Presentation on theme: "Back Safety in the Workplace"— Presentation transcript:
1 Back Safety in the Workplace By: Chaizong Lor, Safety Coordinator, FM
2 Back Safety & Lifting Training Objectives: Injury & Illness Statistics Risk Factors - OccupationalBack Injury PreventionPrinciples of Safe HandlingLifting PlanBiomechanics Lifting Power ZoneBack Strengthening ExercisesSummary
3 Injury & Illness Statistics Bureau of Labor StatisticsUW-EC Custodian MaintenanceSprains/Strains, TearsYearCases2003303,7502004282,2402005270,8902006250,8702007235,9602008222,2902009195,150FY 7/1/07 – 6/30/10Cause by lifting, moving, reaching, repetitive motion, pushing/pulling, trip/fall, and struck byNo.Department/ShopsTotal Cost45Custodian$72,612.717Ground Keeper$56,260.474Repair Worker$986.2014Maint. Specialist$70Total ClaimsGrand Total Cost:$159,144.55
4 Risk Factors - Occupational Common Causes of Back InjuriesHeavy LiftingTwistingReaching & LiftingLifting: Lifting or carrying objects with awkward or odd shapes In addition, Reaching and lifting over your head, across a table, or out the back of a truck . . .Twisting: Twisting at the waist while lifting or holding a heavy load This frequently happens when using a shovel.Carrying:Make sure you can seeTake small, stable stepsDo not twist your backCarrying &LiftingAwkward PosturesSitting or StandingSlips, Trips & Falls
5 Risk Factors - Occupational HeavyLiftingJob requires heavy lifting:Use equipment when possible or ask for help.Try to avoid repetitive lifting over a long period of time.TwistingTwisting at the waist while lifting or holding a heavy load.Note: Heavy Lifting always involves the risk of an accident.Heavy Lifting: Some individuals’ job task may require lifting heavy loads.Twisting: This frequently happens when using a shovel.Reaching & Lifting:Handle heavy objects close to the body. Avoid a long reach to pick up an object.Do not reach for an object unless you're sure you're strong enough to lift itReaching& LiftingInjury usually occurs when reaching over the head, across a table or out the back of a truck.
6 Risk Factors - Occupational Carrying& LiftingInjury usually occurs when carrying or lifting objects with awkward or odd shapes.AwkwardPositionsInappropriate postures that can contribute to back pain are caused by poor workstation layout and/or equipment design.Carrying & Lifting: Carrying & lifting loads is the major cause of work related lower back problems.The muscular effort in lifting and carrying depends mostly on the: A. Weight of load. B. Distance of the center of gravity of the load from the body.Carrying the objects close to the body, and avoid carrying them in one hand.2. Slips,Trips & Falls: An example, A good example would be slipping on a wet floor or ice. Poor housekeeping is another good example: tools left on floors, spills and leaks, improperly maintained aisles and walkways.It is very easy to injure your back, neck or legs while slipping, tripping or falling.Slips, Trips& Falls
7 Risk Factors - Occupational Sitting orStandingSitting or standing too long in one position. Sitting can be very hard on the lower back.For every one to two hours sitting, stand up and take a stretch.For every one to two hours standing, sit down or move around and stretch.Note: The human spine as not designed to maintain a sitting position for long periods of time. Driving, working at your desk, spending time on a plane, sitting at the computer, and watching sports are all activities that can lead to back pain. The best way to avoid back strain is to get up every fifteen minutes or so and walk around. (If you are driving, pull over whenever convenient to stretch your legs.) If you sit for long periods at work, invest in a well-designed chair that supports your back and allows you to change positions easily. A cushion tucked behind your back while driving will help provide support and comfort.
8 Back Injury Prevention Avoid lifting and bending whenever you can.Place objects up off the floor.That way you won’t have to reach down to pick them up again.Raise / lower shelves.The best zone for lifting is between your shoulders and your waist.Put heavier objects on shelves at waist level, lighter objects on lower or higher shelves.
9 Back Injury Prevention Reducing exposure to known risk factorsRepetitionAwkward PositionForceObject weightLoad DistributionObject frictionDurationNote:Repetition is doing the same motions over and over again places stress on the muscles and tendons.Awkward Posture is the position of your body and affects muscle groups that are involved in physical activity.Force is the amount of physical effort required to perform a task (such as heavy lifting) or to maintain control of equipment or tools.Duration is the amount of time a person is continually exposed to a risk factor.
10 Back Injury Prevention Avoid Hyper extension movements of the back.Avoid Hyper flexion movements of the back.Note: Uneven thickness of disc due to uneven pressureHyper Extension:Hyper Extension cause the facet joints to scrape and rub. This can lead to arthritis, bone spurs or inflammation.Hyper Flexion:Hyper flexion movements cause the disk to bulge against the spinal cord and impinge on the spinal cord.
11 Back Injury Prevention Maintain good postureLift objects holding them close to your bodyNever “twist” when carrying, handling, or transferring a heavy objectAvoid “locking out” the kneesUse proper lifting techniques
13 Principles of Safe Handling AssessAssess the task:PosturePacing, rate of work, breaksRequirements for team handlingAssess Your Own Capabilities:Strength, height, etc.Health problemsGender, age, fitness
14 Principles of Safe Handling AssessCont.:Assess the Load:Weight, shape, sizeHandles, packagingStabilityContents: hot, cold, hazardousAssess the environment:Space constraintsFlooring condition, levelsTemperature, humidity, ventilationTidiness, general housekeeping
15 Principles of Safe Handling PlanTaskWhat is the most appropriate posture?Is there mechanical aid available?Is there anyone else to help?RouteConsider start and end pointsCan any obstructions be cleared
16 Principles of Safe Handling PreparePrepare the load:Can the load be split?Can the load be made more stable?Make sure contents are evenly distributed?Move the load’s center of gravity close to yoursCover sharp / abrasive edgesPrepare yourself and the area:Check space constraintsMove obstaclesCheck final destinationCheck housekeepingGet a good grip on the loadUse PPE where appropriate
17 Principles of Safe Handling PerformApply principles of biomechanics to reduce the load on the spineKeep a wide base of support.Maintain the lumbar curve (low back) as much as possible.Get a good grip.Position feet in direction of travel.Use smooth controlled movements.Use friction to minimize force.Try to avoid twisting and stooping.Use team lifting where appropriate.
18 Lifting Plan Get close to the load Slowly Lift Proper Lifting TechniquesHug theLoadSquatDownGrip theLoad
19 Lifting Plan Proper Lifting Techniques Get closeto the loadProper Lifting TechniquesGet as close to the load as possible with your feet wide apart about shoulder width, with one foot slightly in front of the other for balance.Test the object’s weight before lifting it.Ask for assistance from a co-worker when appropriate.Have the object close to the body and put less force on the low back.Avoid rapid, jerky movements.
20 Lifting Plan Proper Lifting Techniques Cont.: SquatDownProper Lifting Techniques Cont.:Keep yourself in an upright position while squatting to pick up.Squat by bending the knees and hips.Keep the three Curves of the Back properly aligned:Ears, Shoulders, and Hips are in a straight line.When you use good posture, your back is aligned in three natural curves supported by strong, flexible muscles.Three Curves of the Back: Neck, Middle back, and Lower back
21 Lifting Plan Proper Lifting Techniques Cont.: Grip theLoadProper Lifting Techniques Cont.:Tightening the stomach helps support the spine.Do not hold your breath while tightening the muscles.Get a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift.Use both hands.Use whole hand, not just fingers.Use gloves as needed to prevent “pinched” grips or to protect the hands during lift.
22 Lifting Plan Proper Lifting Techniques Cont.: Hug theLoadProper Lifting Techniques Cont.:Legs are the strongest muscles in the body – so use them.Avoid back flexion.Hold objects close to body.Slide the object from the knee on the ground to mid-thigh.Keep the head forward.Hug the object to your stomach & chest.Once standing, change directions by pointing your feet in the direction you want to go and turn your whole body. Avoid twisting at the waist while carrying the load.Try to hold the object as close to your body as possible, as you gradually straighten your legs to a standing position.
23 Lifting Plan Proper Lifting Techniques Cont.: Slowly Lift Lift with the legs to allow the body’s powerful leg muscles to do the work.Flex the knees and hips, not the back.Avoid bending & twisting at the waist.Try to keep the back “straight” during the lift.Do not look down at the object during lift.Look up to help “straighten” the position of the back for a safer lift.Never Bend, Lift, and Twist at the same time.Lift with the legs to allow the body's powerful leg muscles to do the work.Flex the knees and hips, not the back. Avoid bending at the waist. Try to keep the back "straight" during the lift. Do not look down at the object during the lift -- look up. Looking up helps "straighten" the position of the back for a safer lift.
24 Biomechanics Lifting Power Zone Torque = Load x DistanceBox = 30 lbs.30 lbs.L5/S1 Disk16 in.85 lbs.0 in.30 lbs.85 lbs.12 in.L5/S1 Disk36 in.Body wgt = 170 lbs.(30 lbs. x 36 in.) + (85 lbs. x 12 in.) = 2,100 in-lbs.(30 lbs. x 16 in.) + (85 lbs. x 0 in.) = 480 in-lbs.(Box)(Employee)(Box)(Employee)
25 Lifting in DumpsterAwkward posture-overhead lift
31 Pushing/Pulling CartTwistingBetter to push than pull
32 StorageAwkward posture in this overhead lift. Hopefully this box is not heavy.
33 Back Strengthening Exercises Exercises that work your back, hips, thighs, and abdominal muscles can minimize back problems.Stand behind chair, hands on chair. Lift one leg back and up, keeping the knee straight.Warm up slowly and exercise regularly.Leg Exercise: Return slowly. Raise other leg and return
34 Back Strengthening Exercises Exercises Cont.:Starting Position: Standing tall, feet shoulder width apart, chin tucked inPlace your palms on the small of your back, fingers pointing down.Keep your head up as you lean back slowly as far as possible.Hold for at least 10 seconds.Return to starting position and relax.
35 Back Strengthening Exercises Exercises Cont.:Wall SquatsStand with back leaning against wallWalk feet 12 inches in front of body.Keep abdominal muscles tight while slowly bending both knees 45 degrees.Hold 5 seconds.Slowly return to upright position.Repeat at least 5 to 10 times.
36 Back Strengthening Exercises Exercises Cont.:Lie on the floor on back.Keeping arms folded across chest, tilt pelvis to flatten back, chin tuck into chest.Tighten abdominal muscles while raising head and shoulders from floor.Hold at least seconds and release.Repeat at least to 10 times.Lie on the floor on back.Keeping arms folded across chest, tilt pelvis to flatten back. Tuck chin into chest.Tighten abdominal muscles while raising head and shoulders from floorHold 10 seconds and releaseRepeat times. Gradually increase your repetitions.Do once per day
37 Summary Common Causes Of Back Injuries Back Injury Prevention Heavy LiftingTwistingReaching & LiftingCarrying & LiftingAwkward PositionsSitting or StandingSlips, trips, and fallsBack Injury PreventionReduce exposures to known risk factors