Presentation on theme: "Objectives Vocabulary"— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives Vocabulary What are elements?ObjectivesDescribe the particles within atoms and the structure of atoms.Relate the energy levels of atoms to the chemical properties of elements.Define the concept of isotopes.Vocabularyenergy levelvalence electronisotopeatomic massradioactivityelementatomnucleusprotonneutronatomic numbermass numberelectron
2What are elements?What are elements?The physical world that surrounds you and all living things are composed of matter.Matter is anything that has volume and mass.On Earth, matter usually can be found as a solid, liquid, or gas.
3Elements All matter is made of substances called elements. What are elements?ElementsAll matter is made of substances called elements.An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.Ninety-two elements occur naturally on Earth and in the stars.Other elements have been produced in laboratory experiments.
4What are elements?ElementsEach element is identified by a one-, two-, or three-letter abbreviation known as a chemical symbol.
5Elements are Made of Atoms What are elements?Elements are Made of AtomsEach element has distinct characteristics.An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has all of the characteristics of that element.All atoms consist of even smaller particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
6Elements are Made of Atoms What are elements?Elements are Made of AtomsThe nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons, forms the center of an atom.A proton (p+) is a tiny particle that has mass and a positive electrical charge.A neutron (n0) is a particle with about the same mass as a proton, but it is electrically neutral; that is, it has no electrical charge.All atomic nuclei have a positive charge.
7Elements are Made of Atoms What are elements?Elements are Made of AtomsThe number of protons and neutrons in different atoms varies widely.The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus.The mass number is the combined number of protons and neutrons.
8Elements are Made of Atoms What are elements?Elements are Made of Atoms
9Elements are Made of Atoms What are elements?Elements are Made of AtomsSurrounding the nucleus of an atom are smaller particles called electrons.An electron (e–) has little mass, but it has a negative electrical charge that is exactly the same magnitude as the positive charge of a proton.An atom has an equal number of protons and electrons which produces an atom that has no overall charge.
10Elements are Made of Atoms What are elements?Elements are Made of AtomsAn energy level represents the area in an atom where an electron is most likely to be found.The mass of an atom depends mostly upon the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.The size of an atom depends upon the number and arrangement of its electrons.
11Electrons in Energy Levels What are elements?Electrons in Energy LevelsElectrons are distributed over one or more energy levels in a predictable pattern.Each energy level can hold only a limited number of electrons.The innermost energy level can hold only 2 electrons.The second energy level can hold up to 8 electrons.The third energy level can hold up to 18 electrons.The fourth energy level can hold up to 32 electrons.Electrons tend to occupy the lowest available energy level.
12Electrons in Energy Levels What are elements?Electrons in Energy Levels
13Electrons in Energy Levels What are elements?Electrons in Energy LevelsThe number of electrons in the outermost energy level determines the chemical behavior of the different elements.Valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom.Elements with the same number of valence electrons have similar chemical properties.
14Electrons in Energy Levels What are elements?Electrons in Energy LevelsSodium (Na) atoms, with just one valence electron, are highly reactive metals, which means that they combine easily with other elements.
15Electrons in Energy Levels What are elements?Electrons in Energy LevelsElements such as helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) are inert, which means that they do not easily combine with other elements.This is because they have full outermost energy levels.
16What are elements?IsotopesThe number of neutrons in the nuclei of an element’s atoms can vary.Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers and the same chemical properties.The atomic mass of an element is the average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of an element.
17What are elements?IsotopesThe nuclei of some isotopes are unstable and release radiation.Radioactivity is the spontaneous process through which unstable nuclei emit radiation.During radioactive decay, a nucleus can lose protons and neutrons, change a proton to a neutron, or change a neutron to a proton.Because the number of protons in a nucleus identifies an element, decay changes the identity of an element.
18What Elements are Most Abundant? What are elements?What Elements are Most Abundant?The two most abundant elements in the universe are hydrogen and helium.
19What Elements are Most Abundant? What are elements?What Elements are Most Abundant?The percentages of elements in Earth’s crust differ from the percentages in the universe.
20What are elements?Section Assessment1. Match the following terms with their definitions.___ proton___ energy level___ neutron___ atomA. a tiny particle that has mass and a positive electrical chargeB. the smallest particle of an element that has all of the characteristics of that elementC. a tiny particle that has mass and is electrically neutralD. an area of an atom where an electron is most likely to be found
21What are elements?Section Assessment2. What arrangement of electrons would you expect to find in an iron (Fe) atom?____ first energy level____ second energy level____ third energy level____ fourth energy level
22What are elements?Section Assessment3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false._______ The number of protons can differ from atom to atom in the same element._______ Oxygen and silicon are the most abundant elements in the universe._______ Elements with the same number of valance electrons have similar properties.
24Objectives Vocabulary How Atoms CombineObjectivesDescribe the chemical bonds that unite atoms to form compounds.Relate the nature of chemical bonds that hold compounds together to the physical structures of compounds.Distinguish among different types of mixtures and solutions.Vocabularycompoundchemical bondcovalent bondmoleculeionionic bondchemical reactionsolutionacidbase
25How Atoms CombineCompoundsA compound is a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.Most compounds have totally different properties from the elements of which they are composed.For most elements, an atom is chemically stable when its outermost energy level is full.Chemical bonds are the forces that hold the elements together in a compound creating a state of stability.
26Compounds Covalent Bonds How Atoms CombineCompoundsCovalent BondsOne way in which atoms fill their outermost energy levels is by sharing electrons.A covalent bond is the attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the atoms together.
27Compounds Covalent Bonds How Atoms CombineCompoundsCovalent BondsA molecule is composed of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.Molecules have no overall electrical charge because the total number of electrons equals the total number of protons.
29Compounds Covalent Bonds How Atoms CombineCompoundsCovalent BondsMolecules are represented in chemistry by chemical formulas that include the symbol for each element followed by a subscript number that stands for the number of atoms of that element in the molecule.If there is only one atom of an element, no subscript number follows the symbol.A molecular compound is a compound comprised of molecules.
30Compounds Polar Molecules How Atoms CombineCompoundsPolar MoleculesWhen atoms in a covalent bond do not share electrons equally, they form polar bonds.Polar bonds have a positive end and a negative end.The overall shape of a molecule indicates whether it is polar.
31How Atoms CombineIonsSometimes, atoms gain or lose electrons from their outermost energy levels.A charged particle called an ion is an atom that gains or loses an electron.In general, an atom in which the outermost energy level is less than half-full tends to lose its valence electrons.When an atom loses its valence electrons, it becomes positively charged and is indicated by a superscript plus sign.
32How Atoms CombineIonsAn atom in which the outermost energy level is more than half-full tends to fill its outermost energy level by adding one or more needed electrons.Such an atom forms a negative ion which is indicated by a superscript negative sign.If the outermost energy level is exactly half-full, an atom may form either a positive or negative ion.
33Ions Ionic Bonds Positive and negative ions attract each other. How Atoms CombineIonsIonic BondsPositive and negative ions attract each other.An ionic bond is the attractive force between two ions of opposite charge.Positive ions are always written first in chemical formulas.
34How Atoms CombineIonsIonic BondsWith an ionic compound, the net electrical charge of the compound is zero.Ionic compounds are compounds formed by ionic bonding.
35How Atoms CombineMetallic BondsIn metals, the valence electrons are shared by all the atoms, not just by adjacent atoms.The positive ions of the metal are held together by the negative electrons between them.This type of bond, known as a metallic bond, allows metals to conduct electricity easily because the electrons can move freely throughout the entire solid metal.
36How Atoms CombineChemical ReactionsSometimes, compounds break down into simpler substances.A chemical reaction is the change of one or more substances into other substances.Chemical reactions are described by chemical equations.A chemical equation must be balanced by showing an equal number of atoms for each element on each side of the equation.
37Mixtures and Solutions How Atoms CombineMixtures and SolutionsA mixture is a combination of two or more components that retain their identities.When a mixture’s components are easily recognizable, such as soil, it is called a heterogeneous mixture.In a homogeneous mixture such as coffee, the component particles cannot be distinguished, even though they still retain their original properties.
38Mixtures and Solutions How Atoms CombineMixtures and SolutionsA homogeneous mixture is also called a solution.A solution may be liquid, gaseous, or solid.Seawater is a liquid solution consisting of water molecules and ions of many elements that exist on Earth.Air is a solution of gases, mostly nitrogen and oxygen molecules together with other atoms and molecules.Bronze is a solid solution of copper and tin atoms.
39Mixtures and Solutions How Atoms CombineMixtures and SolutionsAcids and BasesMany chemical reactions that occur on Earth involve solutions called acids and bases.An acid is a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water.The most common acid in our environment is carbonic acid, which is produced when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water by the following reaction H2O + CO2 ® H2CO3
40Mixtures and Solutions How Atoms CombineMixtures and SolutionsAcids and BasesThe most common acid in our environment is carbonic acid, which is produced when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water by the following reaction H2O + CO2 ® H2CO3Some of the carbonic acid molecules in the water dissociate, or break apart, into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions, as represented by the following equation. H2CO3 ® H+ + HCO2–
41Mixtures and Solutions How Atoms CombineMixtures and SolutionsAcids and BasesBases produce hydroxide ions (OH–) in solution.A base can neutralize an acid by combining with hydrogen ions of the acid to form water through the following reaction. H+ + OH– ® H2OThe pH scale measures the hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solutions on a scale of 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral.
42Mixtures and Solutions How Atoms CombineMixtures and SolutionsAcids and BasesThe pH scale measures the hydrogen and hydroxide ions in solutions on a scale of 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral.A solution with a pH reading below 7 is considered to be acidic.A solution with a reading above 7 is considered to be basic.
43How Atoms CombineSection Assessment1. Match the following terms with their definitions.___ covalent bond___ compound___ ion___ acidA. an atom that gains or loses an electron and becomes electrically chargedB. a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions in waterC. an attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that hold the atoms togetherD. a substance that is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined
44How Atoms CombineSection Assessment2. Identify whether the following are acidic, basic, or neutral.___ Milk___ Distilled water___ Rainwater___ Ammonia___ Lemon___ Tomato___ AntacidA. AcidicB. BasicC. Neutral
45Section Assessment 3. Describe the following chemical equation: How Atoms CombineSection Assessment3. Describe the following chemical equation:S + O2 ® SO2
47Objectives Vocabulary Describe the states of matter on Earth. Explain the reasons that matter exists in these states.Relate the role of thermal energy to changes of state in matter.Vocabularycrystalline structureglassevaporationsublimationplasmacondensation
48States of MatterSolidsSolids are substances with densely packed particles, which may be ions, atoms, or molecules, depending upon the substance.The particles of a solid are arranged in a definite pattern; thus, a solid has both a definite shape and a definite volume.Most solids have a crystalline structure, in which the particles are arranged in regular geometric patterns.
49States of MatterSolidsCrystals form symmetrical solid objects with flat faces and straight edges between faces.The angles between the faces depend upon the internal arrangement of the particles.
50States of MatterSolidsWhen many crystals form in the same space at the same time, mutual interference results in a mass of intergrown crystals, called a polycrystalline solid.Most solid substances on Earth, including rocks, are polycrystalline materials.Glasses are solids that consist of densely packed atoms arranged at random.Glasses do not form crystals, or their crystals are so small that they cannot be seen.
51States of MatterLiquidsThe atoms in solids vibrate at any temperature above absolute zero (2273°C).These thermal vibrations increase with increasing temperature.At the melting point of the material, the vibrations break the forces holding the solid together.The particles can then slide past each other, and the substance becomes liquid.While liquids do not have their own shape, they do have definite volume.
52States of MatterGasesIndividual particles in a liquid may gain sufficient energy to escape the liquid.Evaporation, or vaporization, is the process of changing from a liquid to a gas.When any liquid reaches its boiling point, it vaporizes quickly and becomes a gas.Sublimation is the slow change of state from a solid to a gas without an intermediate liquid state.
53States of MatterGasesIn gases, the particles are separated by relatively large distances and move about at extremely high speeds.Gas particles move independently of each other and travel randomly.Gases have no definite shape or volume and can expand into any space available, unless they are restrained.Earth’s gravity keeps the gases in the atmosphere from escaping into space.
54The Electromagnetic Spectrum States of MatterThe Electromagnetic SpectrumSatellites detect different wavelengths of energy reflected or emitted from Earth’s surface.This energy has both electric and magnetic properties and is referred to as electromagnetic radiation.Electromagnetic radiation includes visible light, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, radio waves, and microwaves.
55States of MatterPlasmaAt temperatures greater than 5000°C, the collisions between particles are so violent that electrons are knocked away from atoms.Such extremely high temperatures exist in stars, and, as a result, the gases of stars consist entirely of positive ions and free electrons.Plasmas are hot, highly ionized, electrically conducting gases.
56States of MatterChanges of StateSolids melt when they absorb thermal energy and their temperatures rise.When a liquid absorbs thermal energy from the environment, it evaporates.When a liquid freezes, the same thermal energy is then released back into the environment.When a gas is cooled, it releases thermal energy in the process of condensation.Condensation is the change from a gas to a liquid.
57Conservation of Matter and Energy States of MatterConservation of Matter and EnergyThe law of conservation of matter states that matter cannot be created or destroyed but can change from one form to another.The law of the conservation of energy, also called the first law of thermodynamics, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can be changed from one form to another.
58States of MatterSection Assessment1. Match the following terms with their definitions.___ crystalline structure___ glasses___ evaporation___ sublimationA. solids that consist of densely packed atoms arranged at randomB. a slow change from a solid to a vapor without an intermediate liquid stateC. a solid in which the particles are arranged in regular geometric patternsD. the process of change from a liquid to a gas
59States of MatterSection Assessment2. What are two examples of matter in the plasma state that you have seen?
60States of MatterSection Assessment3. Identify whether the following processes absorb or release energy into the environment.___ condensation___ evaporation___ melting___ freezing___ sublimationA. Absorb energyB. Release energyC. Neither release or absorb
62Section 3.1 Study GuideSection 3.1 Main IdeasThe basic building blocks of matter are atoms. Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons.Protons have a positive electrical charge, electrons have a negative electrical charge, and neutrons are electrically neutral. Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom; electrons surround the nucleus in energy levels.An element is a substance consisting of atoms with a specific number of protons in their nuclei. Isotopes of an element differ by the number of neutrons in their nuclei. Many elements are mixtures of isotopes.The number of electrons in the outermost energy levels of atoms determines their chemical behavior. Elements with the same number of electrons in their outermost energy levels have similar chemical properties.
63Section 3.2 Study GuideSection 3.2 Main IdeasAtoms of different elements combine to form compounds.Atoms held together by the sharing of electrons in covalent bonds form molecular compounds.Ions are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Positive and negative ions attract each other and form ionic compounds.Acids are solutions containing hydrogen ions. Bases are solutions containing hydroxide ions. Acids and bases can neutralize each other.A mixture is a combination of components that retain their identities. A solution is a mixture in which the components can no longer be distinguished as separate. Solutions can be liquid, solid, gaseous, or combinations.
64Section 3.3 Study GuideSection 3.3 Main IdeasMatter on Earth exists in three common physical states: solid, liquid, or gaseous. Matter in the universe includes plasma.Most solids have a crystalline structure.Liquids are densely packed arrangements of particles.Gases consist of widely separated, individual particles. Plasmas are hot, highly ionized, electrically conducting gases.Changes of state involve thermal energy.
65Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is NOT about elements? Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice1. Which of the following is NOT about elements?a. They cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.b. There are 47 naturally occurring elements on Earth and in the stars.c. All matter is made of elements.d. Each element is identified by a chemical symbol.There are 92 elements that occur naturally on Earth and in the stars.
66Multiple Choice 2. An element’s atomic number represents ____. Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice2. An element’s atomic number represents ____.a. the number of protons in the atom’s nucleusb. the combined number of protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleusc. the number of neutrons in the atom’s nucleusd. none of the aboveThe combined number of protons and neutrons is the element’s mass number. The number of neutrons can vary among the atoms of an element, creating isotopes.
67Multiple Choice 3. Which is the most abundant element in the universe? Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice3. Which is the most abundant element in the universe?a. oxygen c. ironb. helium d. hydrogenHydrogen makes up about 93.5% of all matter in the universe. It is followed by helium at 6.3%.
68Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice4. Which is the most abundant element in Earth’s crust?a. hydrogen c. oxygenb. silicon d. aluminumOxygen makes up of Earth’s crust. It is followed by silicon (27.7%), aluminum (8.1%), and iron (5.0%).
69Multiple Choice 5. Which of the following is a molecule? Chapter AssessmentMultiple Choice5. Which of the following is a molecule?a. argon c. nitrogenb. water d. uraniumArgon, nitrogen, and uranium are elements.
70Chapter AssessmentShort Answer6. What condition is necessary for matter to be in a plasma state?
71Short Answer 7. What three forms can a solution take? Chapter AssessmentShort Answer7. What three forms can a solution take?
72Chapter AssessmentTrue or False8. Identify whether the following statements are true or false.______ A pH value of 11 would indicate an acid.______ Ions are atoms that either lost or gained an electron.______ Apple juice is an example of a solution.______ In a polar bond, electrons are shared equally.______ Two negative ions will join to create an ionic bond.