2Acid Nomenclature Flowchart Oxyacids or Ternary-ite-ateBinary-ide
3NAMES AND FORMULAS A Review HX means AcidIf anion ends in “–ide”Acid name begins with “hydro-”Ends with “–ic” , followed by “Acid”HCl – Hydrochloric Acid (Chloride)HBr – Hydrobromic Acid (Bromide)HCN – Hydrocyanic Acid (Cyanide)
4NAMES AND FORMULAS If anion ends in “–ite” Acid ends with “–ous”, followed by “Acid”H2SO3 – Sulfurous AcidHNO2 – Nitrous AcidH3PO3 – Phosphorous Acid
5NAMES AND FORMULAS If anion ends in “–ate” Acid ends with “–ic” ,followed by “Acid”H2SO4 – Sulfuric AcidHNO3 – Nitric AcidH3PO4 – Phosphoric Acid
6NAMES AND FORMULAS Bases named same as ionic compound NaOH –Sodium Hydroxide (Lye)Ca(OH)2 – Calcium Hydroxide (Lime)Pb(OH)2 – Lead HydroxideKOH – Potassium Hydroxide
7WATER IONIZATION Water molecules in continuous random motion Collisions between two moleculesResult in transfer of hydrogen ionH2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-H3O+ = hydronium ionOH- = hydroxide ion
93 Theories Acid/Base Theory #1: Arrhenius (traditional) a) Acids – produce H+ ions (or hydronium ions H3O+) in aqueous solutioni: Monoprotic Acid gives up 1 H+ (HCL)ii: Diprotic Acid gives up 2 H+ (H2SO4)iii: Triprotic Acid gives up 3 H+ (H3PO4)b) Bases – produces OH- ions in aqueous solutions
10Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+ (H3O+) in water Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH- in water
11Brønsted – Lowry Theory #2: Brønsted – Lowry a) Acids – proton (H+) donor(H+ is given away)b) Bases – proton (H+) acceptor(H+ gained)A “proton” is really just a hydrogen atom that has lost it’s electron!
12A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor A Brønsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptorconjugate acidconjugate basebaseacid
13Lewis a) Lewis acid – electron pair acceptor Theory #3 – Lewisa) Lewis acid – electron pair acceptorb) Lewis base – electron pair donor
14WATER DISSOCIATION, SIMPLIFIED Dissociation of water:H2O H+ + OH-One H+ and one OH- produced, so[H+] = [OH-][ X ] = concentration (Molarity)
15PROPERTIES OF ACIDS Sour or tart taste in foods Strong Acid = Strong ElectrolyteRelease H+ ions in waterTurn blue litmus paper Red
16Hydrogen Ion in Water Water + a proton Hydronium Ion H2O H H3O +1The H+ ion has no electrons so it attached itself to a water molecule to share its electrons
17ARRHENEIUS ACIDSTheory developed by Arrhenius ( )Defined acids and bases as compounds that ionize to produce H+ and OH-
18ARRHENIUS ACIDSTheory: substance that contains hydrogen, and releases the H+ in waterHCl H2O (1) H3O+ (aq) + Cl - (aq) monoproticH2SO4 + H2O (2) H3O+ (aq) + SO4-2 (aq)diproticH3PO4 + H2O - (3) H3O+ (aq) + PO4-3 (aq)triprotic
20PROPERTIES OF BASES Feels slippery Bitter taste Strong Base = Strong ElectrolyteProduce hydroxide ions in waterRed litmus turns Blue in a Base (RBB)EX: LYE USED IN SOAPMAKINGAMMONIA USED IN CLEANING
21ARRHENIUS BASESSubstance that contains OH and releases the OH- in water.NaOH + H2O Na+1 (aq) + OH- (aq)Mg(OH)2 + H2O Mg +2 (aq) + 2 OH- (aq)
22Some Definitions Arrhenius acids and bases Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons, H+).Base: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions.
23Complete book practice problems Pg 609#34,43,44,45,46Or check your Power packet ( Acids + Bases) pg 9
24Three definitions of acid WhoTheory:Acid=WhenArrheniusincreases H+1880’sBrønsted & Lowryproton donor1923LewisElectron-pair acceptor
25ALTERNATE THEORIESNot all materials with acidic/basic properties in aqueous solution contain H or OH.Don’t fit Arrhenius definition of acids & baseJohannes Brønsted ( ) andThomas Lowry ( ) independently proposed a new definition.
26Some Definitions Brønsted–Lowry: must have both 1. an Acid: Proton donorand2. a Base: Proton acceptor
27Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases B/L Acid is a hydrogen ion donorB/L base is a hydrogen ion acceptorArrhenius acids and bases fit into the Brønsted – Lowry Theory
28Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases are always paired. The Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a proton,while the Brønsted-Lowry base accepts it.Which is the acid and which is the base in each of these rxns?
29Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases NH3 + H2O g NH OH-Ammonia is a baseaccepts hydrogen ionWater is an aciddonates hydrogen ion
30What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H+) from the acid.As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed.Movies…
31A Brønsted–Lowry acid… …must have a removable (acidic) proton.HCl, H2O, H2SO4A Brønsted–Lowry base……must have a pair of nonbonding electrons.NH3, H2O
32Conjugate Acids and Bases: From the Latin word conjugare, meaning “to join together.”Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids.
33Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate AcidFormed when a base gains a hydrogen ion.NH4+ is the Conjugate AcidConjugate BaseWhat remains when an acid has donated the hydrogen ion.OH- is the Conjugate Base
34Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate AcidConjugate BaseBaseAcid
35Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate acid / base pairTwo substances that are related by the loss or gain of a hydrogen ion.HCl + H2O g H3O Cl-Water is Amphoteric - Acts as both Acid and Base
36Brønsted – Lowry Acids and Bases In General:Conjugate Base of a Strong Acid is weakHCl (acid) has a weak conjugate base in Cl-Conjugate Acid of a Strong Base is weakNaOH (base) has a weak conjugate acid in Na+
37Remember the Lewis Dot Structure? ALTERNATE THEORIESGilbert Lewis ( ) focusedon the donation or acceptance of electrons.Lewis acid accepts electrons to form a covalent bondLewis base donates electrons to form a covalent bondRemember the Lewis Dot Structure?This is the same guy…