Presentation on theme: "EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA POLICY AND PRACTICE BY DR JULIANA SELETI PRESENTATION FOR THE WORLD BANK TECHNICAL WORKSHOP OF THE AFRICA."— Presentation transcript:
1 EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA POLICY AND PRACTICE BY DR JULIANA SELETI PRESENTATION FOR THE WORLD BANK TECHNICAL WORKSHOP OF THE AFRICA ECCD INITIATIVE26-28 October 2009 ZANZIBAR
2 INTRODUCTION South Africa-Geography. Socio, Economic and Political Context.Historical Context.Status and situation of young children.ECD terms in South Africa.What is policy?The dawn of ECD policy development.Definition of ECD in South Africa.Stages of Policy Development.Stakeholders in ECD Policy development.ECD departments and their roles.Critical Policy resources and products.Achievements from ECD policy implementation strategies.Lessons learnt towards Scaling up ECD.
4 HISTORICAL CONTEXTSouth Africa became a democratic state in 1994, having abolished the apartheid system of government.The system which was racially discriminative and unjust did not spare children.There were no ECD policies even for the privileged children.There was a fragmented system of ECD services and very few children benefited from it mainly among the whites,colourds, Indians and .
5 ECD TERMS IN SOUTH AFRICA ECD Site is an ECD centre.Reception year (5year olds)is Kindergarten.Grade 0 or Pre-reception (4year olds)Grade 00 (3 year olds).ECD Practitioner is a non recognised ECD teacher.
6 SOCIO,ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONTEXT 11 languages9 ProvincesMultiparty parliamentary democracy, ANC most dominant party29 government departmentsPolicy and politics closely linked even at implementation levelGDP $277 billion- High unemployment rateIndustries, mining, manufacturing and agro processingTwo economies- developed/under developed /unequal /distribution of wealthSince 1994 changes and progress have been made in providing social services through various programmesAccess to health, education, housing and business opportunities have improvedImproved infrastructure
7 STATUS AND SITUATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN There are 5, children ages birth to four55% belong to poor households2.8 on Child support grantsUnder five mortality rates 61% per 1000 live births 1998 and 57.6 per 1000 live births79% children one year old immunisedThe percentage of children aged 0–4 years attending an educational institution increased from 7,6% in 2002 to 16,6% in 2007.The percentage of five-year-olds attending educational institutions increased from 40,1% in 2002 to 60,4% in 2007
8 WHAT IS POLICY?ECD Policy in this presentation is anything that is an expression government’s intentions and commitment to meeting the needs and rights of young children, examples:PlansLegislated documents such as Acts, BillsGovernment branded documents ,white papers.GuidelinesStrategiesFrameworks
9 THE DAWN OF ECD POLICY DEVELOPMENT Organized policy development processes in all sectors and spheres of government, begun in the early 1990s, after Mandela was released and continued into early 2000s.By 2003 the key Departments of Social Development and Education had developed their own ECD Policies.Health did not have ECD policies but addressed young children’s needs, rights and issues, in their different Health policies, guidelines and strategies.Policy development, included the ratification of international child related policy instruments and commitments .
10 DEFINITION OF ECD IN SAEarly Childhood Development in South Africa refers to a comprehensive approach to policies and programmes for children from birth to 9 years of age, with the active participation of their parents and caregivers. Its purpose is to protect the child’s rights to develop his or her full cognitive, emotional, social and physical potential.This definition is used widely by government and NGOsThe definition and understanding of ECD in SA is one of the products of ECD Policy consultations that took place in the early 1990s.
11 STAGES OF POLICY DEVELOPMENT Separate ECD policy products were developed across the key departments of Education, Social Development and Health, but using the same stakeholders.Steps for ECD Policy development using stages approach:Agenda setting :This was characterised by lobbying and advocacy at national and provincial policy forums as well as research
12 STAGES OF POLICY DEVELOPMENT CONT...... Adoption:Various researchvarious proposals and drafts were develop through stakeholder participation and consultationsPilot and national auditFormulation of Policy:Final policy determined by government- influenced by critical needs, capacity and resources.ImplementationTargeted implementation using social economic levels to identify vulnerable and needy children
13 STAKEHOLDERS IN ECD POLICY DEVELOPMENT The ECD policy development process, brought together many ECD role players such as:Practitioners –CaregiversLocal ECD structures and associationsResearchersAdvocates for child rightsTraining organisations and other NGOsOwners of ECD CentresTeachersPoliticiansSouth African Congress for Early Childhood Development:Main structure for the early policy consultationsCymbal of racial unity in ECDOrganised at national, provincial and regional levels
14 ECD DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR ROLES Key ECD Departments have developed policy products relating to their ECD roles and ages that they are responsible for:Social Department- birth to fiveSocial Grants, Subsidies, and site registrationHealth Department -Prenatal to nineIntegrated Management of Childhood Diseases, Primary Health Care , HIV and AIDS interventionsDepartment of Basic Education – birth to nineCurriculum development and implementationEarly StimulationTeacher trainingLearning and teaching resourcesHome Affairs: Birth +Birth RegistrationWomen and Children-New
15 CRITICAL POLICY RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS National Policy Investigation 1992.White Paper 1 on Education 1995(Education Act).World Bank ECD Situation Analysis (Stakeholder lead).The Interim ECE Policy 1996.The National ECD Pilot (Stakeholder /government partnership with )The ECD Audit ( Massive consultation )White Paper 5 on ECE.
16 CRITICAL POLICY RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS CONT.... White Paper on Social Development.Children’s Act.South Africa’s National Children’s Rights. Coordination Framework.Guidelines for Early Childhood Development.Integrated Plan for Children affected and infected by HIV and AIDS.Health Sector Strategic Frame work.The Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDs.The comprehensive Primary Health Care Package.The National Integrated Plan for Early Childhood Development For Birth to Four (Only intersectoral policy document).
17 ACHIEVEMENTS FROM ECD POLICY IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES Well defined ECD units and sections were established in the departments of Education and Social Development .Some departments have identified focal ECD people.Identification of different implementation strategies.Financing-ECD became a budget item with Treasury from 2000.ECD has become a political priority and one of the apex areas for government intervention.National programmes for poverty alleviation are using ECD as a place to start implementation:Programme of ActionExpanded Public Works programme
18 ACHIEVEMENTS FROM ECD POLICY IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES There is some collaboration between government and NGOs but it needs strengthening and formalising.Number of registered sites have increased from less than 5000 in 2001 to over 11,000.ECD training mechanisms in place.Number of trained and skilled ECD practitioners is over 10,000 (No reliable system of data collection.ECD Qualification system in place.
19 CHALLENGESLack of Social cohesion- barriers and extensive differences due to lack of unequal access to economic benefits amenities and resources.Poverty -biggest challenge to ECD.Effects of HIV and AIDS-Child headed homes.No national advocacy.Lack of monitoring and evaluation.
20 CHALLENGES CONT....Intersectoral service delivery mechanisms not in place.ECD financing has improved but still inadequate.Spending of ECD financial resources sometimes a problem.Financial tracking not in place.
21 LESSONS LEARNT TOWARDS SCALING UP ECD Requirements for scaling up ECD particularlyfor birth to four:Well defined policies and implementation strategies.Un equivocal government commitment.Dedicated funding.Committed staff and ECD sections.An appropriate integrated approach.Clear planning and budgets for short term, medium term, long term.
22 LESSONS LEARNT TOWARDS SCALING UP ECD CONT.... Interdepartmental collaboration.Intersectoral collaboration.Well defined systems and structures of service delivery.Interventions must begin early (even prenatally).Use combination of interventions.utilize a range of delivery channels (e.g. centers, crèches, health facility ,homes etc.).
23 SCALING UP FOR QUALITYImportant to note that quality interventions require -:Integration of health, nutrition, education, social and economic development and care in ECD programmes.Collaboration between government and civil society organizations.Lower child to care giver ratios and smaller group sizes for younger children.For purposes of monitoring and evaluation develop standards or indicators for example for early learning,programmes, centers ,training etc.
24 SCALING UP FOR QUALITY CONT... Staff who are appropriately trained, receive ongoing in-service training and supportive and continuous supervision.Involvement of parents as partners with ECD practitioners.Combines a package of multiple interventions (birth registration, supplementary food, social grants, parent education etc.).Substantial investment resources required both for training and for payment of salaries of for ECD practitioners.
25 CONCLUSION It’s all about the children their needs and rights (Young Lives UNICEF South Africa)