Presentation on theme: "Jayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav2"— Presentation transcript:
1 Jayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav2 ARTIFICIAL CELLSLife is endowed with a mysterious and divine life-forceJayanti Tokas1, Rubina Begum1, Shalini Jain2 and Hariom Yadav21Department of Biotechnology, JMIT, Radaur2 NIDDK, National Institute of Health, Bethesda,MD20892, USA
2 Artificial Cells Artificial microscopic structures Same size as biological cellsHave some of the functional properties of biological cells.They contain biologically active materials.
3 Properties of an ideal minimal cell An information carrying polymerTransport across the membraneAn external source of chemical energyA catalytic activityGrowth and DivisionRegulation
6 Transport across cell membranes An assisted mechanism is necessaryCarrier moleculesChannelsPumps
7 Channels Neutral peptides Cyclic peptides α-hemolysin A tetrameric channel - M2 protein
8 Energy Supply ATP molecules from the environment Mimic the energy transduction process used by all living cells
9 Encapsulating Macromolecules Catalytic activity of the macromolecule is not damagedDehydration- re hydration methodFreeze- thaw techniqueInjection of molecules
10 Micro encapsulation To separate functional macromolecules Regulate exchange of materialsSupport metabolismTransduce environmental energy into chemical energySynthesize a desired biosynthetic product
11 Challenges for cell encapsulation OptimizeBiocompatibilityMass transferStabilityReproducibilityStructuralFunctional relationshipIncreases Long term stabilityRepoducible results
12 A number of commercial machines are available for automatic production of artificial cells
30 Polymeric Artificial cells Containing Cell ContentAimCells and TissuesPancreatic cellsFeedback controlled secretion of insulin for diabetes mellitusHepatocytesTo support liver function in liver failureKidney cellsTo secrete erythropoietin to treat anemiaParathyroid CellsTo secrete parathyroid hormone to treat hypoparathyroidism
31 Genetically engineered cells Contd..Genetically engineered cellsMouse myoblast (mGH gene) SK2 hybridoma cellsSecrete mGH for dwarfismSecrete anti-hIL-6 monoclonal Abs for IgG1 plasmacytosisMouse myoblasts (human factor IX geen)Secrete human factor IX for hemophilia BHamster kidney cells (CNTF gene)Secrete ciliary neutrotrophic factor for amytrophic lateral sclerosisNeuro2A cells (pro-piomelaocortin gene)Secrete β-endorphin for pain treatmentStem cellsStem cells plus hepatocytesIncrease duration of viability and function of hepatocytes
32 Microorganisms Pseudomonas pictorum To remove Erwinia herbicola Contd..MicroorganismsPseudomonas pictorumTo removeErwinia herbicolaTo convert ammonia pyruvate and phenol into lysine and DOPACDH5 E.coliUrea removalMetabolic induction of Lactobacilus delbruecki
33 Bioactive sorbants Activated charcoal and resins Ultra thin coating of colloidal membraneDetoxify the blood – hemoperfusion.McGill Artificial Cells and Organ Research Centre in the late 1960s.
34 Hemoperfusion Patient’s blood Charcoal-filled artificial cells Toxins in the blood to enter the cellsAdsorbed by the charcoal.
35 Artificial cells as drug delivery vehicles Drug (biodegradable membrane)fusionTarget tissuemembrane degradedDrug released
36 Artificial cells as biosensors analytessignalCoenzyme-depleted enzyme - glucose oxidase
37 Artificial Cell Membrane Holds Promise For Medical Use Detecting Flue VirusAnti-inflammatory Agent
38 Pink film Tailored Glycolipids(sialic acid) Specific Protein Bind (Coat proteins of Influenza virus)Pink film
39 Inflammatory Agents Infection/Injury Blood Vessels Produce Receptors WBC/Neutrophils Bind
40 * Rheumatoid Arthritis * Clamping of Blood Vessels Contd..Excess* Rheumatoid Arthritis* Septic Shock* Clamping of Blood VesselsDuring Surgery
41 Prevents attachment to Polymerized MembraneSugarsPrevents attachment toBlood Vessels
42 Artificial red blood cells Modified hemoglobin* high oxygen carrying capacity* do not have blood group antigens* longer half life* non toxic
43 Extracting Hb from RBC’s RBC’s contain Hb which transport O2 through bodyRBC’s are lysed with E-Pure water to extract HbE-Pure Water
45 Why Cross-link Hb?Hemoglobin must be cross-linked when placed in the blood stream.Hb breaks into dimers which can travel through capillary pores (holes) and cause death.+ Cross-linkerIn bodyCross-linked Hb can no longer travel through poresHb dimers are small enough to travel through pores
46 Present status Hemoperfusion for acute poisoning (clinical trials) Hemoperfusion for aluminium and iron overload (clinical trials)Red blood cell substitute (clinical trials)Diabetes mellitus animal experiments (clinical trials)Drug delivery systemsArtificial liver support (experimental)Hereditary enzyme deficiency (clinical trials)
47 LATEST BREAKTHROUGH Artificial Sperm NASA supported Researches for dehydrated blood SuppliesArtificial SpermArtificial Human Eggs Possible In 5 years
48 Artificial Human Egg Haploidisation No Cloning Production of Reconstituted Egg
49 Procedure Woman’s Somatic Cell Shelled Out Oocyte * Problem *Remove Nucleus*TransferShelled Out Oocyte* Problem
50 * Embryo Developed normally in Lab Artificial Sperm* Dr. Orly Lacham Kalpan succeeded in fertilizing a normal egg with an artificial sperm.* Embryo Developed normally in Lab
51 ConclusionArtificial cells allow to combine properties of biological systems for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.Artificial cell is an attempt to mimic some of the biological processes of a real cell, it may ultimately prove most useful as a partial substitute for animal cells.
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