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ACIDS & BASES. Acid Nomenclature Flowchart Binary -ide Oxyacids or Ternary -ite -ate.

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Presentation on theme: "ACIDS & BASES. Acid Nomenclature Flowchart Binary -ide Oxyacids or Ternary -ite -ate."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACIDS & BASES

2 Acid Nomenclature Flowchart Binary -ide Oxyacids or Ternary -ite -ate

3 NAMES AND FORMULAS A Review HX means Acid If anion ends in –ide Acid name begins with hydro- Ends with –ic, followed by Ends with –ic, followed by Acid HCl – Hydrochloric Acid (Chloride) HCl – Hydrochloric Acid (Chloride) HBr – Hydrobromic Acid (Bromide) HBr – Hydrobromic Acid (Bromide) HCN – Hydrocyanic Acid (Cyanide) HCN – Hydrocyanic Acid (Cyanide)

4 NAMES AND FORMULAS If anion ends in –ite Acid ends with –ous, followed by Acid H 2 SO 3 – Sulfurous Acid H 2 SO 3 – Sulfurous Acid HNO 2 – Nitrous Acid H 3 PO 3 – Phosphorous Acid H 3 PO 3 – Phosphorous Acid

5 NAMES AND FORMULAS –ate If anion ends in –ate –icAcid Acid ends with –ic,followed by Acid H 2 SO 4 – Sulfuric Acid HNO 3 – Nitric Acid H 3 PO 4 – Phosphoric Acid

6 NAMES AND FORMULAS Bases Bases named same as ionic compound Hydroxide NaOH –Sodium Hydroxide (Lye) Hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 – Calcium Hydroxide (Lime) Hydroxide Pb(OH) 2 – Lead Hydroxide Hydroxide KOH – Potassium Hydroxide

7 WATER IONIZATION Water molecules in continuous random motion Collisions between two molecules Result in transfer of hydrogen ion H 3 O + OH - H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - H 3 O + H 3 O + = hydronium ion OH - OH - = hydroxide ion

8 3 Theories Acid-Base Theories

9 3 Theories Acid/Base Theory #1: Arrhenius (traditional) Theory #1: Arrhenius (traditional) a) Acids – produce H + ions (or hydronium ions H 3 O + ) in aqueous solution a) Acids – produce H + ions (or hydronium ions H 3 O + ) in aqueous solution b) Bases – produces OH - ions in aqueous solutions i: Monoprotic Acid gives up 1 H+ (HCL) ii: Diprotic Acid gives up 2 H+ (H 2 SO 4 ) iii: Triprotic Acid gives up 3 H+ (H 3 PO 4 )

10 Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water

11 Brønsted – Lowry Theory #2: Brønsted – Lowry a) Acids – proton (H+) donor (H+ is given away) (H+ is given away) b) Bases – proton (H+) acceptor (H+ gained) (H+ gained) A proton is really just a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron!

12 A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor acid conjugate base base conjugate acid

13 Lewis a) Lewis acid – electron pair acceptor b) Lewis base – electron pair donor Theory #3 – Lewis

14 WATER DISSOCIATION, SIMPLIFIED Dissociation of water: H 2 O H + + OH - One H + and one OH - produced, so [H + ] = [OH - ] [ X ] = concentration (Molarity)

15 PROPERTIES OF ACIDS Sour or tart taste in foods Sour or tart taste in foods Strong Acid = Strong Electrolyte Strong Acid = Strong Electrolyte Release H+ ions in water Release H+ ions in water Turn blue litmus paper Red Turn blue litmus paper Red

16 Hydrogen Ion in Water Water + a proton Hydronium Ion H 2 O + H + H 3 O +1 The H + ion has no electrons so it attached itself to a water molecule to share its electrons

17 ARRHENEIUS ACIDS rrhenius ( ) Theory developed by Arrhenius ( ) Defined acids and bases as compounds that ionize to produce H + and OH -

18 HCl + H 2 O (1) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) monoprotic H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O (2) H 3 O + (aq) + SO 4 -2 (aq) diprotic H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O - (3) H 3 O + (aq) + PO 4 -3 (aq) triprotic ARRHENIUS ACIDS Theory: substance that contains hydrogen, and releases the H + in water

19 Types of Arrhenius Acids Triprotic acids contain 3 ionizable protons H 3 PO 4 Monoprotic acids contain 1 ionizable proton HCl, HBr, HF, HI Diprotic acids contain 2 ionizable protons H 2 SO 4

20 PROPERTIES OF BASES Feels slippery Feels slippery Bitter taste Bitter taste Strong Base = Strong Electrolyte Strong Base = Strong Electrolyte Produce hydroxide ions in water Produce hydroxide ions in water Red litmus turns Blue in a Base (RBB) Red litmus turns Blue in a Base (RBB) EX: LYE USED IN SOAPMAKING EX: LYE USED IN SOAPMAKING AMMONIA USED IN CLEANING AMMONIA USED IN CLEANING

21 ARRHENIUS BASES OH- Substance that contains OH and releases the OH- in water. OH - NaOH + H 2 O Na +1 (aq) + OH - (aq) OH - Mg(OH) 2 + H 2 O Mg +2 (aq) + 2 OH - (aq)

22 Some Definitions Arrhenius acids and bases Arrhenius acids and bases Acid:Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons, H + ). Acid:Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons, H + ). Base:Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions. Base:Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions.

23 Complete book practice problems Complete book practice problems Pg 609 Pg 609 #34,43,44,45,46 #34,43,44,45,46 Or check your Power packet ( Acids + Bases) pg 9 Or check your Power packet ( Acids + Bases) pg 9

24 WhoTheory:Acid=When Arrhenius increases H s Brønsted & Lowry proton donor 1923 Lewis Electron-pair acceptor 1923 Three definitions of acid

25 ALTERNATE THEORIES Not all materials with acidic/basic properties in aqueous solution contain H or OH. Dont fit Arrhenius definition of acids & base Thomas Lowry ( ) independently proposed a new definition. Johannes Brønsted ( ) and

26 Some Definitions Brønsted–Lowry: must have both Brønsted–Lowry: must have both 1. an Acid:Proton donor and 2. a Base:Proton acceptor

27 Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases B/L Acid is a hydrogen ion donor B/L base is a hydrogen ion acceptor Arrhenius acids and bases fit into the Brønsted – Lowry Theory

28 The Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a proton, while the Brønsted-Lowry base accepts it. Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases are always paired. Which is the acid and which is the base in each of these rxns?

29 Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - Ammonia is a base accepts hydrogen ion Water is an acid donates hydrogen ion

30 What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed. Movies…

31 A Brønsted–Lowry acid… …must have a removable (acidic) proton. HCl, H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 HCl, H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 A Brønsted–Lowry base… …must have a pair of nonbonding electrons. …must have a pair of nonbonding electrons. NH 3, H 2 O NH 3, H 2 O

32 Conjugate Acids and Bases: From the Latin word conjugare, meaning to join together. From the Latin word conjugare, meaning to join together. Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids. Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids.

33 Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid Formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion. NH 4 + is the Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base What remains when an acid has donated the hydrogen ion. OH - is the Conjugate Base

34 Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases BaseAcid Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base

35 Conjugate acid / base pair Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases Two substances that are related by the loss or gain of a hydrogen ion. Water is Amphoteric - Acts as both Acid and Base HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl -

36 In General: Conjugate Base of a Strong Acid is weak HCl (acid) has a weak conjugate base in Cl - Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate Acid of a Strong Base is weak NaOH (base) has a weak conjugate acid in Na +

37 ALTERNATE THEORIES Gilbert Lewis ( ) focused on the donation or acceptance of electrons. Remember the Lewis Dot Structure? This is the same guy… accepts Lewis acid accepts electrons to form a covalent bond donates Lewis base donates electrons to form a covalent bond

38 Acid-Base Definitions TypeAcidBase Arrhenius H + producer OH - producer Brønsted-Lowry H + donor H + acceptor Lewis Electron-pair acceptor Electron-pair donor


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