumrind, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Carol Gilligan,Albert Bandura, Diana Baumrind, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Carol Gilligan, Harry Harlow, Lawrence Kohlberg, Konrad Lorenz, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky).Harry Harlow, Lawrence Kohlberg, Konrad Lorenz, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky).

3 What Are We Doing Today? By the end of this lesson I will be able to:By the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Discuss the interaction of nature and nurture (including cultural variations) in the determination of behavior.

4 Introduction: Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology – the study of physical, intellectual, social, and moral changes across the life span from conception  death.Developmental Psychology – the study of physical, intellectual, social, and moral changes across the life span from conception  death.

5 Developmental Theories 1. Nature versus Nurture1. Nature versus Nurture How much is human development influenced by our heredity (nature) and how much by our experience (nurture)?How much is human development influenced by our heredity (nature) and how much by our experience (nurture)? 2. Continuity versus Discontinuity (Stages)2. Continuity versus Discontinuity (Stages) Is development gradual and continuous or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages?Is development gradual and continuous or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages? 3. Stability versus Change3. Stability versus Change Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age?

6 Nature vs. Nurture refresher: Nature = heredityNature = heredity Nurture = experiencesNurture = experiences Some argue that we are “pre-wired”Some argue that we are “pre-wired” Some argue that life experiences and parenting determine what we’re like.Some argue that life experiences and parenting determine what we’re like. How do we decide?How do we decide?

7 What we know about Nature vs. Nurture What we do know – Maturation – we all go through orderly changes in behavior, thought, or physical growth, regardless of experience.What we do know – Maturation – we all go through orderly changes in behavior, thought, or physical growth, regardless of experience. How do we study this issue – identical twinsHow do we study this issue – identical twins

8 Continuity vs. (Discontinuity) Stages: Change Happens.Change Happens. Is developmental change gradual or continuous?Is developmental change gradual or continuous? Or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages.Or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages. Do people go through stages at different times? What if they “miss” a stage?Do people go through stages at different times? What if they “miss” a stage?

9 Cont. Behaviorists often focus on quantitative changes (ht. and wt.)Behaviorists often focus on quantitative changes (ht. and wt.) Other theorists focus on qualitative changes (stages) – Piaget, Kohlberg, etc.Other theorists focus on qualitative changes (stages) – Piaget, Kohlberg, etc. The resolution of conflicts is key – everyone passes in the same order but at different times in life.The resolution of conflicts is key – everyone passes in the same order but at different times in life.

10 Stability versus Change How much do we change?How much do we change? For many years psychologists believed that once a person’s personality forms, it hardens like clay.For many years psychologists believed that once a person’s personality forms, it hardens like clay. They are now doing longitudinal studies to see how much the past influences a person’s future.They are now doing longitudinal studies to see how much the past influences a person’s future.

11 Stability versus Change – Cont. Are the effects of early experiences enduring or temporary? (abuse, starvation, isolation, etc.)Are the effects of early experiences enduring or temporary? (abuse, starvation, isolation, etc.) Will the cranky infant grow up to be the irritable adult?Will the cranky infant grow up to be the irritable adult? Do we grow into older versions of our early selves, or do we become new persons?Do we grow into older versions of our early selves, or do we become new persons? Social attitudes are more likely to change than temperament.Social attitudes are more likely to change than temperament.

12 Lesson Two Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe several perspectives that aim to show the origin of gender roles.1. Describe several perspectives that aim to show the origin of gender roles. 2. Identify several key terms that relate to gender roles.2. Identify several key terms that relate to gender roles.

13 To get us started…. Gender roles play a big part in our lives:Gender roles play a big part in our lives: Gender – male or femaleGender – male or female Gender Role Stereotypes – what is socially acceptable for boys and girls (colors, hobbies, etc.)Gender Role Stereotypes – what is socially acceptable for boys and girls (colors, hobbies, etc.) Gender identity – our personal sense of being male or female.Gender identity – our personal sense of being male or female. Androgyny – recognizing desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual.Androgyny – recognizing desirable masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual.

14 The Five Perspectives on Gender Roles: BiologicalBiological EvolutionaryEvolutionary PsychoanalyticPsychoanalytic BehavioralBehavioral CognitiveCognitive

15 The Biological Perspective: Cites hormonal differences as the reason why men may be more aggressive, muscular, and bigger in size.Cites hormonal differences as the reason why men may be more aggressive, muscular, and bigger in size. Therefore, men take on “hardier” roles in life.Therefore, men take on “hardier” roles in life.

16 The Evolutionary Perspective: This perspective purports that males are more likely than females to be risk takers, show dominance, and achieve alpha status.This perspective purports that males are more likely than females to be risk takers, show dominance, and achieve alpha status. Our behavioral tendencies prepare us to survive and ultimately, reproduce.Our behavioral tendencies prepare us to survive and ultimately, reproduce.

17 The Psychoanalytic Perspective: Freud proposed that young girls learn to act feminine from their mothers and young boys learn to act masculine from their fathers.Freud proposed that young girls learn to act feminine from their mothers and young boys learn to act masculine from their fathers. He also argued that children will identify better with their same sex parent, increasing the strength of his theory.He also argued that children will identify better with their same sex parent, increasing the strength of his theory.

18 The Behavioral Perspective: Social learning theory – children respond to rewards and punishments for their behavior.Social learning theory – children respond to rewards and punishments for their behavior. They observe, and imitate socially desirable traits in others.They observe, and imitate socially desirable traits in others. This helps them to acquire their gender identity.This helps them to acquire their gender identity.

19 The Cognitive Perspective: Children have a “social filter” that allows them to sort out what is appropriate for their gender and what isn’t (gender schema). – Sandra BemChildren have a “social filter” that allows them to sort out what is appropriate for their gender and what isn’t (gender schema). – Sandra Bem This theory uses the behavioral perspective as a stepping stone to explain the theory.This theory uses the behavioral perspective as a stepping stone to explain the theory.

20 Turn and Talk: 5 minutes 1. Which of the following perspectives do you agree most with? Why?1. Which of the following perspectives do you agree most with? Why? 2. Do you think that our society will ever become completely androgynous? Why or why not?2. Do you think that our society will ever become completely androgynous? Why or why not? 3. Now that you know about gender roles, do you think that you will knowingly channel your children (if you have them) towards “appropriate” gender stereotypes?3. Now that you know about gender roles, do you think that you will knowingly channel your children (if you have them) towards “appropriate” gender stereotypes?

21 Lesson Three Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Define the top four most widely used methods of studying development.1. Define the top four most widely used methods of studying development. 2. Identify when each method would be applicable for research.2. Identify when each method would be applicable for research.

22 How do Developmental Psychologists gather data? Developmental psychologists used naturalistic observations, experiments, correlational studies, and case studies to asses change over time.Developmental psychologists used naturalistic observations, experiments, correlational studies, and case studies to asses change over time. They use four basic research designs:They use four basic research designs: 1. Longitudinal studies1. Longitudinal studies 2. Cross-sectional studies2. Cross-sectional studies 3. Cohort-sequential studies3. Cohort-sequential studies 4. Retrospective studies4. Retrospective studies

23 Longitudinal Studies: Longitudinal study – follows the same group of people over a period of time (months to years)Longitudinal study – follows the same group of people over a period of time (months to years) They evaluate changes in the individual(s)They evaluate changes in the individual(s) These studies can be quite costly, take a long time to produce results, and can lose participants over time.These studies can be quite costly, take a long time to produce results, and can lose participants over time.

24 Cross-Sectional Studies: Cross Sectional – break up age groups and give the same test to each group (15, 25, 35, 45, 55, etc.)Cross Sectional – break up age groups and give the same test to each group (15, 25, 35, 45, 55, etc.) These studies are cheap, quick, and easyThese studies are cheap, quick, and easy Cohort – those within the same age groupCohort – those within the same age group

25 Cohort-Sequential Studies: Cohort-sequential – cross sectioned groups are assessed at least two times over a span of months or years.Cohort-sequential – cross sectioned groups are assessed at least two times over a span of months or years. Results from one cohort are compared with others at the same age range.Results from one cohort are compared with others at the same age range. This method of study can help to eliminate the….This method of study can help to eliminate the…. Cohort effect. - Differences in the experiences of each age group as a result of growing up in different historical times.Cohort effect. - Differences in the experiences of each age group as a result of growing up in different historical times.

26 Retrospective Studies: Retrospective Studies – case studies that investigate development in one person at a time.Retrospective Studies – case studies that investigate development in one person at a time. It is typical to use older adults for this method.It is typical to use older adults for this method. Questions are asked about the past and any changes that have occurred during the subject’s lifespan.Questions are asked about the past and any changes that have occurred during the subject’s lifespan.

27 A Class Divided:Turn and Talk: 3 min 1. What are you overall reactions to this study?1. What are you overall reactions to this study? 2. From a developmental perspective, do you think that older/younger children/adults would act differently?2. From a developmental perspective, do you think that older/younger children/adults would act differently? 3. From an ethical standpoint, could this study have been done the same way today?3. From an ethical standpoint, could this study have been done the same way today?

28 Lesson Four Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe the process of physical development in humans1. Describe the process of physical development in humans 2. Identify several of the social issues that affect pregnancy.2. Identify several of the social issues that affect pregnancy.

29 How are we feeling today? 1.Great 2.Good 3.Average 4.Not so good 5.Bad :

30 Physical Development: Physical development focuses on two things:Physical development focuses on two things: 1. Maturation – “like a bulldozer”1. Maturation – “like a bulldozer” 2. Critical Periods2. Critical Periods

31 Prenatal Development: Prenatal Development – Begins with fertilization and ends with birthPrenatal Development – Begins with fertilization and ends with birth Zygote – 46 chromosomes that divide again and again until it turns into a embryo. (between the 3-8 th week)Zygote – 46 chromosomes that divide again and again until it turns into a embryo. (between the 3-8 th week) While in embryonic stage, organs, placenta, and umbilical cord develop.While in embryonic stage, organs, placenta, and umbilical cord develop.

32 A critical period refers to: 20 1.Newborn development 2.The initial 2 minutes after a child’s birth 3.The preoperational stage 4.A restricted time for learning

33 Getting Bigger!! Once the 8 th week hits, the embryo becomes a fetus.Once the 8 th week hits, the embryo becomes a fetus. Organs systems begin to interact, bone replaces cartilage, sex organs become defined.Organs systems begin to interact, bone replaces cartilage, sex organs become defined. Head eyes, limbs, and cartilage skeleton will develop.Head eyes, limbs, and cartilage skeleton will develop.

34 Newborn Behavior: Neonates – newborn babiesNeonates – newborn babies Most newborn prefer being with mom – odors, touch, voice, etc.Most newborn prefer being with mom – odors, touch, voice, etc. The sense of hearing is dominant for the first few months of life (they can see however)The sense of hearing is dominant for the first few months of life (they can see however) Sight becomes the primary sense at about 6 monthsSight becomes the primary sense at about 6 months They get used to repeated stimulation - HabituationThey get used to repeated stimulation - Habituation ReflexesReflexes 1. Babinski1. Babinski 2. Grasping2. Grasping 3. Moro/Startle/Heisman3. Moro/Startle/Heisman 4. Rooting4. Rooting

35 Birth Defects: Can be from a malfunctioning gene or environmental stimulusCan be from a malfunctioning gene or environmental stimulus Chemicals or viruses can cause birth defectsChemicals or viruses can cause birth defects Teratogens – Chemicals (alcohol, drugs, tobacco, mercury) or viruses that can cause birth defects.Teratogens – Chemicals (alcohol, drugs, tobacco, mercury) or viruses that can cause birth defects.

36 Critical Periods: First 3 months – Eyes, arms, ears, legs, heartFirst 3 months – Eyes, arms, ears, legs, heart First and 2 nd months – Reproductive systemFirst and 2 nd months – Reproductive system All three – Nervous system and brainAll three – Nervous system and brain

37 Which one of the following is not considered a dangerous teratogen? 1.Tobacco 2.Alcohol 3.Heroin 4.Mercury 5.These all are dangerous teratogens

38 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Occurs in babies whose mothers drink alcohol during the early months of pregnancy.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Occurs in babies whose mothers drink alcohol during the early months of pregnancy.Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Leading cause of MR in USALeading cause of MR in USA Low intelligence / mental retardationLow intelligence / mental retardation Small head, flat face, misshapen eyesSmall head, flat face, misshapen eyes

39 Other Teratogens: Cigarettes – Miscarriage, low birth weightCigarettes – Miscarriage, low birth weight Heroin and Cocaine – Baby goes through withdrawal symptomsHeroin and Cocaine – Baby goes through withdrawal symptoms Prescription drugs – Various birth defectsPrescription drugs – Various birth defects

40 Lesson Five Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe the changes that occur during adolescence.1. Describe the changes that occur during adolescence. 2. Discuss the changes that occur as we age.2. Discuss the changes that occur as we age. 3. Identify the various stages of dealing with death.3. Identify the various stages of dealing with death.

41 Introduction: Children grow up fast!Children grow up fast! Many brain cells and neural networks are created within the first few months of life.Many brain cells and neural networks are created within the first few months of life. Walking, talking, and learning all happen at a rapid paceWalking, talking, and learning all happen at a rapid pace

42 Adolescence: Puberty = sexual maturationPuberty = sexual maturation During adolescence, both primary and secondary sex characteristics develop.During adolescence, both primary and secondary sex characteristics develop. Primary sex characteristics – Reproductive organs grow and become “useable”Primary sex characteristics – Reproductive organs grow and become “useable” Secondary sex characteristics – Body hair, chest development, deepening of voice, menstrual cycle (menarche)Secondary sex characteristics – Body hair, chest development, deepening of voice, menstrual cycle (menarche) Females develop faster than boysFemales develop faster than boys

43 Getting Older: Bad news – physical output, vision, hearing all decreaseBad news – physical output, vision, hearing all decrease Good news – We can slow down and even reverse aging by:Good news – We can slow down and even reverse aging by: 1. Maintaining a good diet1. Maintaining a good diet 2. Staying physically and mentally active2. Staying physically and mentally active

44 Other Aging Terms / Concepts: Midlife crisis – some see this as a last chance to achieve their goals.Midlife crisis – some see this as a last chance to achieve their goals. “better to live one day as a lion, than an eternity as a sheep.”“better to live one day as a lion, than an eternity as a sheep.” Death and Dying – Kubler- Ross developed “stages of grief/coping”Death and Dying – Kubler- Ross developed “stages of grief/coping” 1. Denial1. Denial 2. Anger2. Anger 3. Bargaining3. Bargaining 4. Depression4. Depression 5. Acceptance5. Acceptance

45 Lesson Six: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Define each of Erik Erikson’s stages of development.1. Define each of Erik Erikson’s stages of development. 2. Describe how each of these stages applies to our lives.2. Describe how each of these stages applies to our lives.

46 Who is Erik Erikson? Erikson was a developmental psychologist that created a series of stages he proposed we all go through.Erikson was a developmental psychologist that created a series of stages he proposed we all go through. He suggested that healthy “success” in each stage would lead to a happy life.He suggested that healthy “success” in each stage would lead to a happy life. He hinted at the fact that struggle in any of these stages can lead to maladaptive behavior that can last a lifetime, therefore affecting your overall personality.He hinted at the fact that struggle in any of these stages can lead to maladaptive behavior that can last a lifetime, therefore affecting your overall personality.

47 Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development Crisis: must adaptively or maladaptively cope with task in each developmental stageCrisis: must adaptively or maladaptively cope with task in each developmental stage Respond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for next developmental stageRespond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for next developmental stage Respond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt to later problemsRespond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt to later problems

48 Something to Remember: Stages 1-4, children are mostly dependent on their parents or guardians for successful development.Stages 1-4, children are mostly dependent on their parents or guardians for successful development. Stages 5-8, young adults/Adults are responsible for successful development.Stages 5-8, young adults/Adults are responsible for successful development.

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50 Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Birth to age 1Birth to age 1 Totally dependent on othersTotally dependent on others Caregiver meets needs: child develops trustCaregiver meets needs: child develops trust Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrustCaregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrust Basic strength: HopeBasic strength: Hope Belief our desires will be satisfied Feeling of confidence

51 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Ages 1-3Ages 1-3 Child able to exercise some degree of choiceChild able to exercise some degree of choice Child’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with othersChild’s independence is thwarted: child develops feelings of self-doubt, shame in dealing with others Basic Strength: WillBasic Strength: Will Determination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands

52 Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt Ages 3-5Ages 3-5 Child expresses desire to take initiative in activitiesChild expresses desire to take initiative in activities Parents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout lifeParents punish child for initiative: child develops feelings of guilt that will affect self-directed activity throughout life “Let me do it!”“Let me do it!” Basic strength: PurposeBasic strength: Purpose Courage to envision and pursue goals

53 Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority Ages 6-11Ages 6-11 Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play)Child develops cognitive abilities to enable in task completion (school work, play) Parents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacyParents/teachers do not support child’s efforts: child develops feelings of inferiority and inadequacy Basic strength:Basic strength: CompetenceCompetence Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks

54 Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion Ages 12-18Ages Form ego identity: self-imageForm ego identity: self-image Strong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidenceStrong sense of identity: face adulthood with certainty and confidence Identity crisis: confusion of ego identityIdentity crisis: confusion of ego identity Erikson considered this to be the most CRUCIAL stage.Erikson considered this to be the most CRUCIAL stage. Who am I?Who am I? Basic strength: FidelityBasic strength: Fidelity Emerges from cohesive ego identity Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others

55 Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation Ages (approximately)Ages (approximately) Undertake productive work and establish intimate relationshipsUndertake productive work and establish intimate relationships Inability to establish intimacy leads to social isolationInability to establish intimacy leads to social isolation Basic strength: LoveBasic strength: Love Mutual devotion in a shared identity Fusing of oneself with another person Billy Mack: When I was young, I was greedy and foolish, and now I'm left with no one. Wrinkled and alone.

56 Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation Ages (approximately)Ages (approximately) Active involvement in teaching/guiding the next generationActive involvement in teaching/guiding the next generation Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for involvement / being self- centered.Stagnation involves not seeking outlets for involvement / being self- centered. Basic strength: CareBasic strength: Care Broad concern for others Need to teach others

57 Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair Ages 55+Ages 55+ Evaluation of entire lifeEvaluation of entire life Integrity: Look back with satisfactionIntegrity: Look back with satisfaction Despair: Review with anger, frustrationDespair: Review with anger, frustration Basic strength: WisdomBasic strength: Wisdom Detached concern with the whole of life Japanese runner Kozo Haraguchi, 95, celebrates after setting the new world record of the 100m dash, year-old class, in seconds.

58 According to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to a sense of __________ involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only. 1.Despair 2.Grief 3.Stagnation 4.Autonomy :20

59 Initiative and independence are fostered by 1.Restricting a child’s play and creativity 2.Identity vs. role confusion 3.Encouragement from parents when a child plans to do something on their own 4.Mastering psychomotor skills :20

60 A child who is just starting school, trying to learn good habits and to do well, is in Erikson's stage of development called 1.Initiative vs. Guilt 2.Identity vs. Role Confusion 3.Industry vs. Inferiority 4.Integrity vs. Despair :20

61 A toddler learning to use the toilet who sometimes feels bad when he or she "messes up" is at Erikson's stage called 1.Identity vs. Role Confusion 2.Initiative vs. Guilt 3.Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 4.Intimacy vs. Isolation :20

62 According to Erikson, a major conflict in the first year of life is that between 1.Initiative vs. Guilt 2.Trust vs. Mistrust 3.Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt 4.Identity vs. role confusion :20

63 Contributions of Erikson Personality develops throughout the lifetimePersonality develops throughout the lifetime Identity crisis in adolescenceIdentity crisis in adolescence Impact of social, cultural, personal and situational forces in forming personalityImpact of social, cultural, personal and situational forces in forming personality

64 Lesson Seven Objectives: Discuss the four main parenting stylesDiscuss the four main parenting styles Define the parenting style(s) you were raised with.Define the parenting style(s) you were raised with.

65 The investment in raising a child buys many years not of only joy and love but of worry and irritation. Yet for most parents, a child is one’s biological and social legacy – one’s personal investment in the human future.The investment in raising a child buys many years not of only joy and love but of worry and irritation. Yet for most parents, a child is one’s biological and social legacy – one’s personal investment in the human future. Myers, 1998

66 Parenting Styles: 4 main parenting styles were determined by Diane Baumrind.4 main parenting styles were determined by Diane Baumrind. 1. Authoritarian1. Authoritarian 2. Authoritative2. Authoritative 3. Permissive3. Permissive 4. Rejecting- Neglecting, Uninvolved4. Rejecting- Neglecting, Uninvolved

67 Authoritarian Parenting: Impose rules and expect obedience.Impose rules and expect obedience. Classic Phrases:Classic Phrases: 1. Don’t interrupt me!1. Don’t interrupt me! 2. Don’t leave your room a mess!2. Don’t leave your room a mess! 3. Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded!3. Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded! 4. Why? Because I said so!4. Why? Because I said so! 5. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!5. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

68 Authoritative Parenting: Are both demanding and responsive.Are both demanding and responsive. Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them.Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them. They also explain the reasons why.They also explain the reasons why. Example: Johnny, I can understand you are upset that you have to go to bed now. That is not a reason throw your toy at daddy though. Because you misbehaved, your consequence will be _________ and it IS time to go to bed.Example: Johnny, I can understand you are upset that you have to go to bed now. That is not a reason throw your toy at daddy though. Because you misbehaved, your consequence will be _________ and it IS time to go to bed.

69 Permissive Parenting: Submit to their children’s desires.Submit to their children’s desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.They make few demands and use little punishment. Example: “Mom, I’m going out to a party with Greg.Example: “Mom, I’m going out to a party with Greg. Mom – yeah sure… see you when I see you.Mom – yeah sure… see you when I see you.

70 Rejecting-Neglecting Parents: These parents just don’t care.These parents just don’t care. They invest little time with their children.They invest little time with their children. Example: Mom, I have Senior Night tonight, are you going to be there?Example: Mom, I have Senior Night tonight, are you going to be there? Mom – Probably not, The season finale of Biggest Loser is on.Mom – Probably not, The season finale of Biggest Loser is on.

71 So, Which Parenting Style is Best? What do you think?What do you think? Most research shows that children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, authoritative parents.Most research shows that children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence usually have warm, authoritative parents. These parents control but also communicate.These parents control but also communicate. They have standards but respect the child’s perspective.They have standards but respect the child’s perspective.

72 Why Does it Work the Best? People who have control in their lives are more motivated and self-confident.People who have control in their lives are more motivated and self-confident. Those who experience little control often see themselves as helpless and incompetent.Those who experience little control often see themselves as helpless and incompetent. When rules seem more negotiated than imposed, older children feel more self-control. (Lewis, 1981)When rules seem more negotiated than imposed, older children feel more self-control. (Lewis, 1981)

73 Lesson Eight: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:

74 Introduction: Lawrence Kohlberg modified and expanded upon Piaget's work to form a theory that explained the development of moral reasoning.Lawrence Kohlberg modified and expanded upon Piaget's work to form a theory that explained the development of moral reasoning. Big Idea: proposed that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan.Big Idea: proposed that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan.

75 How Did He Conduct His Research? He based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of young children.He based his theory upon research and interviews with groups of young children. A series of moral dilemmas were presented to children (and then later young adults, and adults).A series of moral dilemmas were presented to children (and then later young adults, and adults). Then they were interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario.Then they were interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario.

76 To Get Us Started: Has there ever been a time when you broke a rule (or law) because you felt it was the “right” thing to do?Has there ever been a time when you broke a rule (or law) because you felt it was the “right” thing to do? Describe your experience on a half sheet of paper that I will share with the class.Describe your experience on a half sheet of paper that I will share with the class.

77 Example Scenario: "Heinz Steals the Drug In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963)." Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to the question of whether Heinz was wrong or right, but in the reasoning for the participants decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of moral development."Heinz Steals the Drug In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963)." Kohlberg was not interested so much in the answer to the question of whether Heinz was wrong or right, but in the reasoning for the participants decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of moral development.

78 Level 1. Pre-conventional Morality Stage 1 - Obedience and PunishmentStage 1 - Obedience and Punishment The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of reasoning.The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.

79 Level 1. Pre-conventional Morality Stage 2 - Individualism and ExchangeStage 2 - Individualism and Exchange At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was whichever best-served Heinz’s needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was whichever best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one's own interests.Reciprocity is possible, but only if it serves one's own interests.

80 Level 2. Conventional Morality Stage 3 - Interpersonal RelationshipsStage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles.Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.

81 Level 2. Conventional Morality Stage 4 - Maintaining Social OrderStage 4 - Maintaining Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments.At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority.The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority.

82 Level 3. Post-conventional Morality Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual RightsStage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people.At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.

83 Level 3. Post-conventional Morality Stage 6 - Universal PrinciplesStage 6 - Universal Principles Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning.Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.

84 Criticism #1: 1. Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral behavior? Kohlberg's theory is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions.1. Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral behavior? Kohlberg's theory is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions.

85 Criticism #2: Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we should consider? Critics have pointed out that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the concept as justice when making moral choices. Other factors such as compassion, caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning.Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we should consider? Critics have pointed out that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the concept as justice when making moral choices. Other factors such as compassion, caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play an important part in moral reasoning.

86 Lesson Nine Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe how researchers developed theories on attachment.1. Describe how researchers developed theories on attachment. 2. Identify several key terms that relate to developmental psychology.2. Identify several key terms that relate to developmental psychology.

87 I feel like I understand the concepts in this chapter: 1.Very much 2.Well 3.Average 4.Could be better 5.What chapter are we on? :20

88 Early Emotional Attachment: Attachment – The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers.Attachment – The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers.

89 Attachment: (Changes) Attachment consists of two parts:Attachment consists of two parts: 1. Secure base – From which they can explore the world.1. Secure base – From which they can explore the world. 2. Safe Haven – In times of stress.2. Safe Haven – In times of stress. As we get older our secure base and safe haven shift from parents to peers and partners (husband or wife).As we get older our secure base and safe haven shift from parents to peers and partners (husband or wife).

90 Harlow Review: 1. Physiological needs must be met1. Physiological needs must be met 2. Body contact is most important2. Body contact is most important Will children respond similar to monkeys?Will children respond similar to monkeys?

91 What About A Child’s Attachment? Some babies seem to more easily form a secure attachment.Some babies seem to more easily form a secure attachment. Mary Ainsworth assessed this during the 1970’s.Mary Ainsworth assessed this during the 1970’s. On the next slide is a diagram of the “situation.”On the next slide is a diagram of the “situation.”

92 Harlow’s experiment with the rhesus monkeys and surrogate mothers emphasized the importance of: 1.Contact Comfort 2.Feeding 3.Aesthetic Needs 4.Incentive Theory 5.Gender Schema

93

94 Strange Situation: = http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid = http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid = http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid =

95 What Did She Find Out? In about 60% of the cases, the child shows a secure attachment.In about 60% of the cases, the child shows a secure attachment. The parent leaves, the child is distressed, and when she returns the child seeks contact.The parent leaves, the child is distressed, and when she returns the child seeks contact. The child was also much more likely to explore the room.The child was also much more likely to explore the room. Others showed insecure attachments.Others showed insecure attachments. They were less likely to explore their surroundings, were upset when mom left, but indifferent when she came back.They were less likely to explore their surroundings, were upset when mom left, but indifferent when she came back.

96 What is the response pattern of securely attached children in the Strange Situation when their mothers return? 1.They tend to ignore their mothers because they are secure about her care 2.Sometimes they run over to their mothers and sometimes the do not; there’s no consistent pattern in their responses 3.They tend to go to their mothers for comfort 4.They tend to run over to their mothers and beg them not to leave again. 5.They hit their mothers

97 Are Their Different Behaviors Inborn? Maybe.Maybe. Temperament – includes the child’s inborn emotional reactivity and intensity.Temperament – includes the child’s inborn emotional reactivity and intensity. 1. Difficult Babies – More irritable, intense, and unpredictable.1. Difficult Babies – More irritable, intense, and unpredictable. 2. Slow to warm up – Take awhile to get there.2. Slow to warm up – Take awhile to get there. 3. Easy Babies – Cheerful, relaxed, and predictable.3. Easy Babies – Cheerful, relaxed, and predictable.

98 Konrad Lorenz – Imprinting Konrad Lorenz studied new born ducklings (chicks).Konrad Lorenz studied new born ducklings (chicks). He found that the first moving object a duckling, or a chick sees during the short hours after hatching it will perceive as it’s mother.He found that the first moving object a duckling, or a chick sees during the short hours after hatching it will perceive as it’s mother. This is called imprinting and is formed during the “critical period.”This is called imprinting and is formed during the “critical period.” Critical Period – The optimal period shortly after birth where events must take place if proper development is to occur.Critical Period – The optimal period shortly after birth where events must take place if proper development is to occur.

99 Imprinting: Imprinting – The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.Imprinting – The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. He wondered what ducklings would do if HE was the first moving “creature” they observed.He wondered what ducklings would do if HE was the first moving “creature” they observed. The ducks followed him everywhere that he went!!The ducks followed him everywhere that he went!! Once this attachment is formed, it is difficult to reverse.Once this attachment is formed, it is difficult to reverse.

100 A critical period is a stage in development when: 1.Specific stimuli have a major effect on development that they do not produce at other times 2.Children are resistant to any kind of discipline by their parents 3.New learning is prevented by older learning 4.Bonding between the child and parent first takes place 5.The child first enters elementary school and needs positive reinforcement

101 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development: Lee Vygotsky emphasized the role of the environment and gradual growth in intellectual functioning.Lee Vygotsky emphasized the role of the environment and gradual growth in intellectual functioning. Internalization – the process of absorbing information from a specified social environmental context.Internalization – the process of absorbing information from a specified social environmental context. Children learn from their environment (very quietly and discreetly at times)Children learn from their environment (very quietly and discreetly at times)

102 More Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development – The range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and when they can solve a problem with parental or peer assistance.Zone of Proximal Development – The range between the level at which a child can solve a problem working alone with difficulty, and when they can solve a problem with parental or peer assistance. When the goal is achieved without help, then the ZPD moves up a level and the child may need assistance.When the goal is achieved without help, then the ZPD moves up a level and the child may need assistance. Educators use this to their advantage in the classroom. (Gradual Release Model)Educators use this to their advantage in the classroom. (Gradual Release Model)

103 Leftover Terms: (part 1) Cognitive Changes in Adults:Cognitive Changes in Adults: Gerontoligist Warner Schaie came up with these two terms:Gerontoligist Warner Schaie came up with these two terms: Fluid Intelligence – those abilities requiring speed (quick thinking) or rapid learning (diminishes with age)Fluid Intelligence – those abilities requiring speed (quick thinking) or rapid learning (diminishes with age) Crystallized Intelligence – learned knowledge and skills (improves with age)Crystallized Intelligence – learned knowledge and skills (improves with age)

104 With aging there is a decline of __________ intelligence, but not of __________ intelligence. 1.Fluid; fixed 2.Fixed; fluid 3.Fluid; crystallized 4.Crystallized; fluid

105 Lesson Ten: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe Jean Piaget’s background1. Describe Jean Piaget’s background 2. Define each of his stages2. Define each of his stages

106 Cognition: How a Baby Thinks: “Children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world.”“Children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world.” Jean Piaget – Developmental Psychologist

107 The Questions that Piaget Had: 1. When and how do children begin to see things from another’s point of view?1. When and how do children begin to see things from another’s point of view? 2. When do they begin to reason logically?2. When do they begin to reason logically? 3. How does a child’s mind grow?3. How does a child’s mind grow?

108 Where Did Piaget Start? In 1920, Piaget began to develop questions for children’s intelligence tests.In 1920, Piaget began to develop questions for children’s intelligence tests. He wanted to find out at what age children could answer certain questions.He wanted to find out at what age children could answer certain questions. He became interested in their wrong answers.He became interested in their wrong answers. He noted that the errors made by children of any given age were very similar.He noted that the errors made by children of any given age were very similar.

109 What Did He Find Out? Young children understand the world in radically different ways than adults.Young children understand the world in radically different ways than adults. Children are not “miniature adults” – think little HerculesChildren are not “miniature adults” – think little Hercules For example an 8 year old would understand things that a 3 year old couldn’t even come close to understanding.For example an 8 year old would understand things that a 3 year old couldn’t even come close to understanding. Example: “Getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your head.”Example: “Getting an idea is like having a light turn on in your head.”

110 Video Introduction: PiagetPiagetPiaget

111

112 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #1 Object Permanence – When a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.Object Permanence – When a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.

113 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #2 Conservation – Physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape and appearance.Conservation – Physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape and appearance.

114 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #3 Centration – Focus on one feature of a problem, neglecting other important features.Centration – Focus on one feature of a problem, neglecting other important features.

115 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #4 Irreversibility – The inability to envision reversing an action.Irreversibility – The inability to envision reversing an action.

116 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #5 Egocentrism – Only my viewpoint matters.Egocentrism – Only my viewpoint matters.

117 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #6 Animism – The belief that all things are living.Animism – The belief that all things are living.

118 Piaget’s BIG CONCEPTS: #7 Abstract Logic – Mathematics and “outside the box” thinking becomes apparent.Abstract Logic – Mathematics and “outside the box” thinking becomes apparent.


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