Presentation on theme: "World Economic Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1 World Economic Geography Instructor: Dr. Truong Thi Kim ChuyenWeblog:
2 The geography of the world economy Course OutlineThe geography of the world economyEconomic GeographyConceptual foundations01/ Conceptual foundationsPage 1-25Dynamics of economic space02/ The changing world economy04/ Patterns of Development and Change05/ Services going global03/ Commodity chainsPage04’/ Technology and agglomerationActors in economic space10/ International and supranational institutionalized integrationPage -06/ The statePage07/ The transnational corporationPage08/ Labour powerPage09/ Consumption
3 01/ Conceptual foundations Aims:To understand the assumptions used by economists in understanding the economy.To recognize the limitations of economic approaches to the economyTo appreciate key concepts in economic geography
5 Concept of GeographyThe studies of the phenomena, processes and patterns of natural environment and the spatial organization of human life as a whole.Geography is the study of phenomena, processes of natural environment and of human life organizations as a spatial wholeness.
6 3 Fundamental Questions Where?: Where did/are the phenomenon, processes, patterns happened/happening?Why there?: Why did/are they happened/happening there? (not at a different/other place?)How?: How are they in the relationships to those at other places, and affect or are affected by human life and natural environment? spatial/geographical thinking
7 Space Territoriality and form Location within space Flows across space Unevenness of wealth and development across space
9 1. Absolute Locationbeing unique to each described placemeasuring the distance separating placesfinding directions between places on the earth’s surface.One of systems (also called mathematic location): a positioning system of precise and accepted identification of a place accurately described by reference to its degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude and longitude.Ex: Vietnam is located at, latitude: 8010’ to 23024’ Nlongitude:1020 O9’ to ’ E
10 Other precise and accepted system: survey system on regional level. Depends any other characteristics, it has:Legal description of place,Measuring the distance separating places,Finding directions between places on the earth’s surface.Ex:Vietnam University: the 6th site, Linh Trung ward, Thu Duc district, HCMCHCMC International University:University of Oxford: University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD UKStanford University: 630 Serra Street, Suite 120, Stanford, CA USA
12 2. Relative Locationthe position of a place in relation to that of other places or activitiesIt explains spatial interconnection and interdependenceEx: location of library, cafeteria … to your classroomIn other sense, it tells us that people, things, and places exist in the world of physical and cultural characteristics that differ from place to placeEx: Vietnam is located in the southeastern extremity of the Indochinese Peninsula, nearby the maritime cross-road of the world
14 Place Specificity uniqueness of places specific context Different scaleinternal characteristics of a placeEx: specific places within Niger
15 DistanceAbsolute distancerefers to the spatial separation between two points on the earth’s surfacemeasured by standard unit: miles or kilometers, feet or meters (for more closely spaced points).Relative distanceTransforms measurements into other units, more meaningful for the space relationship at question.Miles, kilometers, meters hours, minutes, monetary system, or psychological transformation (unfamiliar, dangerous/familiar, friendly etc.)
16 Interaction among places Spatial interaction: places interact with other in the comprehensive ways.Their processes and patterns are described by words ‘accessibility’ and ‘connectivity’Accessibility:Connectivity:
17 Accessibility: refers to location Consideration of distance implies assessment of accessibility.Question: How easy or difficult is it to surmount/overcome the barrier of the time and space separation of places?Internal place: transport network…External place: airplane, ship, train, etc.
18 Connectivity: refers to distance A broader concept of accessibility implying all tangible and intangible ways in which places are connectedTangible: telephone lines, street and road systems, pipelines and sewers, etc.Intangible: radio and TV broadcasts, telecommunications, etc.
26 Each shape of state has advantages, as well as disadvantages CompactElongatedProprute-ProtrudedFragmentedPerforatedLand-lockedExclave Each shape of state has advantages, as well as disadvantages
27 CompactA compact shaped state is small and centralized. This type of state is the simplest to manage, since the government is close to all portions of the state. The compact form helps to keep the country together by making communications easier within it. In addition, compact states are much easier to defend than states of other shapes. However, compact states are primarily small in size, and therefore may not have as many natural resources as larger states have. A perfect example of a compact state would be Poland.Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
28 ElongatedAn elongated shaped state is long and narrow. This type of state also has many disadvantages. For example, they are difficult to defend. An elongated state, such as Chile, makes for difficult governance of the peripheral areas in the north and south. However, an elongated state encompasses a variety of landscapes.
29 Proprute-Protruded A prorupted state has a long extension, or an extended arm of territory. This protrusion gives the state several advantages. For example, the state gets easy access to the coast and the local resources around it. In addition, prorupted states are also able to prevent a rival access. An example of a prorupted state would be Thailand.Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
30 Fragmented A state that is separated by a physical or human barrier. This creates several problems for the country. Many portions of the state are separated by oceans, lakes, and mountains. It is difficult to govern such a country composed of islands, such as Indonesia. In addition, communication is difficult within the state; since portions are separated form the main part of the country.Hô Kim Thi - HCMUSSH
31 PerforatedA perforated state completely surrounds another. A classic example would be South Africa since it surrounds Lesotho. The surrounded nation can only be reached by going through one country. More problems can arise if there is hostility between the two nations. This makes it difficult to enter the surrounding nation.
32 Land-lockedApproximately one-fifth of the world's countries are landlocked and have no access to the oceans. There are 43 landlocked countries that do not have direct access to an ocean or ocean-accessible sea (such as the Mediterranean Sea). They have the disadvantageous situation of needing to rely upon neighboring countries for access to seaports.
33 For example, Ethiopia relies on Eritrea for access to the Red Sea and recent conflicts have made that access difficult.
34 Doubly-Landlocked Countries There are two special landlocked countries that are known as doubly-landlocked countries, completely surrounded by other landlocked countries.
35 Exclave a territory legally or politically attached to a territory with which it is not physically contiguous
36 EnclaveA country or part of a country that is surrounded by another. However, an enclave does not have political affinity to the surrounding state. Also, an enclave does not belong to another country. For example, the Vatican City is an enclave of Rome. The Vatican City has its own government and is independent from Rome and Italy. Therefore, it is not bound by the rules of Rome, as well as the rules of Italy.
38 THEORY Location theory and the neoclassical approach Alfred Weber’s industrial location theoryAugust Lösch…Behavioural approachBy adopting Herbert Simon’s ideaof bounded rationality, behavioural economic geographers examined the role of cognitive informationand human choices in determining decision-making and locational outcomesMarxistpolitical economyTo address adequately the social and spatial inequities in economic development and wealth tDuring the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the political economy approach manifested itself in the post-Fordism debate.
39 THEORYSince the mid-1990s, ‘new economic geography’ has moved away from viewing economic processes as separate from social, cultural and political contexts. Instead, social, cultural, and institutional factors tend now to be seen as key factors in understanding economic dynamics. Unlike previous genres, the new economic geography is not represented by a particular theoretical perspective or methodological practice. Rather, it is characterized by an eclectic collection of philosophical standpoints and social theories ranging from poststructuralism and postmodernism to institutionalism and feminism.