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PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA EO 003.02. EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA References 1.AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, June 2007 2.Alberta Regulation 229/2000,

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Presentation on theme: "PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA EO 003.02. EO 003.02 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA References 1.AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, June 2007 2.Alberta Regulation 229/2000,"— Presentation transcript:

1 PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA EO

2 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA References 1.AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, June Alberta Regulation 229/2000, Livestock Disease Act

3 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Agenda 1.Criteria for a Painless Death 2.Ethical Considerations 3.Animal Behavioural Considerations 4.Human Behavioural Considerations 5.Mode of Actions of Euthanizing Agents 6.Inhalant Agents 7.Non-inhalant Agents 8.Physical Methods 9.Responsibilities of the Owner 10.Special Considerations

4 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA A Humane Death Euthanasia is the act of inducing humane death in an animal Highest degree of respect Painless Anxiety and Distress free

5 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Criteria for a Painless Death Pain – sensation that results from nerve impulses reaching the cerebral cortex via neural pathways Two Pain Categories 1.Sensory-Discriminative 2.Motivational-Affective

6 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Criteria for a Painless Death Stress – the effect of physical, physiologic or emotional stressors that induce an alteration in an animals homeostasis Three Phases of Stress Eustress Neutral Stress Distress

7 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Physical Handling Control and Restraint 1.Species 2.Breed 3.Size 4.State of Domestication 5.Degree of Taming 6.Presence of Injury or Disease 7.Degree of Excitement 8.Method of Euthanasia

8 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Methods of Euthanasia 1.Species of the Animal 2.Available Means of Restraint 3.Skill of Personnel 4.Number of Animals HUMANE DEATH

9 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Ethical Considerations Professional Concerns Societal Concerns Federal, Provincial and Local Laws

10 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Verifying Death Examination for Cessation of Vital Signs

11 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Minimize Animal Distress Gentle Restraint Careful Handling Talking during Euthanasia Calming Effect Route of Least Distress

12 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Minimize Animal Distress Wild, Feral, Injured or Diseased Animals

13 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Human Behaviour Psychological Response Grief at the loss of life

14 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Veterinary Clinic Owners make decisions Rely on Veterinarians judgment Owners present during the procedure

15 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Animal Care & Control Facility Unwanted, homeless, diseased and/or injured Distress Constant exposure and high turnover of employees training & educational programs peer support time off for stress

16 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Laboratory Similar to pet owners Researchers, technicians and students become attached

17 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Wildlife Control Injured and/or Diseased animals Threatening property and human safety Excessive numbers Extreme distress and anxiety

18 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Slaughter Facilities Very large numbers of animals Physically and emotionally desensitized

19 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Public Exposure Zoo animals Roadside and Racetrack accidents Nuisance or injured animals Natural Disasters

20 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Basic Modes of Action 1.Direct or Indirect Hypoxia 2.Direct Depression of Neurons 3.Physical Disruption of Brain Activity

21 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Hypoxia Loss of consciousness Painless Distress Free

22 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Direct Depression of Neurons Depress nerve cells of the brain Loss of consciousness followed by death Non-purposeful vocalization or muscle contraction Death by cardiac arrest

23 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Physical Disruption of Brain Activity Concussion Electrical Depolarization of neurons destruction of the mid-brain causing cardiac and/or respiratory arrest

24 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalants Inhaled gas Time Consuming Suitability

25 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Anaesthetics HalothaneEnflurane IsofluraneSevoflurane MethoxyfluraneDesflurane EtherNitrous Oxide

26 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages for Inhalant Anaesthetics Recommended for smaller animals where venipuncture may be difficult Non-flammable and non-explosive under normal circumstances

27 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Disadvantages for Inhalants Anaesthetics Animals may struggle and become anxious vapours may be irritating and cause excitement Ether is very flammable Methoxyflorane is slow acting Occupational Exposure by personnel Potential for human abuse

28 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Agents Carbon Dioxide – (CO 2 ) Acceptable for the appropriate species (see appendix 1 of reference) CO 2 gas cylinder – only acceptable source

29 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of CO 2 Rapid Depressant Readily Available Inexpensive Non-flammable Non-explosive Minimal hazard to users Non-accumulating Disadvantages of CO 2 Incomplete filling of chamber Some species may have a tolerance Time consuming Some species breathe to slowly High Concentrations may be distressful

30 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Agents Carbon Monoxide – (CO) Acceptable for dogs, cats and other small mammals CO gas cylinder – only acceptable source

31 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of CO Painless Minimal Discomfort Insidious Rapid effect in 4 – 6% concentrations Disadvantages of CO Exposure to personnel Other equipment used must be explosion proof

32 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Inhalant Agents Nitrogen (N 2 )/Argon (Ar) Death induced by Hypoxemia Distressful to some species – rats N 2 /Ar gas cylinder – only acceptable source

33 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of N 2 /Ar Readily Available Minimal hazard to personnel Disadvantages of N 2 /Ar Loss of consciousness preceded by hypoxemia – distressful Introduction of O 2 too soon may induce full recovery

34 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Non-Inhalant Pharmaceutical Agents Injectable agents are the most rapid and reliable method of Euthanasia Administered through intravenous injection Minimal fear or distress to the animal Intra-peritonial Injection Intra-cardiac Injection

35 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Barbituric Acid Derivatives Depresses the Central Nervous System in descending order Administered only through IV Injection Potent Long-acting Stable Inexpensive Sodium Pentobarbital

36 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of Sodium Pentobarbital Speed of action Minimal discomfort Smooth drug action Inexpensive Disadvantages of Sodium Pentobarbital Personnel trained in IV Injection Animal restraint required Terminal Gasp Persists in the carcass Toxic for scavengers Federal Drug Regulations

37 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Barbituric Acid Derivatives Potassium Chloride Unacceptable in unanaesthetized animals Acceptable to induce cardiac arrest in anaesthetized animals

38 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Advantages of Potassium Chloride Not a controlled substance Less toxic for scavengers Disadvantages of Potassium Chloride Rippling of muscle tissues Seizures

39 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Barbituric Acid Derivatives Pentobarbital Combinations Chloral Hydrate T-61 Tricaine Methane Sulfonate (MS 222)

40 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Unacceptable Injectable Agents StrychnineNicotine CaffeineMagnesium Sulfate Potassium ChlorideCleaning Agents SolventsDisinfectants Salts Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

41 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Physical Methods Captive BoltGun Shot Cervical DislocationDecapitation ElectrocutionMicrowave Irradiation Kill TrapsThoracic Compression ExsanguinationMaceration StunningPithing Blow to the Head EXTREME CAUTION & CARE

42 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Penetrating Captive Bolt Concussion and trauma to the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem Used in slaughter houses for Ruminants, Equine and Swine Aesthetically displeasing

43 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Blow to the Head Anatomic features of the animal Humane for neonatal animals with thin craniums Single sharp blow Rapid death when properly performed

44 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Gun Shot Immediate Death – brain Performed outdoors away from public access Dangerous Weapon, Aesthetically unpleasant, may not be able to examine for rabies

45 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Cervical Dislocation & Decapitation Rapid action and loss of consciousness No chemically contaminated carcasses Aesthetically unpleasant, mastering a technical skill Cervical Dislocation – poultry, mice and other small birds Decapitation – obtain undamaged brain tissue from lab rodents and rabbits

46 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Electrocution Induce death by cardiac fibrillation Humane act if animal is unconscious Economical Hazardous to personnel, Aesthetically unpleasant – violent extension and stiffening of limbs, head and neck Does not always work on small animals Special skills and equipment

47 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Microwave Irradiation Only acceptable use is for very small laboratory specimens Thoracic Compression Only acceptable use is for small to medium size birds when other methods are not practical

48 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Kill Traps Does not always render a rapid and stress free death Should be followed immediately by another method Use is controversial

49 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Adjunctive Methods Exsanguination, Stunning and Pithing These methods can only be conducted in conjunction with other physical and/or chemical methods Never Conducted as a sole means of Euthanasia

50 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Wildlife Methods for captive animals more difficult to conduct in wild and feral animals Gun Shot or Kill Traps Appropriate firearm and ammunition Skilled personnel Abide and comply with governmental laws and regulations

51 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Diseased, Injured, or Live-Trapped Wildlife or Feral Species Wildlife Injury Immediate action is usually required

52 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Disposition of Dead Animals 1.Dispose of the animal within 48 hours of its death 2.The animal has died from an infectious disease or from a reportable disease, the owner of the animal shall dispose of it in accordance with the directions of an inspector appointed under the Health of Animals Act (Canada) 3.Prevent scavengers from gaining access to the dead animal, or 4.Transport to a rendering or incineration plant

53 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Burial of Dead Animals Burying the animal in a burial pit, if the pit is 1.at least 100 metres from wells or other domestic water intakes, streams, creeks, ponds, springs and high water marks of lakes and at least 25 metres from the edge of a coulee, major cut or embankment, 2.at least 100 metres from any residences,

54 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Burial of Dead Animals 3.at least 100 metres from any livestock facilities, including pastures, situated on land owned or leased by another person, 4.at least 300 metres from a primary highway, 5.at least 100 metres from a secondary highway, and 6.at least 50 metres from any other road allowance

55 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Burial of Dead Animals The pit is covered with 1.a minimum of one metre of compacted soil 2.the bottom of the pit is at least one metre above the seasonal high water table

56 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA Conclusion

57 EO PERFORM ANIMAL EUTHANASIA ??????????? ? Questions ? ???????????


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