Presentation on theme: "W ORLD E CONOMIC G EOGRAPHY Instructor: Dr. Truong Thi Kim Chuyen Weblog:"— Presentation transcript:
W ORLD E CONOMIC G EOGRAPHY Instructor: Dr. Truong Thi Kim Chuyen Weblog:
C OURSE O UTLINE The geography of the world economy Economic Geography Conceptual foundations 01/ Conceptual foundations Page 1-25 Dynamics of economic space 02/ The changing world economy 04/ Patterns of Development and Change 05/ Services going global 03/ Commodity chains Page / Technology and agglomeration Actors in economic space 10/ International and supranational institutionalized integration Page - 06/ The state Page / The transnational corporation Page / Labour power Page / Consumption
01/ C ONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS Aims: To understand the assumptions used by economists in understanding the economy. To recognize the limitations of economic approaches to the economy To appreciate key concepts in economic geography
SPACE PLACE SCALE LOCATION DISTANCE SIZE SHAPE KEY WORDS
C ONCEPT OF G EOGRAPHY The studies of the phenomena, processes and patterns of natural environment and the spatial organization of human life as a whole.
3 F UNDAMENTAL Q UESTIONS 1. Where?: Where did/are the phenomenon, processes, patterns happened/happening? 2. Why there?: Why did/are they happened/happening there? (not at a different/other place?) 3. How?: How are they in the relationships to those at other places, and affect or are affected by human life and natural environment? spatial/geographical thinking
Territoriality and form Location within spaceLocation Flows across space Flows Unevenness of wealth and development across space
L OCATION 1. Absolute Location 2. Relative Location
1. A BSOLUTE L OCATION being unique to each described place measuring the distance separating places finding directions between places on the earths surface. One of systems (also called mathematic location): a positioning system of precise and accepted identification of a place accurately described by reference to its degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude and longitude. Ex: Vietnam is located at, latitude: to N longitude:102 0 O9 to E
Other precise and accepted system: survey system on regional level. Depends any other characteristics, it has: Legal description of place, Measuring the distance separating places, Finding directions between places on the earths surface. Ex: Vietnam University: the 6 th site, Linh Trung ward, Thu Duc district, HCMC HCMC International University: University of Oxford: University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD UK Stanford University: 630 Serra Street, Suite 120, Stanford, CA USA
2. R ELATIVE L OCATION the position of a place in relation to that of other places or activities It explains spatial interconnection and interdependence Ex: location of library, cafeteria … to your classroom In other sense, it tells us that people, things, and places exist in the world of physical and cultural characteristics that differ from place to place Ex: Vietnam is located in the southeastern extremity of the Indochinese Peninsula, nearby the maritime cross-road of the world
Specificity uniqueness of places specific context Different scale internal characteristics of a place Ex: specific places within Niger
D ISTANCE 1. Absolute distance refers to the spatial separation between two points on the earths surface measured by standard unit: miles or kilometers, feet or meters (for more closely spaced points). 2. Relative distance Transforms measurements into other units, more meaningful for the space relationship at question. Miles, kilometers, meters hours, minutes, monetary system, or psychological transformation (unfamiliar, dangerous/familiar, friendly etc.)
I NTERACTION AMONG PLACES Spatial interaction: places interact with other in the comprehensive ways. Their processes and patterns are described by words accessibility and connectivity Accessibility: Connectivity:
A CCESSIBILITY : REFERS TO LOCATION Consideration of distance implies assessment of accessibility. Question: How easy or difficult is it to surmount/overcome the barrier of the time and space separation of places? Internal place: transport network… External place: airplane, ship, train, etc.
C ONNECTIVITY : REFERS TO DISTANCE A broader concept of accessibility implying all tangible and intangible ways in which places are connected Tangible: telephone lines, street and road systems, pipelines and sewers, etc. Intangible: radio and TV broadcasts, telecommunications, etc.
Size and shape Global Nation Sub-Nation Local
SIZE 20 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
KM 2 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
KM 2 22 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
> KM 2 23 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
KM 2 24 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
< KM 2 NAURU 25 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
SHAPE Compact Elongated Proprute-Protruded Fragmented Perforated Land-locked Exclave 26 Each shape of state has advantages, as well as disadvantages
C OMPACT 27 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH A compact shaped state is small and centralized. This type of state is the simplest to manage, since the government is close to all portions of the state. The compact form helps to keep the country together by making communications easier within it. In addition, compact states are much easier to defend than states of other shapes. However, compact states are primarily small in size, and therefore may not have as many natural resources as larger states have. A perfect example of a compact state would be Poland.
E LONGATED 28 An elongated shaped state is long and narrow. This type of state also has many disadvantages. For example, they are difficult to defend. An elongated state, such as Chile, makes for difficult governance of the peripheral areas in the north and south. However, an elongated state encompasses a variety of landscapes.
P ROPRUTE -P ROTRUDED 29 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH A prorupted state has a long extension, or an extended arm of territory. This protrusion gives the state several advantages. For example, the state gets easy access to the coast and the local resources around it. In addition, prorupted states are also able to prevent a rival access. An example of a prorupted state would be Thailand.
F RAGMENTED 30 Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH A state that is separated by a physical or human barrier. This creates several problems for the country. Many portions of the state are separated by oceans, lakes, and mountains. It is difficult to govern such a country composed of islands, such as Indonesia. In addition, communication is difficult within the state; since portions are separated form the main part of the country.
P ERFORATED 31 A perforated state completely surrounds another. A classic example would be South Africa since it surrounds Lesotho. The surrounded nation can only be reached by going through one country. More problems can arise if there is hostility between the two nations. This makes it difficult to enter the surrounding nation.
L AND - LOCKED 32 Approximately one-fifth of the world's countries are landlocked and have no access to the oceans. There are 43 landlocked countries that do not have direct access to an ocean or ocean-accessible sea (such as the Mediterranean Sea). They have the disadvantageous situation of needing to rely upon neighboring countries for access to seaports.
For example, Ethiopia relies on Eritrea for access to the Red Sea and recent conflicts have made that access difficult.
34 Doubly-Landlocked Countries There are two special landlocked countries that are known as doubly-landlocked countries, completely surrounded by other landlocked countries.
E XCLAVE 35 a territory legally or politically attached to a territory with which it is not physically contiguous
E NCLAVE A country or part of a country that is surrounded by another. However, an enclave does not have political affinity to the surrounding state. Also, an enclave does not belong to another country. For example, the Vatican City is an enclave of Rome. The Vatican City has its own government and is independent from Rome and Italy. Therefore, it is not bound by the rules of Rome, as well as the rules of Italy.
Location theory and the neoclassical approach Alfred Webers industrial location theory August Lösch … Behavioural approach By adopting Herbert Simons idea of bounded rationality, behavioural economic geographers examined the role of cognitive information and human choices in determining decision-making and locational outcomes Marxistpolitical economy To address adequately the social and spatial inequities in economic development and wealth t During the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the political economy approach manifested itself in the post-Fordism debate.
Since the mid-1990s, new economic geography has moved away from viewing economic processes as separate from social, cultural and political contexts. Instead, social, cultural, and institutional factors tend now to be seen as key factors in understanding economic dynamics. Unlike previous genres, the new economic geography is not represented by a particular theoretical perspective or methodological practice. Rather, it is characterized by an eclectic collection of philosophical standpoints and social theories ranging from poststructuralism and postmodernism to institutionalism and feminism.