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1 Pensions & Other Post Employment Benefits – ASC Topic 715 (A Review) Includes certain slides provided by authors of Skousen, Stice & Stice and Kieso,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Pensions & Other Post Employment Benefits – ASC Topic 715 (A Review) Includes certain slides provided by authors of Skousen, Stice & Stice and Kieso,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Pensions & Other Post Employment Benefits – ASC Topic 715 (A Review) Includes certain slides provided by authors of Skousen, Stice & Stice and Kieso, Weygandt & Warfield Intermediate Accounting textbooks, as modified and adapted by Teresa Gordon

2 2 Defined contribution plans A plan that provides benefits based solely on what has been contributed and the earnings thereon Amounts to be funded are determined by the plan No promise for specific future benefits. Independent third party holds assets Risk borne by employee Accounting relatively straightforward

3 3 Defined benefit plans A pension plan that determines the amount of benefit to be provided Contributions based on estimated amounts needed to meet expected payments Form versus substance of trust Risk borne by employer Accounting by employer is complicated

4 4 Chart from UK but trend is probably same in US

5 5 Defined Benefit Pension Plan Employer Current Employees Services Wages and Salaries Pension Fund Contributions Retired Employees Defined Benefits

6 6 Pension Approaches Before FASB 87 & 88: “pay as you go” or “noncapitalization” FASB 87 & 88 Capitalization approach Full obligation reported only in notes FASB 158 Pension & post-retirement benefit cost is same as FASB 87 Full (net) obligation is reported on balance sheet Additional items on statement of comprehensive income

7 7 Measures of Pension Liability Vested Benefit Obligation Accumulated Benefit Obligation Projected Benefit Obligation Benefits for vested employees at current salaries Benefits for vested and non- vested employees at current salaries Benefits for vested and nonvested employees at future salaries (GAAP) PV of Expected Cash Flows ABO is still reported in note

8 8 Interest/return rates Discount rate Rates on high-quality fixed-income investments with maturities consistent with expected payments to retirees  Generally equivalent to a portfolio of zero- coupon bonds with appropriate maturities Expected rate of return Based on long-term rate of return anticipated given investment of plan assets

9 9 Components of Pension Expense Service cost Interest cost Expected return on plan assets Amortization (if any) of Transition gain or loss (now rare) Prior service cost Unrecognized gain or loss

10 10 Valuation on Balance Sheet We report the net of PBO and Plan Assets on the balance sheet. If Plan Assets > PBO, amount is reported as a long-term asset If PBO > Plan Assets (and plan assets exist), probably reported as noncurrent liability If there are no Plan Assets, liability is divided between current and noncurrent liabilities

11 11 Impact on the Statement of Comprehensive Income SCI used to have a deferred pension cost in certain cases (related to the minimum liability requirement which no longer exists) Now there are potentially 3 items of other comprehensive income:  Transition amount (rare for pension plans)  Prior service cost  Actuarial gains and losses

12 12 Net Periodic Pension Cost Net periodic pension cost (the expense) consists of six basic elements: Service cost Interest cost Expected return on plan assets Amortization (if any) of  Transition gain or loss  Prior service cost  Unrecognized gain or loss

13 13 Pension Definitions Prior Service Cost (PSC) Cost of benefits granted for service rendered prior to the inception of the plan  Increases PBO at date of amendment but cost is amortized to expense over future years Reduces funded status since PBO is higher  Recognized as charge to OCI at date of plan amendment Amortization method recommended:  Years of service method  Straight-line or other methods that amortize PSC faster are also acceptable

14 14 Actuarial Gains and Losses Actuarial assumptions are subject to inaccuracies as time goes by and circumstances change There is a materiality provision for determining when gains and losses are sufficiently large to require amortization (charge to expense)  10% Corridor Rule

15 15 10% Corridor Amortization Amortization is required only on the portion of unrecognized net gain or loss that exceeds 10% of the greater of: PBO at beginning of year, or market-related value of plan assets at the beginning of the year.

16 16 Kieso, Weygandt & Warfield 11 th ed. Illustration 20-14, page 1034

17 17 Working paper approach This is similar to workpaper approach used in Kieso Intermediate

18 18 A working paper for pensions

19 19 Working Paper – Pension Expense

20 20 A working paper for pensions Interest cost = discount rate * beginning balance in PBO Expected return = expected return rate * beginning balance in Plan Assets

21 21 A working paper for pensions

22 22 A working paper for pensions

23 23 Self-checking features Each blue row must add across to ZERO Balance forwards Funded status must equal PBO + Plan Assets Plug to balance JE {row=0}

24 24 Settlements & Curtailments Additional FASB standards govern major changes in pension plans:  Settlements No further obligations to some or all employees  Curtailments Results in significant reduction in expected years, or No further accrual of benefits Handling will require further research (primarily FASB 88)

25 25 Pension Disclosures [FAS 132(R)] Amount and types of assets held Assumptions related to discount rate, rate of increase in compensation, expected return on plan assets Alternative amortization policies Past practice or history of regular benefit increases

26 26 Pension Disclosures [FAS 132(R)] The details for net periodic pension cost the service cost component. the interest cost component. the expected return on plan assets [FAS 132] the amortization of PSC, transition amount and unrecognized gain/loss (separately) Gain or loss from settlement or curtailment of plan

27 27 Pension Disclosures: Reconciliations The fair value of plan assets (changes between BOY and EOY) PBO Obligation (changes between BOY and EOY) Easily obtained from our work paper! – example next slide EoY = end of year BoY = beginning of year

28 “Roll-forward” Displays – ASC 715-20-55-17 28

29 29 Pension Disclosures Employers with multiple plans Information can be combined but the computations are made for each individual plan  Net position for over-funded plans would be reported in noncurrent assets  Net position for under-funded plans would be reported in liabilities Part may be reported as a current liability See next slide

30 30 Current portion of liability The current portion (determined on a plan-by-plan basis) is the amount by which the actuarial present value of benefits in PBO that are payable in the next 12 months* exceeds the fair value of plan assets * As always, the operating cycle might be longer than 12 months in which case we’d use the operating cycle

31 Newer disclosures (FSP FAS132R-1 Issued Dec 08) Even more disclosures are now required Detailed discussion of investment objectives & strategies Disclosures about significant concentrations of risk Follows the FASB No. 157 fair value measurement Disclosures about categories of plan assets Disclosures by hierarchy levels 31

32 32 ASC 715-20-55-17

33 33 ASC 715-20-55-17.]

34 FSP FAS132R-1 Issued Dec 08 Effective date – fiscal years ending after Dec. 15, 2009 – so applies to VLT Inc footnote disclosure! Early adoption is permitted Comparative information for prior years is not required the first time through 34

35 35 Other Postretirement Benefits Mostly in ASC 715 Appendix Material in KWW text

36 36 Other Post-retirement Benefits The accounting is similar to pension accounting EXCEPT that the terminology is slightly different  Expected postretirement benefit obligation (EPBO).  Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation (APBO).

37 37 Kieso, Weygandt & Warfield 11 th ed. Illustration 20A-3, page 1056

38 38 APBO vs EPBO Prior to the date on which an employee attains full eligibility for the benefits that employee is expected to earn APBO < EPBO On and after the full eligibility date, APBO = EPBO In other words EPBO > APBO until the employee has earned the right to full benefits EPBO = APBO after the employee has worked long enough to earn full eligibility

39 39 Kieso, Weygandt & Warfield 11 th ed. Illustration 20A-2, page 1056 Cost attributed to period from hire to eligibility (vesting)

40 40 Postretirement Benefit Worksheet Would be the same as a pension worksheet with modified labels at the top Pension Expense becomes Postretirement Benefit Expense. PBO becomes APBO.

41 41 Working paper for FAS106

42 42 Net periodic postretirement benefit cost. The expense basically includes the same elements as pension cost: Service cost -- the actuarial present value of benefits attributed to services rendered by employees during the period. Interest cost -- the interest on the beginning balance of the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation Less expected return on plan assets (if there are any assets – mostly unfunded). Amortizations (transition, prior service cost and unrecognized gain or loss)

43 43 Comparing Pension & OPEB


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