Presentation on theme: "Mercury Monitoring and Reporting Requirements under the MATS Rule"— Presentation transcript:
1Mercury Monitoring and Reporting Requirements under the MATS Rule EPRI Conference---Louisville, KYMay 2012Matthew Boze & Robert VollaroUSEPA, CAMD
2BackgroundOn February 16, 2012, EPA published the Mercury and Toxics Standards (MATS) rule (40 CFR 63, Subpart UUUUU), establishing national emissions limitations and work practice standards for certain hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emitted from coal-fired and oil-fired electric utility steam generating units.Compliance with the rule is required:For existing units, by April 16, 2015For new or reconstructed units, by April 16, 2012, or upon startup (first-fire), whichever is laterCompliance must be demonstrated, by means of performance testing, no later than 180 days after the above datesMercury (Hg) is a regulated HAP under the rule.For existing units, the rule specifies both heat input-based emission limits (lb/TBtu) and electrical output-based limits (lb/GWh) for Hg.
3Background (cont’d)Compliance with either Hg limit is acceptable for existing EGUs.For new or reconstructed units, only electrical output-based emission limits are specified.The magnitude of the applicable Hg emission limit depends on which “subcategory” the EGU is in. The general subcategories and applicable Hg limits (on a 30-day rolling average basis) are:Coal-fired units designed to burn coal with GCV ≥ 8,300 Btu/lb1.2 lb/TBtu or 1.3 x 10-2 lb/GWh for existing units2.0 x 10-4 lb/GWh for new or reconstructed unitsCoal-fired units designed to burn low-rank virgin coal (GCV < 8,300 Btu/lb)4.0 lb/TBtu or 4.0 x 10-2 lb/GWh for existing units4.0 x 10-2 lb/GWh for new or reconstructed unitsIGCC units2.5 lb/TBtu or 3.0 x 10-2 lb/GWh for existing units3.0 x 10-3 lb/GWh for new or reconstructed units
4Background (cont’d)Liquid oil-fired units2.0 x 10-1 lb/TBtu or 2.0 x 10-3 lb/GWh for existing units (continental)1.0 x 10-4 lb/GWh for new or reconstructed units (continental)4.0 x 10-2 lb/TBtu or 4.0 x 10-4 lb/GWh for existing units (non-continental)4.0 x 10-4 lb/GWh for new or reconstructed units (non-continental)Solid oil-derived fuel (i.e., petroleum coke)-fired units2.0 x 10-1 lb/TBtu or 2.0 x lb/GWh for existing units2.0 x 10-3 lb/GWh for new or reconstructed unitsLimited-use units in the liquid oil-fired units subcategory (< 8% annual capacity factor, over a 2-year period) are not subject to emissions limits for mercuryExisting units in the same subcategory at the same facility may use emissions averaging for Hg.If the units in an averaging group are designed to burn coal with GCV ≥ 8,300 Btu/lb, there are alternate Hg limits for the group (1.0 lb/TBtu or 1.1 x 10-2 lb/GWh on a 90-day rolling average).
5Hg Compliance OptionsCertain units can comply with the rule by qualifying as “Low-Emitting EGUs” (LEEs). This option may not be used for units with main stack and bypass stack configurations.For Hg, a LEE is a unit that:Emits at less than 10% of the applicable emissions limit; orHas the potential to emit ≤ 29.0 lb of Hg per yearTo qualify for LEE status, a demonstration test is required.EPA Method 30B is used to measure Hg concentration for 30 unit operating daysPaired sorbent traps are used for the test.Each pair of traps may be used for up to 10 operating daysAdditional data (i.e., stack gas flow rate, CO2 or O2 concentration, moisture, electrical load, as applicable) are collected during the test. EPA reference methods or certified CEMS that meet Part 75 requirements are used to provide the flow rate, CO2, O2, or moisture data.The additional data are used either to: (1) convert the measured Hg concentrations to the units of the emission limit; or (2) enable the EGU’s potential annual Hg mass emissions to be calculated.The rule includes special provisions for applying the LEE methodology to units that share a common stack and units that have multiple stack (or duct) exhaust configurations.The 30 operating day demonstration test must be repeated at least once every 12 months, to show that the unit continues to qualify as a LEE for Hg.
6Hg Compliance Options (cont’d) What are the compliance requirements for EGUs that do not qualify as LEEs ?A liquid oil-fired unit that does not qualify as a LEE for total HAP metals (including Hg), individual HAP metals (including Hg), or filterable PM must demonstrate compliance in accordance with § (c)(2)(ii), either by:Conducting an initial performance test and subsequent quarterly stack tests to show that the filterable PM emissions limit is met;Using a certified PM CEMS to demonstrate initial and on-going compliance with the filterable PM emission limit; orConducting an initial performance test and subsequent annual stack tests to show that the filterable PM emissions limit is met, and using a PM CPMS to monitor continuous performance (with respect to an operating limit) in-between the annual stack tests.A coal-fired unit, IGCC , or solid oil-derived fuel (i.e., petroleum coke)-fired unit that does not qualify as a LEE for Hg must continuously monitor Hg concentration using Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring systems, in accordance with Appendix A of Subpart UUUUU.
7Hg CEMS Principle: Typical Hg CEMS Components: Representative samples of flue gas are continuously extracted from the stack or ductParticulate matter is removed (i.e., filtered) from the gas samplesHg analyzer measures vapor phase Hg0 and Hg2+ (simultaneously or separately)Typical Hg CEMS Components:ProbePM filterSample conditioningSample transport (sample line and pump)Gas analyzer (with or without converters)Calibration gas system
9Hg CEMS (cont’d) Types of systems: Dilution extractive – wet basisExtractive – dry basisDevelopment of a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program is required.
10Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Principle:Known volumes of flue gas are continuously extracted from the stack or duct through paired, in-stack sorbent traps. Vapor phase Hg is collected on the sorbent medium.Typical sorbent medium is halogenated carbonPaired sorbent traps are used for quality-assurance purposes and to ensure measurement precisionA pair of sorbent traps is typically used for 24 to 168 hours (but may be used for up to 14 operating days when the Hg concentration is very low), before being removed and analyzed.Components:Dual trains w/sampling probes and paired sorbent traps. The sorbent traps have three sections: (1) main sample collection section; (2) breakthrough section; and (3) section spiked with a known mass of Hg0 , for QA/QC .Moisture removal systemVacuum pumpSample gas flow meter
12Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems (cont’d) Probe3-sectionsorbent traps
13Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems (cont’d) The sorbent trap system must be operated and maintained according to Performance Specification 12B in 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix B.Leak checks must be performed (before and after sampling)Paired sorbent trap consistency/agreement is requiredA minimum % recovery of the spiked Hg0 in the third section is requiredSample recovery techniques include acid leaching, digestion, thermal desorption (see next slide).Analytical methods include UV atomic fluorescence, UV atomic absorption, and X-ray fluorescenceAnalyzer calibration is requiredDevelopment of a QA/QC program is also required.
14Thermal Desorption System Thermal desorption system allows rapid, on-site measurement of mercury in sorbent trapsAlternative to traditional wet chemical analysis methods
15Monitoring System Certification Each Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system must be initially certified.For Hg CEMS, the following certification tests are required:7-day calibration error test, using elemental or oxidized Hg standardsLinearity check, using elemental Hg standards3-level system integrity check, using oxidized Hg standardsCycle time test, using elemental or oxidized Hg standards. This test is not required for integrated batch sampling-type CEMSRelative accuracy test audit (RATA). Note that a bias test is not required. Allowable reference methods for the RATA include EPA Methods 29, 30A, 30B, and ASTM D (the Ontario Hydro Method)All Hg calibration gas standards must be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). EPA , in cooperation with industry, NIST, and outside consultants, has developed interim traceability protocols. These are cited in Subpart UUUUU, Appendix A, sections and
16Monitoring System Certification (cont’d) For sorbent trap monitoring systems, only a RATA is required.During the RATA, the monitoring system must be operated according to Performance Specification 12BThe sorbent material must be the same type that is used for daily operation of the systemThe sorbent traps used for the RATA may be smaller than those used for daily operationThe allowable breakthrough in the second section of the traps depends on the Hg concentration level in the stack gas (see Footnote 1 in Table 3, below).The required tests and performance specifications that must be met for initial certification of Hg CEMS are summarized in Table 1.The RATA specifications for the initial certification of a sorbent trap monitoring system are the same as those shown in Table 1.
17Monitoring System Certification (cont’d) Table 1: Certification Requirements for Hg CEMS1 “R” is the reference gas value; “A” is the analyzer reading; “Aavg” is the average analyzer reading; “RMavg” is the mean reference method value; and “Cavg” is the mean CEMS value2 Using NIST-traceable elemental or oxidized Hg standards. The test may be performed on 7 consecutive operating days, if necessary.3 Using NIST-traceable elemental Hg standards4 Using NIST-traceable oxidized Hg standards5 Using NIST-traceable elemental or oxidized Hg standards. This test is not required for integrated batch sampling-type CEMS.For this required certification test.....The main performance specification1 is.....The alternate performance specification1 is.....And the conditions of the alternate specification are.....7-day calibration error test2|R - A| ≤ 5.0% of span value, for both the zero and upscale gases, on each of the 7 days|R - A| ≤1.0 µg/scmThe alternate specification may be used on any day of the test.Linearity check3|R - Aavg | ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas concentration at each calibration gas level|R - Aavg | ≤ 0.8 µg/scmThe alternate specification may be used at any gas level3-level system integrity check4|R - Aavg | ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas concentration at each calibration gas levelRATA20.0% RA|RMavg - Cavg | ≤ 1.0 µg/scmRMavg < 5.0 µg/scmCycle time test515 minutes
18On-going Quality-Assurance To ensure that certified Hg CEMS and sorbent trap monitoring systems continue to provide accurate data, the systems are subject to on-going quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) requirements.For Hg CEMS, the following QA tests are required:Daily calibration error tests , using elemental or oxidized Hg standardsWeekly single-point system integrity checks , using oxidized Hg standardsQuarterly linearity checks, using elemental Hg standards or 3-level system integrity checks using oxidized Hg standardsAnnual RATAsFor sorbent trap monitoring systems:The system must be operated and maintained according to PS 12BAnnual RATAs are requiredQuarterly calibration of the gas flow meter and auxiliary equipment is requiredThe on-going QA/QC requirements and acceptance criteria for Hg CEMS and sorbent trap monitoring systems are summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively.
19On-going Quality Assurance (cont’d) Table 2: On-going QA /QC Requirements for Hg CEMS1 Weekly means once every 7 operating days2 NIST-traceable Hg standards are requiredPerform this type of QA test....At this frequency....With these qualifications and exceptions....Acceptance criteria….Calibration error testDailyUse either a mid- or high- level gasUse either elemental or oxidized Hg2Calibrations are not required when the unit is not in operation.|R - A| ≤ 5.0% of span valueor|R - A| ≤ 1.0µg/scmSingle-level system integrity checkWeekly1Use oxidized Hg ---either mid- or high-levelNot required if daily calibrations are done with a NIST-traceable source of oxidized Hg|R - Aavg| ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas value|R - Aavg| ≤ 0.8 µg/scm
20On-going Quality Assurance (cont’d) Table 2: On-going QA /QC Requirements for Hg CEMS (cont’d)3 A “QA operating quarter” is a calendar quarter with at least 168 unit or stack operating hours4 NIST-traceable Hg standards are required5 “Quarterly” means once every QA operating quarter6 Annual” means once every four QA operating quartersPerform this QA test....At this frequency…With these qualifications and exceptions....Acceptance criteria….Linearity checkor3-level system integrity checkQuarterly5Required in each “QA operating quarter”3 ---and no less than once every 4 calendar quarters168 operating hour grace period availableUse elemental Hg for linearity check4Use oxidized Hg for system integrity check4|R - Aavg | ≤ 10.0% of the reference gas value, at each calibration gas level|R - Aavg| ≤ 0.8 µg/scmRATAAnnual6Test deadline may be extended for “non-QA operating quarters”, up to a maximum of 8 quarters from the quarter of the previous test.720 operating hour grace period available20.0% RA|RMavg - Cavg | ≤ 1.0 µg/scm,ifRMavg < 5.0 µg/scm
21On-going Quality Assurance (cont’d) Table 3: Normal Operation and QA/QC for Sorbent Trap Systems (PS 12B)1 For the RATA, Section 2 breakthrough depends on CHg stack gas Hg concentration. Allowable breakthrough is ≤ 10% of Section 1 mass if CHg is > 1 µg/m3; ≤ 20% of Section 1 mass if CHg is > 0.5 and ≤ 1 µg/m3; ≤ 50% of Section 1 mass if CHg is > 0.1 and ≤ 0.5 µg/m3. There is no breakthrough criterion if CHg is < 0.1 µg/m3 .QA/QC test or specificationAcceptance criteriaFrequencyConsequences if not metPre-monitoring leak check≤ 4% of target sampling ratePrior to monitoringMonitoring must not commence until the leak check is passed.Post-monitoring leak check≤ 4% of average sampling rateAfter monitoringInvalidate the data from the paired traps or, if certain conditions are met, report adjusted data from a single trap (PS 12B, Section ).Ratio of stack gas flow rate to sample flow rateHourly ratio may not deviate from the reference ratio by more than ± 25%.Every hour throughout monitoring periodSorbent trap section 2 breakthrough≤ 5% of Section 1 Hg mass(for daily operation)1Every sample
22On-going Quality Assurance (cont’d) Table 3: Normal Operation and QA/QC for Sorbent Trap Systems (PS 12B) (cont’d)QA/QC test or specificationAcceptance criteriaFrequencyConsequences if not metPaired sorbent trap agreement≤ 10% Relative Deviation (RD) if the average concentration is > 1.0 µg/m3Every sampleEither invalidate the data from the paired traps or report the results from the trap with the higher Hg concentration.≤ 20% RD if the average concentration is ≤ 1.0 µg/m3Results also acceptable if difference between paired traps is ≤ 0.03 µg/m3Spike Recovery StudyAverage recovery between 85% and 115% for each of the 3 spike concentration levelsPrior to analyzing field samples and prior to use of new sorbent mediaField samples must not be analyzed until the percent recovery criteria has been met.Multipoint analyzer calibrationEach analyzer reading within ± 10% of true value and r2 ≥ 0.99On the day of analysis, before analyzing any samplesRecalibrate until successfulAnalysis of independent calibration standard.Within ± 10% of true valueFollowing daily calibration, prior to analyzing field samplesRecalibrate and repeat independent standard analysis until successful.Spike recovery from section 3 of both sorbent traps75–125% of spike amountInvalidate the data from the paired traps or, if certain conditions are met, report adjusted data from a single trap (PS 12B, Section ).
23On-going Quality Assurance (cont’d) Table 3: Normal Operation and QA/QC for Sorbent Trap Systems (PS 12B) (cont’d) 2 “Annually” means once every four QA operating quarters. Limited extensions of the RATA deadline are allowed for “non-QA” quarters---the maximum allowable extension is 8 calendar quarters from the previous RATA. A 720 operating hour grace period is available.QA/QC test or specificationAcceptance criteriaFrequencyConsequences if not metRelative AccuracyRA ≤ 20.0% of RM mean value; or if RM mean value ≤ 5.0 µg/scm, absolute difference between RM and sorbent trap monitoring system mean values ≤ 1.0 µg/scmRA specification must be met for initial certification and annually2 thereafterData from the system are invalid until a RATA is passed.Gas flow meter calibrationAn initial calibration factor (Y) has been determined at 3 settings; for mass flow meters, initial calibration with stack gas has been performed. For subsequent calibrations, Y within ± 5% of average value from the most recent 3-point calibrationAt 3 settings prior to initial use and at least quarterly at one setting thereafterRecalibrate meter at 3 settings to determine a new value of Y.Temperature sensor calibrationAbsolute temperature measured by sensor within ± 1.5% of a reference sensorPrior to initial use and at least quarterly thereafterRecalibrate; sensor may not be used until specification is met.Barometer calibrationAbsolute pressure measured by instrument within ± 10 mm Hg of reading with a NIST-traceable barometerRecalibrate; instrument may not be used until specification is met.
24Hg Emissions Reporting For units that qualify as LEEs for Hg, the results of all 30-day demonstration tests must be submitted to EPA’s WebFIRE database, using the Electronic Reporting Tool (ERT). The results must be submitted within 60 days after completing each test.For units that continuously monitor Hg emissions:A monitoring plan must be developed and maintained.The Hg CEMS or sorbent trap monitoring system(s) and any required additional monitoring systems must be represented in the monitoring plan.Monitoring plan data must be submitted to EPA electronically and updated when necessary, using the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS) Client Tool.Hourly Hg concentration data must be reported electronically using the ECMPS Client Tool.Data from Hg CEMS are reduced to hourly averagesFor sorbent trap monitoring systems, the Hg concentration obtained from the analysis of a pair of traps is reported for each hour of the data collection period.
25Hg Emissions Reporting (cont’d) Quarterly electronic reporting of Hg emissions is required, no later than 30 days after the end of each calendar quarter.Hourly records of any additional data needed to convert Hg concentration to units of the emission standard (e.g., stack gas flow rate and/or moisture content, CO2 or O2 concentration, electrical load) must be included in the electronic quarterly reports.The additional monitoring system(s) used to convert Hg concentration to units of the standard must meet the requirements of 40 CFR Part 75.For sorbent trap monitoring systems, certain other hourly data must be reported (i.e., sample flow rate, gas flow meter reading, and the ratio of stack gas flow rate to sample flow rate).The data acquisition and handling system (DAHS) must be programmed to provide an hourly data stream in the units of the applicable Hg emission standard (lb/TBtu or lb/GWh).Hg emission rates are calculated only for operating hours in which valid data are obtained for all parameters in the applicable equation(s). For the purposes of Subpart UUUUU, Part 75 substitute data are not considered to be valid data.
26Hg Emissions Reporting (cont’d) Operating hours in which a valid Hg emission rate is not obtained are counted as hours of monitoring system downtime.Only unadjusted monitoring data are used to calculate Hg emission rates. Bias adjustment factors (BAFs) are not applied to any of the parameters.The results of all required certification and QA tests of Hg CEMS, sorbent trap monitoring systems, and the additional monitoring system(s) used to convert Hg concentration to units of the standard must be reported electronically, using the ECMPS Client Tool.For Hg CEMS and sorbent trap monitoring systems, RATA results and test details must also be submitted to the WebFIRE database via ERT, within 60 days after completing each test.Compliance with the 30 (or in some cases, 90) operating day rolling average Hg emission rates is assessed in the semiannual reports required under §
27Future Changes to ECMPS for Hg EPA is reviewing the Hg reporting schema and reporting instructions (March 5, 2008) drafted for CAMR. This will be our starting point for integrating continuous Hg data into ECMPS.Structurally, that schema is compatible with the MATS Hg continuous monitoring and reporting requirementsNew method of determination codes (MODC) will be needed to handle the differences between the CAMR rule and the MATS rule.Exclusion of Startup and Shutdown hoursHandling of invalid data hours – No Substitute DataNo Bias AdjustmentsEtc.
28Future Changes to ECMPS for Hg CEMS Monitoring Plan will have to reactivate the <CalibrationStandard> record for reporting the basis of daily calibrations (i.e., Hg0 or Hg2+ )Add 3-level System Integrity Check to the QA schemaAdd the <WeeklySystemIntegrityData> record back to the Emissions schema. Program to check for this on an operating day basis when Hg0 is used in daily calibrations.Hourly Hg concentration measurements to be recorded in MHV recordsHourly Hg emission rate data to be reported in DHV records
29Future Changes to ECMPS for Hg Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Add the QA record structure for reporting the required Gas Flow Meter Calibrations, GFM temperature sensor barometer calibration checksCreate special emissions data schema to support sorbent trap monitoringHourly GFM Data recordSampling Train Data recordSample Train Data would contain all the information necessary to determine the quality assurance status of each sampling period.Spike RecoveryBreakthroughTrap AgreementStack Flow to Sample Rate Ratio CheckLeak Check
30Future Changes to ECMPS for Hg Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems (continued) Concentration determined from a sampling period would be entered into the appropriate hourly MHV recordsThis allows the data to be used to determine hourly emission rates and treated like Hg CEMS data for compliance averaging.Also allows for a sorbent trap systems to be used as a backup to Hg CEMS, (if desired to keep data loss at a minimum).Hourly Hg emission rate data to be reported in DHV records
31ECMPS Process ForwardEPA is committed to ensuring that the continuous monitoring data for MATS is integrated into ECMPS in a manner that is consistent with the process currently used for Part 75 reporting.Also, we will be working on more specific draft documents on the specific plans as they relate to MATS – ECMPS monitoring requirementsReporting SchemaReporting InstructionsCheck SpecificationsStakeholder meetingsGoal is to have ECMPS and your DAHS programming updated, tested and ready to go by 1Q2015