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2 REFERENCES CFP 213 – CF Health Manual CF H Svcs GP Policy and Guidance , Water Supplies – Sampling and Sterilization Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Maxcy- Rosenau, 13 th Edition Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality, Health Canada, May 2008 Environmental Engineering, 5 th Edition

3 RESPONSIBILITIES BASE COMMANDER: The base commander or unit commanding officer shall ensure that his unit is supplied with an adequate amount of potable water and that the water storage, distribution system and purifying equipment are functioning properly.

4 RESPONSIBILITIES (CFHS) Canadian Forces Medical Services (CFHS) personnel are responsible for the following duties: exercising medical supervision over the quality of water supplies; making such recommendations concerning the quality of water as may be necessary for the protection and preservation of health;

5 RESPONSIBILITIES (CFHS) ensuring that correct procedures are used by CFHS and maintenance personnel in water-sampling techniques; obtaining and submitting water samples independent of those taken by maintenance personnel; and interpreting all laboratory reports of water samples.

6 RESPONSIBILITIES (CFHS) The CFHS is not responsible for the design, construction, operation, or maintenance of base and field water supply systems.

7 RESPONSIBILITIES (BCEO) The base construction engineering officer (BCEO) is responsible for the following duties: collecting and submitting water samples for bacteriological analysis to a provincial health laboratory. The minimum number of water samples will depend on the population involved;

8 RESPONSIBILITIES (BCEO) (1) for a population of up to 2,000 -one sample of treated water is required, every two weeks and one sample of raw water monthly; and

9 RESPONSIBILITIES (BCEO) for a population of over 2,000 -a weekly sampling of treated water is required, plus an additional sample per month for each 1,000 increase in population, and one sample of raw water is required during the first and third week of each month;

10 RESPONSIBILITIES (BCEO) forwarding one copy of each bacteriological examination report to the Command Surgeon with regional responsibilities and the Command construction engineer;

11 forwarding only those copies of reports indicating contamination in the water supply to NDHQ/DBM (Directorate of Base Maintenance); and RESPONSIBILITIES (BCEO)

12 collecting and submitting water samples for chemical analysis to the nearest federal or provincial laboratory at such intervals as NDHQ/DBM may specify. RESPONSIBILITIES (BCEO)

13 RESPONSIBILITIES UNIT PMED TECH: The Unit PMed Tech is directly responsible to the unit medical officer/commanding officer for all matters pertaining to hygiene and sanitation. These duties are field oriented and require a thorough knowledge of unit organization, role, tasking, and field sanitation requirements for differing operations.

14 RESPONSIBILITIES BASE PMED TECH: The Base PMed Tech is at all times directly responsible to the Base Surgeon/HC Coordinator on all matters pertaining to preventive medicine on the base and units supported by the base.

15 RESPONSIBILITIES COMD/AREA PMED TECH: The Command/Area PMed Tech is directly responsible to the Med Advisor/Area Surgeon on all matters pertaining to preventive medicine programs on all the base/stations/units (including the militia units) within the command region

16 RESPONSIBILITIES MEDICAL OFFICERS: Medical Officers are responsible to their COs for the bacteriological and chemical purity of unit water supplies.

17 RESPONSIBILITIES CHLORINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES: All water supplies shall be chlorinated, unless supplies are received from a treated municipal water supply system for which bacteriological examinations have consistently shown satisfactory water quality.

18 RESPONSIBILITIES FLUORIDATION OF WATER SUPPLIES: DND water supplies shall be fluoridated in accordance with CFP 120, Vol 2, Art 3557 and Construction Engineering Technical Orders (CETO 15-W-3-8), "Fluoridation of DND Water Supplies".

19 RESPONSIBILITIES CONTAMINATED WATER: When contamination is suspected, the BCEO shall: Inform the base commander or unit commanding officer and the medical officer. The BCEO shall take all steps necessary to isolate and contain the contamination;

20 The medical officer shall approve the method of removing the contaminant from the water supply system; and RESPONSIBILITIES

21 The base commander or unit commanding officer shall protect the health of the personnel under his command and their dependants, until the water supply is made safe for drinking, by using an alternative supply or by taking such other emergency measures as may be recommended by CFHS personnel. RESPONSIBILITIES

22 WATER SUPPLY IN THE FIELD In the field, water point operation is a responsibility of the Engineer Field Sqn. The selection of a water point will always be subject to the tactical situation. This may prevent the use of one ideal water source in favor of another which is, possibly, less desirable from the hygienic standpoint, but better suited to the operational plan. This is a principle which CFHS personnel must keep in mind.

23 RESPONSIBILITIES RECREATIONAL WATER: BCEO Responsibilities: The BCEO is responsible for the operation and maintenance of swimming pools in compliance with federal and provincial standards and as recommended by CFHS. Perhaps in no other aspect of the Forces health is a harmonious working arrangement between medical and engineering personnel of greater importance.

24 RESPONSIBILITIES RECREATIONAL WATER: Physical Education and Recreation Staff Responsibilities: Managing and supervising personnel responsible for the safety, control, and cleanliness of swimming facilities, allocating and publishing the swimming facility schedule, maintaining daily records, indicating total user statistics, and advising appropriate authorities of all unsanitary or unsafe conditions that may arise through continual operation of the facility.

25 RESPONSIBILITIES RECREATIONAL WATER: CFHS Responsibilities: Periodic inspections of, and obtaining water samples from the swimming pool or swimming area (beaches) and advising on sanitary conditions and any remedial measures necessary.

26 RESPONSIBILITIES RECREATIONAL WATER - BEACHES AND OTHER NATURAL SWIMMING PLACES: Site selection: The principal factor in the selection of a site for a swimming beach is freedom from sewage pollution.

27 In considering the dangers from sewage pollution, it is emphasized that dilution and the time of flow are factors of great importance. The hazards from a relatively small amount of sewage near a swimming area are far greater than a large amount at a considerable distance. RESPONSIBILITIES

28 RECREATIONAL WATER - BEACHES AND OTHER NATURAL SWIMMING PLACES: Inspection: CFMS personnel shall inspect outdoor bathing places designated for use by military personnel, and shall take into consideration information obtained through sanitary surveys, epidemiological evidence, and bacteriological examinations, to ensure that the amenities are adequate and sanitary and that the water is fit for swimming.

29 If the recommendation of the CFMS so warrants, outdoor bathing places shall be designated "out of bounds". RESPONSIBILITIES


31 REFERENCE CFP 213 – CF Health Manual

32 PROPERTIES OF WATER Chemical: Water is a compound, the molecule containing two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen (H2O). In the pure state, water is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless liquid.

33 Because water is an almost universal solvent which collects particles from the air or ground through which it passes, chemically pure water is never found in nature. PROPERTIES OF WATER

34 Physical: Water freezes at 0 o C and boils at 100 o C at sea level. The greater the altitude the lower the boiling point. At sea level, at a temperature of 100 o C, water passes from the liquid to the gaseous state and becomes an invisible gas, steam.

35 Again at sea level, and when it reaches a temperature of 4 o C, water attains its greatest density at which point one milliliter of water weighs one gram. PROPERTIES OF WATER

36 Hydrogen Ion concentration (pH): The pH of water ranges around 7.0 (neutral) but water with pH of 6.5 to 8.3 is acceptable. When considered with hardness and alkalinity, pH is a factor in the corrosiveness of water.


38 PROPERTIES OF WATER Hardness: Hard water is recognized by the fact that it makes a poor lather with soap, using a great deal of soap in the process, and that the lather forms curd-like masses. Hardness is caused by calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) salts, is of two types temporary hardness and permanent hardness:

39 –Temporary harness is due to the presence of the acid carbonates of Ca and Mg; and –Permanent hardness is usually caused by Ca or Mg sulphates. PROPERTIES OF WATER

40 Hardness (cont): Temporary hardness may be reduced by boiling the water, and permanent hardness by chemical treatment such as the base- exchange process, which is used in domestic and industrial water softening plants.

41 PROPERTIES OF WATER Hardness (cont): Hard water is undesirable from the economic standpoint, because of its high detergent- consuming property which also renders it a poor cleansing agent.

42 In addition, hardness is a major cause of scale formation on metal surfaces such as boilers, hot-water tanks, pipes, plumbing fixtures and fittings, kettles, and other cooking utensils. PROPERTIES OF WATER


44 REFERENCES CFP 213 – CF Health Manual Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20 th Edition

45 CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY CHLORINE RESIDUAL: R efers to that amount of chlorine, either free and/or combined, which is present in the water after the dose of chlorine has been applied and left in contact for 15 minutes.

46 CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY There are two kinds of residual: Combined chlorine residual or total residual chlorine: sometimes referred to as combined available chlorine residual. Here the chlorine has combined with ammonia or other organic nitrogen compounds (proteins) to form chloramines or other compounds. The orthotolidine test reading is therefore a measure of all these compounds.

47 Free chlorine residual; sometimes also referred to as free available chlorine residual. Here the chlorine residual is present in a purer, readily available form. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

48 The difference between the Combined chlorine residual and Free chlorine residual is that the free chlorine residual is the stronger oxidizing agent, having a very rapid action on bacteria. For this reason, free chlorine is of great importance where water is re-circulated as in swimming pool systems.

49 CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY DEVIATION: Refers to the capacity of natural waters to use up chlorine and is contingent upon the amount of oxidizable organic matter present, temperature, sunlight, and chemical composition. The amount of chlorine necessary to take care of this deviation is called thechlorine demand.

50 CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY AVAILABLE CHLORINE - is used in two ways: to express the percentage of chlorine present, by weight, in a calcium or sodium hypochlorite preparation or solution; and

51 to express the amount of chlorine residual available in case of additional demand developing. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

52 CONTACT: In the sense of chlorination refers to the bringing together of chlorine and water. CONTACT TIME: refers to the length of time that the chlorine and water have been in contact before either use or testing for residual.

53 PRE-CHLORINATION: Refers to the addition of chlorine to water at any point in the treatment system before the final treatment of the finished water. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

54 SUPERCHLORINATION: Has been defined as the use of such high doses as to require the subsequent use of a de-chlorinating agent. In actual practice, it can mean the addition of chlorine to raise the residual to two PPM or greater.

55 It is a practice which is commonly employed in odor control and the overnight disinfection of swimming pools where the pH should be maintained at 8.0 or over. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

56 DECHLORINATION: Refers to the use of chemicals such as sodium thio- sulphate, for the purpose of removing excess chlorine from water or killing the residual. This principle is used in many water sampling bottles, each bottle containing 0.2 ml of a 10 per cent solution of sodium thio-sulphate.

57 The purpose is to make the sample as fully representative of the efficiency of the treatment process applied to the water, at the time of sampling and at that particular point on the distribution system. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

58 FREE CHLORINE RESIDUAL: Is when chlorine is added to water and first combines with organic matter present, forming chloramines and other compounds.

59 After the reaction between the chlorine and the organic matter is complete, the chlorine demand has been largely met. Any excess of chlorine remaining after the chlorine demand has ended is called "free residual chlorine". CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

60 BREAK-POINT: When the free residual chlorine is increased, it eventually reaches a point where the free chlorine starts to oxidize the chloramines and other chlorinous compounds.

61 These compounds have great combining power with the free chlorine and there is therefore an abrupt drop in the free chlorine residual, coupled with the destruction of chloramines. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

62 At the same time, chlorine tastes and odors also disappear. The point at which this takes place is called the "break-point". Any chlorine added past the break-point will remain in the free state. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

63 Part Per Million (PPM): One PPM means one part of substance in one million parts of another by weight. In water chemistry this would mean that as one million imperial gallons of water weigh 10 million pounds, a part per million would equal 10 lbs weight.

64 Consequently, one PPM chlorine = 10 lbs chlorine per million imperial gallons of water. If the volume of water is measured in US gallons a part per million would equal 8.32 lbs (approximately) of the chemical in one million US gallons. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY

65 The Imperial gallon is the established Canadian unit of measurement. Parts per million may also be expressed as milligrams per liter and this has become standard international practice. CHLORINE TERMINOLOGY


67 REFERENCES Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 14 th Edition, Maxcy-Roseneau-Last Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality, Health Canada, 6 th Edition – semt/pubs/water-eau/index- eng.php#tech_doc

68 EXPLANATION OF TERMS Total coliforms: Are a group of bacteria that are naturally present in the environment. They are used as an indicator of overall water quality and the effectiveness of drinking water disinfection. Escherichia Coli (E. coli): Is a fecal coliform which originates only in the intestine of humans and animals and are regularly excreted in feces in abundant numbers. Therefore, E. coli is used as an indicator of fecal contamination of drinking water.

69 EXPLANATION OF TERMS Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI): Is the amount of a substance that can be consumed from all sources each day by an adult, even for a lifetime, without any significant increased risk to health, based on current knowledge.

70 The term TDI is now used instead of acceptable daily intake (ADI) except for pesticides that have been previously evaluated by the Food Directorate of Health Canada (formerly Health and Welfare Canada) or by the World Health Organization in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization as TDI signifies permissibility rather than acceptability. EXPLANATION OF TERMS

71 MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE CONCENTRATION (MAC): MACs have been established for certain substances that are known or suspected to cause adverse effects on health. Each MAC has been derived to safeguard health assuming lifelong consumption of drinking water containing the substance at that concentration.

72 The use of drinking water for all usual domestic purposes, including personal hygiene, has been considered in the derivation of the guidelines wherever possible; EXPLANATION OF TERMS

73 MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE CONCENTRATION (MAC): Drinking water that continually contains a substance at a level greater than its MAC will contribute significantly to consumers exposure to ;the substance and may, in some instances, induce deleterious effects on health.

74 However, short-term excursion above the MAC do not necessarily mean that the water constitutes an undue risk to health. The amount by which, and the period for which, the MAC can be exceeded without posing a health risk must be assessed by taking into account the toxicity of the substance involved; EXPLANATION OF TERMS

75 MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE CONCENTRATION (MAC): When the MAC for a substance is exceeded, however, the minimum action required is immediate re-sampling. If the MAC continues to be exceeded, the local authority responsible for drinking water supplies should be consulted concerning appropriate corrective action.

76 MAC levels in drinking waters have been set for metals, nitrates, fluorides, and organic chemicals. Limits are not given for every toxicant or undesirable contaminant that might be in the public water supply, as scientific data are not available for many of the chemicals of concern. EXPLANATION OF TERMS

77 Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentration (IMAC): For those substances for which there are insufficient toxicological data to derive a MAC with reasonable certainty, interim values are recommended, taking into account the available health-related data, but employing a larger safety factor to compensate for the additional uncertainties involved.

78 EXPLANATION OF TERMS Interim Maximum Acceptable Concentration (IMAC): Interim maximum acceptable concentrations (IMAC5) are also established for those substances for which estimated lifetime risks of cancer associated with the guideline (the lowest concentration in drinking water that is practicably achievable using available analytical or treatment methods) are greater than those deemed to be essentially negligible.

79 Because of their nature, IMACs will be reviewed periodically as new toxicological data and new methods of quantitation and treatment become available. EXPLANATION OF TERMS

80 AESTHETIC OBJECTIVE (AO): Aesthetic objectives (AOs) apply to certain substances or characteristics of drinking water that can affect its acceptance by consumers or interfere with practices for supplying good- quality water.

81 For certain parameters, both AOs and health-related guidelines (e.g., MACs) have been derived. Where only AOs are specified, these values are below those considered to constitute a health hazard. However, if a concentration in drinking water is well above an AO, there is a possibility of a health hazard. EXPLANATION OF TERMS

82 Examples of substances with AOs include iron, total dissolved solids, taste (inoffensive), and odour (inoffensive). EXPLANATION OF TERMS



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