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Conducted by: Mr. Koy Chumnith Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits 17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2011, Royal University of Law and Economics.

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Presentation on theme: "Conducted by: Mr. Koy Chumnith Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits 17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2011, Royal University of Law and Economics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conducted by: Mr. Koy Chumnith Pensions and Other Postretirement Benefits 17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2011, Royal University of Law and Economics

2 Nature of Pension Plans 1. Pension plans provide income to individuals during their retirement years. 2. This is accomplished by setting aside funds during an employees working years so that at retirement, the accumulated funds plus earnings from investing those funds are available to replace wages.

3 Nature of Pension Plans F For a pension plan to qualify for special tax treatment it must meet the following requirements: 1.Cover at least 70% of employees. 2.Cannot discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees. 3.Must be funded in advance of retirement through an irrevocable trust fund. 4.Benefits must vest after a specified period of service. 5.Complies with timing and amount of contributions.

4 Nature of Pension Plans

5 Contributions are defined by agreement. Employer deposits an agreed-upon amount into an employee- directed investment fund. Employee bears all risk of pension fund performance. Plan Characteristics Defined Contribution Pension Plans

6 Defined Contribution Pension Plans Lets assume that the annual contribution is to be 3% of an employees salary. If an employee earned $110,000 during the year, the company would make the following entry: Pension expense3,300 Cash 3,300 The employees retirement benefits are totally dependent upon how well investments perform.

7 Employer is committed to specified retirement benefits. Retirement benefits are based on a formula that considers years of service, compensation level, and age. Employer bears all risk of pension fund performance. Plan Characteristics Defined Benefit Pension Plans

8 Defined Benefit Pension Plan A pension formula might define annual retirement benefits as: 1 1 / 2 % x Years of service x Final years salary By this formula, the annual benefits to an employee who retires after 30 years of service, with a final salary of $100,000, would be: 1 1 / 2 % x 30 years x $100,000 = $45,000

9 Defined Benefit Pension Plan The key elements of a defined benefit pension plan are: 1.The employers obligation to pay retirement benefits in the future. 2.The plan assets set aside by the employer from which to pay the retirement benefits in the future. 3.The periodic expense of having a pension plan. An actuary assesses the various uncertainties (employee turnover, salary levels, mortality, etc.) and estimates the companys obligation to employees in connection with its pension plan.

10 Pension ExpenseAn Overview The annual pension expense reflects changes in both the pension obligation and the plan assets.

11 The Pension Obligation 1.Accumulated benefit obligation (ABO) The actuarys estimate of the total retirement benefits (at their discounted present value) earned so far by employees, applying the pension formula using existing compensation levels. 2.Vested benefit obligation (VBO) The portion of the accumulated benefit obligation that plan participants are entitled to receive regardless of their continued employment. 3.Projected benefit obligation (PBO) The actuarys estimate of the total retirement benefit (at their discounted present value) earned so far by employees, applying the pension formula using estimated future compensation levels. (If the pension formula does not include future compensation levels, the PBO and the ABO are the same.

12 The Pension Obligation

13 Projected Benefit Obligation Jessica Farrow was hired by Global Communications in She is eligible to participate in the company's defined benefit pension plan. The benefit formula is: Annual salary in year of retirement × Number of years of service × 1.5% Annual retirement benefits Farrow is expected to retire in 2039 after 40 years of service. Her retirement period is expected to be 20 years. At the end of 2009, 10 years after being hired, her salary is $100,000. The interest rate is 6%. The companys actuary projects Farrows salary to be $400,000 at retirement. The PBO is a more meaningful measurement because it includes a projection of what the salary might be at retirement.

14 Projected Benefit Obligation Step 1. Use the pension formula to determine the retirement benefits earned to date. $400,000 × 10 × 1.5% $ 60,000 per year Step 2. Find the present value of the retirement benefits as of the retirement date. The present value (n=20, i=6%,) of the retirement annuity at the retirement date is $688,195 ($60,000 The present value (n=20, i=6%,) of the retirement annuity at the retirement date is $688,195 ($60,000 × ). Step 3. Find the present value of the retirement benefits as of the current date. The present value (n=30, i=6%,) of the retirement benefits at 2009 is $119,822 ($688,195 The present value (n=30, i=6%,) of the retirement benefits at 2009 is $119,822 ($688,195 ×.17411). This is the PBO.

15 Projected Benefit Obligation Step 1. Use the pension formula to determine the retirement benefits earned to date. $400,000 × 11 × 1.5% $ 66,000 per year Step 2. Find the present value of the retirement benefits as of the retirement date. The present value (n=20, i=6%,) of the retirement annuity at the retirement date is $757,015 ($66,000 The present value (n=20, i=6%,) of the retirement annuity at the retirement date is $757,015 ($66,000 × ). Step 3. Find the present value of the retirement benefits as of the current date. The present value (n=29, i=6%,) of the retirement benefits at 2010 is $139,715 ($757,015 The present value (n=29, i=6%,) of the retirement benefits at 2010 is $139,715 ($757,015 ×.18456). This is the PBO. If the actuarys estimate of the final salary hasnt changed, the PBO a year later at the end of 2010 would be $139,715.

16 Projected Benefit Obligation

17 Service cost is the increase in the PBO attributable to employee service performed during the period. Projected Benefit Obligation

18 Interest cost is the interest on the PBO during the period. Projected Benefit Obligation

19 Prior service cost is the increase in the PBO due to a plan change that provides credit for employee service rendered in prior years. Projected Benefit Obligation

20 Loss or gain on PBO results from revising estimates used to determine the PBO. Projected Benefit Obligation

21 Retiree benefits paid reduce the PBO. Projected Benefit Obligation

22 Projected Benefit Obligation

23 Pension Plan Assets The pension plan assets are not reported separately in the balance sheet but are netted together with the PBO to report either a net pension asset (debit balance) or a net pension liability (credit balance). The higher the expected return on plan assets, the less the employer must actually contribute. On the other hand, a relatively low expected return means the difference must be made up by higher contributions.

24 Pension Plan Assets Global Communications funds its defined benefit pension plan by contributing the years service cost plus a portion of the prior service cost each year. Cash of $48 million was contributed to the pension fund in Plan assets at the beginning of 2011 were valued at $300 million. The expected rate of return on the investment of those assets was 9%, but the actual return in 2009 was 10%. Retirement benefits of $38 million were paid at the end of 2011 to retired employees. The plan assets at the end of 2011 will be : Plan assets at the beginning of 2011 $ 300,000,000 Return on plan assets (10% x $300 million) 30,000,000 Cash contributions 48,000,000 Less: Retiree benefits paid (38,000,000) Plan assets at the end of 2011 $ 340,000,000

25 Funded Status of the Pension Plan OVERFUNDED Market value of plan assets exceeds the actuarial present value of all benefits earned by participants. UNDERFUNDED Market value of plan assets is below the actuarial present value of all benefits earned by participants.

26 Reporting the Funded Status of Pension Plan Projected Benefit Obligation (PBO) - Plan Assets at Fair Value Underfunded / Overfunded Status Projected Benefit Obligation (PBO) - Plan Assets at Fair Value Underfunded / Overfunded Status This amount is reported in the balance sheet as a Pension Liability or Pension Asset.

27 The Relationship Between Pension Expense and Changes in the PBO and Plan Assets

28 Service Cost Actuaries have determined that Global Communications has service cost of $41,000,000 in 2011.

29 Interest Cost Interest cost is calculated as: PBO Beg × Discount rate Global had PBO of $400,000,000 on 1/1/11. The actuary uses a discount rate of 6% Interest Cost PBO 1/1/11 $400,000,000 × 6% = $24,000,000

30 Return on Plan Assets The plan trustee reports that plan assets were $300,000,000 on 1/1/11. The trustee uses an expected return of 9% and the actual return is 10%. The plan trustee reports that plan assets were $300,000,000 on 1/1/11. The trustee uses an expected return of 9% and the actual return is 10%.

31 Amortization of Prior Service Cost In 2010, Global Communications amended the pension plan, increasing the PBO at that time. For all plan participants, the prior service cost was $60 million at 1/1/10. The average remaining service life of the active employee group is 15 years. $60,000,000 PSC ÷ 15 = $4,000,000 per year

32 Gains and Losses Only if a net gain or net loss exceeds the corridor is a charge to pension expense allowed.

33 Corridor Amount The corridor amount is 10% of the greater of PBO at the beginning of the period. Fair value of plan assets at the beginning of the period. Or

34 Gains and Losses Net unrecognized gain or loss at beginning of year Average remaining service period of active employees expected to receive benefits under the plan Corridor amount ־ If the beginning net unrecognized gain or loss exceeds the corridor amount, amortization is recognized using the following formula...

35 Gains and Losses $15,000,000 ÷ 15 years = $1,000,000

36 Determining Pension Expense

37 Recording Gains and Losses For 2011, the actual return on plan assets exceeded the expected return by $3 million. In addition, there was a $23 million loss from changes made by the actuary when it revised its estimate of future salary levels causing its PBO estimate to increase. Global would make the following journal entry to record the gain and loss: OCI = Other comprehensive income LossOCI 23,000,000 PBO 23,000,000 Plan assets 3,000,000 GainOCI 3,000,000

38 RECORD PENSION EXPENSE IN 2009 ($ in millions) Pension expense (calculated above) 43 Plan assets ($27 expected return on assets) 27 PBO ($41 service cost + $24 interest cost) 65 Amortization of prior service cost–OCI 4 Amortization of net loss–OCI 1 OCI = Other comprehensive income Service cost and interest cost add to Globals PBO. The return on plan assets adds to the plan assets. Amortization of OCI items also is OCI. Service cost $41 Interest cost 24 Expected return on plan assets ($30 actual, less $3 gain) (27) Amortization of prior service cost 4 Amortization of net loss 1 Pension expense $43 65 PBO 27 Less: plan assets 38 Net pension liability

39 Recording the Funding of Plan Assets Plan assets48,000,000 Cash 48,000,000 Its not unusual for the cash contribution to differ from that years pension expense. After all, determining the periodic pension expense and the funding of the pension plan are two separate processes. When Global adds its annual cash investment of $48 million to its plan assets, the value of those plan assets increases by $48 million.

40 Recording the Funding of Plan Assets PBO38,000,000 Plan assets 38,000,000 Global pays $38 million in retirement pension benefits.

41 U. S. GAAP vs. IFRS Permits but does not require that gains and losses be included among OCI items in the statement of comprehensive income. Gains and losses become part of Unrecognized net gain or loss reported as an offset or increase to the net pension liability (or net pension asset) in the liability section of the balance sheet. Requires that gains and losses be included among OCI items in the statement of comprehensive income. Gains and losses become part of AOCI in the shareholders equity section of the balance sheet. Differences in accounting for actuarial gains and losses using U.S. GAAP and IFRS.

42 U. S. GAAP vs. IFRS U.S. GAAP and IFRS treat prior service cost (PSC) differently. PSC is expensed immediately to the extent it relates to benefits that have vested. The amount not yet expensed (nonvested portion) is reported as an offset or increase to the defined benefit obligation. PSC is included among OCI items in the statement of comprehensive income and thus subsequently becomes part of AOCI where it is amortized over the average remaining service period.

43 Comprehensive Income Comprehensive income is a more expansive view of income than traditional net income.

44 Comprehensive Income

45 U. S. GAAP vs. IFRS As part of a joint project with the FASB, the IASB issued a revised version of IAS No.1, Presentation of Financial Statements, that revised the standard to bring international reporting of comprehensive income largely in line with U.S. standards. IFRS does not permit reporting other comprehensive income in the statement of shareholders equity.

46 PENSION SPREADSHEET Reported Recorded in AccountsOnly

47 U. S. GAAP vs. IFRS Under IFRS there is no requirement to present the various components of pension expense as a single net amount.

48 Postretirement Benefits Other Than Pensions Estimated medical costs in each year of retirement Estimated medical costs in each year of retirement Estimated net cost of benefits Estimated net cost of benefits Retiree share of costRetiree costMedicarepaymentsMedicarepayments Less: Equals: Net Cost of Benefits Many companies also furnish other postretirement benefits to their retired employees.

49 Postretirement Benefit Obligation 1. Expected Postretirement Benefit Obligation (EPBO) – The actuary's estimate of the total postretirement benefits (at their discounted present value) expected to be received by plan participants. 2. Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation (APBO) – The portion of the EPBO attributed to employee service to date.

50 POSTRETIREMENT BENEFIT OBLIGATION Assume the actuary estimates the net cost of providing health care benefits to a particular employee during her retirement years to have a present value of $10,842 as of the end of This is the EPBO. If the benefits (and therefore the costs) relate to an estimated 35 years of service and 10 of those years have been completed, the APBO would be: 2009 $10,842x 10/35 = $3,098 EPBO fraction APBO attributed x $11,492 x 11/35 = $3,612 EPBO fraction APBO attributed The obligation increases by the 6% accrued interest She now has worked 11 of her estimated 35 years

51 HOW THE APBO CHANGED APBO at the beginning of the year$3,098 Interest cost: $3,098 x 6% 186 Service cost: ($11,492 x 1/35) 328 portion of EPBO attributed to the year APBO at the end of the year$3,612

52 Attribution The process of assigning the cost of benefits to the years during which those benefits are assumed to be earned by employees.

53 Accounting for Postretirement Benefit Plans Other Than Pensions Measuring Service Cost Attribute a portion of the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation to each year as the service cost for that year.

54 Appendix 17: Service Method of Allocating Prior Service Cost The allocation approach that reflects the declining service pattern of employees is called the service method. The method requires that the total number of service years for all employees be calculated. This calculation is usually done by the actuary. Assume Global Communications has 2,000 employees and the companys actuary determined that the total number of service years of these employees is 30,000. We would calculate the following amortization fraction: 30,000 2,000 = 15 average service years

55 End of Chapter 17


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