Presentation on theme: "Jayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav2"— Presentation transcript:
1Jayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav2 ARTIFICIAL CELLSLife is endowed with a mysterious and divine life-forceJayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav21Department of Biotechnology, JMIT, Radaur2 NIDDK, National Institute of Health, Bethesda,MD20892, USA
2Artificial Cells Artificial microscopic structures Same size as biological cellsHave some of the functional properties of biological cells.They contain biologically active materials.
3Properties of an ideal minimal cell An information carrying polymerTransport across the membraneAn external source of chemical energyA catalytic activityGrowth and DivisionRegulation
30Polymeric Artificial cells Containing Cell ContentAimCells and TissuesPancreatic cellsFeedback controlled secretion of insulin for diabetes mellitusHepatocytesTo support liver function in liver failureKidney cellsTo secrete erythropoietin to treat anemiaParathyroid CellsTo secrete parathyroid hormone to treat hypoparathyroidism
31Genetically engineered cells Contd..Genetically engineered cellsMouse myoblast (mGH gene) SK2 hybridoma cellsSecrete mGH for dwarfismSecrete anti-hIL-6 monoclonal Abs for IgG1 plasmacytosisMouse myoblasts (human factor IX geen)Secrete human factor IX for hemophilia BHamster kidney cells (CNTF gene)Secrete ciliary neutrotrophic factor for amytrophic lateral sclerosisNeuro2A cells (pro-piomelaocortin gene)Secrete β-endorphin for pain treatmentStem cellsStem cells plus hepatocytesIncrease duration of viability and function of hepatocytes
32Microorganisms Pseudomonas pictorum To remove Erwinia herbicola Contd..MicroorganismsPseudomonas pictorumTo removeErwinia herbicolaTo convert ammonia pyruvate and phenol into lysine and DOPACDH5 E.coliUrea removalMetabolic induction of Lactobacilus delbruecki
33Bioactive sorbants Activated charcoal and resins Ultra thin coating of colloidal membraneDetoxify the blood – hemoperfusion.McGill Artificial Cells and Organ Research Centre in the late 1960s.
34Hemoperfusion Patient’s blood Charcoal-filled artificial cells Toxins in the blood to enter the cellsAdsorbed by the charcoal.
35Artificial cells as drug delivery vehicles Drug (biodegradable membrane)fusionTarget tissuemembrane degradedDrug released
36Artificial cells as biosensors analytessignalCoenzyme-depleted enzyme - glucose oxidase
37Artificial Cell Membrane Holds Promise For Medical Use Detecting Flue VirusAnti-inflammatory Agent
38Pink film Tailored Glycolipids(sialic acid) Specific Protein Bind (Coat proteins of Influenza virus)Pink film
39Inflammatory Agents Infection/Injury Blood Vessels Produce Receptors WBC/Neutrophils Bind
40* Rheumatoid Arthritis * Clamping of Blood Vessels Contd..Excess* Rheumatoid Arthritis* Septic Shock* Clamping of Blood VesselsDuring Surgery
41Prevents attachment to Polymerized MembraneSugarsPrevents attachment toBlood Vessels
42Artificial red blood cells Modified hemoglobin* high oxygen carrying capacity* do not have blood group antigens* longer half life* non toxic
43Extracting Hb from RBC’s RBC’s contain Hb which transport O2 through bodyRBC’s are lysed with E-Pure water to extract HbE-Pure Water
45Why Cross-link Hb?Hemoglobin must be cross-linked when placed in the blood stream.Hb breaks into dimers which can travel through capillary pores (holes) and cause death.+ Cross-linkerIn bodyCross-linked Hb can no longer travel through poresHb dimers are small enough to travel through pores
46Present status Hemoperfusion for acute poisoning (clinical trials) Hemoperfusion for aluminium and iron overload (clinical trials)Red blood cell substitute (clinical trials)Diabetes mellitus animal experiments (clinical trials)Drug delivery systemsArtificial liver support (experimental)Hereditary enzyme deficiency (clinical trials)
47LATEST BREAKTHROUGH Artificial Sperm NASA supported Researches for dehydrated blood SuppliesArtificial SpermArtificial Human Eggs Possible In 5 years
48Artificial Human Egg Haploidisation No Cloning Production of Reconstituted Egg
49Procedure Woman’s Somatic Cell Shelled Out Oocyte * Problem *Remove Nucleus*TransferShelled Out Oocyte* Problem
50* Embryo Developed normally in Lab Artificial Sperm* Dr. Orly Lacham Kalpan succeeded in fertilizing a normal egg with an artificial sperm.* Embryo Developed normally in Lab
51ConclusionArtificial cells allow to combine properties of biological systems for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.Artificial cell is an attempt to mimic some of the biological processes of a real cell, it may ultimately prove most useful as a partial substitute for animal cells.