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Extrusion Simulation and Optimization of Profile Die Design 03-25-2003 Advisor Prof. Milivoje Kostic By Srinivasa Rao Vaddiraju.

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Presentation on theme: "Extrusion Simulation and Optimization of Profile Die Design 03-25-2003 Advisor Prof. Milivoje Kostic By Srinivasa Rao Vaddiraju."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extrusion Simulation and Optimization of Profile Die Design 03-25-2003 Advisor Prof. Milivoje Kostic By Srinivasa Rao Vaddiraju

2 Extrusion describes the process by which a polymer melt is pushed across a metal die, which continuously shapes the melt into the desired form. Gear pump A Schematic of Profile Extrusion Line at FNAL Introduction Dryer Cutter Feeding Hopper Extruder Die Calibrator Cooling Measurement Haul-off Polymer pellets Dopants Breaker plate

3 Quality factors Extrudate swell Draw down Cooling Insufficient mixing in the extruder Uneven die body temperatures and raw material variations Non-uniform viscosity in the die Non-uniform swelling Non-uniform draw down rearrangement of the velocity profile as the polymer leaves the die

4 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile-shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

5 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile-shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

6 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile-shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

7 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile-shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

8 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile-shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

9 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile- shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

10 An attempt to develop a possible strategy for effective die design in profile extrusion Investigate the die swell behavior of the polymer and to predict the optimum die profile- shape and dimensions, including the pin(s) profile, to obtain the required dimensions and quality of the extrudate. Investigate the swell phenomenon and mass flow balance affected by different parameters like die lengths, flow rates, exponent in viscosity function etc. Simulate the flow and heat transfer of molten polymer inside the die and in the free-flow region after the die exit, and compute pressure, temperature, velocity, stress and strain rate distributions over the entire simulation domain. Investigate and understand over-all polymer extrusion process, and integrate the simulation results with the experimental data, to optimize the die design and ultimately to achieve better quality and dimensions of the extrudate. Prepare the complete design of dies, including blue prints. Objectives

11 Design Methodology Using Finite Element based CFD code Polyflow  Using the method of Inverse Extrusion To fully understand the extrusion processes and the influence of various parameters on the quality of the final product. Integrate the simulation results and the experimental data to obtain more precise extrudate shape.

12 Literature Review The text book “Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids” by R.B.Bird gives a detailed overview of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, which is important to understand the flow of polymers. The text book “Extrusion Dies” by Walter Michaeli gives an extensive representation of extrusion processes and guidelines for the design of dies. The text book “Plastics Extrusion Technology Handbook” by Levis gives a clear representation of the rheology of materials and the technology of extrusion processes. Woei-Shyong Lee and Sherry Hsueh-Yu Ho have investigated the die swell behavior of a polymer melt using finite element method and simulated flow of Newtonian fluid and designed a profile extrusion die with a geometry of a quarter ring profile Louis G. Reifschneider has designed a coat hanger extrusion die using a parametric based three-dimensional polymer flow simulation algorithm, where the shape of the manifold and land are modified to minimize the velocity variation across the die exit. W.A. Gifford has demonstrated through an actual example how the efficient use of 3-D CFD algorithms and automatic finite element mesh generators can be used to eliminate much of the “cut and try” from profile die design.

13 Governing Equations Where, P is the pressure, τ is the extra stress tensor, v is the velocity. Continuity Equation Momentum Equation

14 Energy Equation Where, C v is the specific heat capacity of the material, T is the temperature, ρ is the density, k is the thermal conductivity. the accumulation term, the convection term, the conduction term, the dissipation term,

15 Die Design The ‘art of die design’ is to predict ‘properly irregular’ die shape (with minimum number of trials) which will allow melt flow to reshape and solidify into desired (regular) extrudate profile. The correct geometry of the die cannot be completely determined from engineering calculations. Numerical methods

16 POLYFLOW  Finite-element CFD code Predict three-dimensional free surfaces Inverse extrusion capability Strong non-linearities Evolution procedure

17 Flowchart for numerical simulation using Polyflow  1. Draw the geometry in Pro-E (or) other CAD software and export to GAMBIT 2. Draw the geometry in GAMBIT (or) import from other CAD software and mesh it. 3. Specify Polymer properties in Polydata 4. Specify boundary conditions in Polydata 8.Is the solution converged? Stop 5. Specify remeshing technique and solver method in Polydata Yes No 6. Specify the evolution parameters in Polydata 7. Polyflow solves the conservation equations using the specified data and boundary conditions Modify the evolution parameters Change the remeshing techniques and/or solver methods Modify the mesh

18 General Assumptions and incompressible Body forces and Inertia effects are negligible in comparison with viscous and pressure forces. The flow is steady Specific heat at constant pressure, C p, and thermal conductivity, k, are constant

19 Boundary Conditions Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C). Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room- temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification).

20 Boundary Conditions Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C). Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room- temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification).

21 Boundary Conditions Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room- temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification). Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C).

22 Boundary Conditions Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C). Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room- temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification).

23 Boundary Conditions Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C). Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room-temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification).

24 Boundary Conditions Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C). Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room- temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification).

25 Boundary Conditions Inlet: Fully developed inlet velocity corresponding to actual mass flow rate of 50 kg/hr and uniform inlet temperature (473 K or 200  C). Die, spider and pin walls: No slip at the die walls (Vn =Vs = 0; normal and streamline velocities, respectively), and uniform die wall temperature 473 K. Symmetry planes: Shear stress Fs = 0, normal velocity Vn = 0 and normal heat flux q n =0. Free surface: Zero pressure and traction/shear at boundary (F n = 0, F s = 0, and V n =0), and convection heat transfer from the free surface to surrounding room- temperature air. Kinematic balance equation on δΩ free Outlet: Normal stress F n =0, Tangential Velocity V s = 0, Pressure = 0.0 (reference pressure) and normal heat flux q n =0. All domains: Viscous dissipation was neglected for all flow conditions (after verification).

26 Material Data Zero shear rate viscosity, η 0 = 36,580 Pa-s Infinite shear rate viscosity, η ∞ = 0 Pa-s Natural time, λ = 0.902 Transition Parameter, a = 0.585 Exponent, n = 0.267 Density, ρ = 1040 Kg/m 3 Specific Heat, c p = 1200 J/Kg-K Thermal Conductivity, k = 0.12307 W/m-K Coefficient of thermal expansion, β = 0.5e-5 m/m-K Styron 663, mixed with Scintillator dopants Carreau-Yasuda Law for viscosity data: Measured by, Datapoint Labs

27 Styron viscosity data, with and without Scintillator dopants 200 0 C 180 0 C 220 0 C η – Styron 663 η d – Doped Styron 663 10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3

28 Profiles Rectangular profile die with one hole Rectangular profile die with ten holes

29 Rectangular profile die with one hole 2.0 1.0 0.11 ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN CM Required extrudate is a rectangular cross section of 1 cm  2 cm with a circular hole of 1.1 mm diameter at its center

30 Sensitivity analysis of die swell and inverse extrusion capabilities of Polyflow  P1 (0,y) P2 (0,y) P3 (x,y) P4 (x,0) P5 (x,0)

31 Full domain of the extrusion die Melt flow direction

32 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Die lip Melt flow direction Half domain of the extrusion die

33 Simulation domain with boundary conditions 1. Inlet (Fully Developed Flow) 2. Wall (V n = 0, V s = 0) 3. Symmetry (V n = 0, F s = 0) 4. Free Surface (F s = 0, F n = 0, V.n = 0) 5. Outlet (Fn = 0, Vs = 0)

34 Finite element 3-D domain and die-lip mesh Melt flow direction Die Lip 30,872 elements Skewness < 0.33

35 19 hours and 36 minutes of CPU time Windows XP 2.52 GHz Processor 1 GB RAM

36 Die lip Melt flow direction Contours of static pressure

37 Die lip Melt flow direction Contours of velocity magnitude at different iso-surfaces

38 Melt flow direction Die lip Contours of temperature distribution

39 Contours of shear rate Melt flow direction Die lip

40 Existing die, corresponding simulation and new improved-die profiles X (mm) Y (mm) New Die (Simulated) Existing Die Desired Extrudate Existing-Die Extrudate (Simulated)

41 Exploded view of the extrusion die

42 2 D-View of the extrusion die Melt flow direction

43 Blue prints Preland Dieland Pin

44 Rectangular profile die with ten holes 10.0 0.5 0.11 ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN CM Required extrudate is a rectangular cross section of 0.5 cm  10 cm with ten equally spaced centerline circular holes of 1.1 mm diameter.

45 Full domain of the extrusion die Melt flow direction

46 Half domain of the extrusion die Melt Pump Adapter, Adapter 1 and Adapter 2 Spider Die land Melt flow direction Die lip Free Surface

47 1 2 3 4 5 1. Inlet (Fully Developed Flow) 2. Wall (V n = 0, V s = 0) 3. Symmetry (V n = 0, F s = 0) 4. Free Surface (F s = 0, F n = 0, V.n = 0) 5. Outlet (F n = 0, V s = 0) Melt flow direction Simulation domain with boundary conditions

48 Finite element 3-D domain and half of extrudate profile mesh Melt flow direction 19,479 elements Skewness < 0.5

49 Half domain of the extrusion die (without free surface) and division of outlet into 10 areas d0 d1 d2 Melt flow direction out1 out2 out3 out4 out5 out6 out7 out8 out9 out10

50 Percentage of Mass flow rate in different exit segments

51 One hour of CPU time Windows XP 2.52 GHz Processor 1 GB RAM

52 Contours of Static pressure Melt flow direction Die lip

53 Contours of Velocity magnitude at different iso- surfaces and at centerline of exit Melt flow direction Die lip Velocity Magnitude (m/s) X-Coordinate (m)

54 Contours of Temperature distribution Melt flow direction Die lip

55 Contours of Shear rate and Viscosity Melt flow direction Melt flow direction Die lip Shear rate Viscosity

56 Simulated Die Required Extrudate Simulated die and required extrudate profiles

57 Percentage of mass flow rate for designed and balanced die 0

58 Exploded view of the extrusion die Melt pump adapter Adapter 1 Adapter 2 Preland Melt flow direction Dieland

59 Blue prints Whole die Melt pump adapter Adapter 1

60 Adapter 2 Spider Die land

61 Conclusions The optimum dimensions of the die to attain more balanced flow at the exit were obtained. The effect of inertia terms is found to be negligible for polymer flows at low Reynolds number. The exponent of the Carreau-Yasuda model, or the slope of the viscosity vs shear rate curve, has a significant effect on the die swell. The flow in the die appeared to be smooth with no re-circulation regions.

62 Recommendations for future improvements Polymer viscoelastic properties Include flow, cooling, solidification and vacuuming in and after the calibrator Radiation effects for free surface flow Pulling force at the end of the free surface Pressure of the compressed air Non-uniform mesh

63 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Prof. Milivoje Kostic Prof. Pradip Majumdar Prof. M.J. Kim Prof. Lou Reifschneider NICADD (Northern Illinois Centre for Accelerator and Detector Development), NIU Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL

64 QUESTIONS ?


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