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Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION FOR THE WORLD BANK TECHNICAL WORKSHOP OF THE AFRICA ECCD INITIATIVE 26-28 October 2009 ZANZIBAR."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION  South Africa-Geography.  Socio, Economic and Political Context.  Historical Context.  Status and situation of young children.  ECD terms in South Africa.  What is policy?  The dawn of ECD policy development.  Definition of ECD in South Africa.  Stages of Policy Development.  Stakeholders in ECD Policy development.  ECD departments and their roles.  Critical Policy resources and products.  Achievements from ECD policy implementation strategies.  Lessons learnt towards Scaling up ECD.


4 HISTORICAL CONTEXT  South Africa became a democratic state in 1994, having abolished the apartheid system of government.  The system which was racially discriminative and unjust did not spare children.  There were no ECD policies even for the privileged children.  There was a fragmented system of ECD services and very few children benefited from it mainly among the whites,colourds, Indians and.

5 ECD TERMS IN SOUTH AFRICA ECD Site is an ECD centre. Reception year (5year olds)is Kindergarten. Grade 0 or Pre-reception (4year olds) Grade 00 (3 year olds). ECD Practitioner is a non recognised ECD teacher.

6 SOCIO,ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONTEXT  11 languages  9 Provinces  Multiparty parliamentary democracy, ANC most dominant party  29 government departments  Policy and politics closely linked even at implementation level  GDP $277 billion- High unemployment rate  Industries, mining, manufacturing and agro processing  Two economies- developed/under developed /unequal /distribution of wealth  Since 1994 changes and progress have been made in providing social services through various programmes  Access to health, education, housing and business opportunities have improved  Improved infrastructure

7 STATUS AND SITUATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN  There are 5,164 500 children ages birth to four  55% belong to poor households  2.8 on Child support grants  Under five mortality rates 61% per 1000 live births 1998 and 57.6 per 1000 live births  79% children one year old immunised  The percentage of children aged 0–4 years attending an educational institution increased from 7,6% in 2002 to 16,6% in 2007.  The percentage of five-year-olds attending educational institutions increased from 40,1% in 2002 to 60,4% in 2007

8 WHAT IS POLICY?  ECD Policy in this presentation is anything that is an expression government’s intentions and commitment to meeting the needs and rights of young children, examples:  Plans  Legislated documents such as Acts, Bills  Government branded documents,white papers.  Guidelines  Strategies  Frameworks

9 THE DAWN OF ECD POLICY DEVELOPMENT  Organized policy development processes in all sectors and spheres of government, begun in the early 1990s, after Mandela was released and continued into early 2000s.  By 2003 the key Departments of Social Development and Education had developed their own ECD Policies.  Health did not have ECD policies but addressed young children’s needs, rights and issues, in their different Health policies, guidelines and strategies.  Policy development, included the ratification of international child related policy instruments and commitments.

10 DEFINITION OF ECD IN SA  Early Childhood Development in South Africa refers to a comprehensive approach to policies and programmes for children from birth to 9 years of age, with the active participation of their parents and caregivers. Its purpose is to protect the child’s rights to develop his or her full cognitive, emotional, social and physical potential.  This definition is used widely by government and NGOs  The definition and understanding of ECD in SA is one of the products of ECD Policy consultations that took place in the early 1990s.

11 STAGES OF POLICY DEVELOPMENT  Separate ECD policy products were developed across the key departments of Education, Social Development and Health, but using the same stakeholders.  Steps for ECD Policy development using stages approach:  Agenda setting :  This was characterised by lobbying and advocacy at national and provincial policy forums as well as research

12 STAGES OF POLICY DEVELOPMENT CONT......  Adoption:  Various research  various proposals and drafts were develop through stakeholder participation and consultations  Pilot and national audit  Formulation of Policy: Final policy determined by government- influenced by critical needs, capacity and resources.  Implementation Targeted implementation using social economic levels to identify vulnerable and needy children

13 STAKEHOLDERS IN ECD POLICY DEVELOPMENT  The ECD policy development process, brought together many ECD role players such as:  Practitioners –Caregivers  Local ECD structures and associations  Researchers  Advocates for child rights  Training organisations and other NGOs  Owners of ECD Centres  Teachers  Politicians  South African Congress for Early Childhood Development:  Main structure for the early policy consultations  Cymbal of racial unity in ECD  Organised at national, provincial and regional levels

14 ECD DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR ROLES Key ECD Departments have developed policy products relating to their ECD roles and ages that they are responsible for:  Social Department- birth to five  Social Grants, Subsidies, and site registration  Health Department -Prenatal to nine  Integrated Management of Childhood Diseases, Primary Health Care, HIV and AIDS interventions  Department of Basic Education – birth to nine  Curriculum development and implementation  Early Stimulation  Teacher training  Learning and teaching resources  Home Affairs: Birth +  Birth Registration  Women and Children-New

15 CRITICAL POLICY RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS  National Policy Investigation 1992.  White Paper 1 on Education 1995(Education Act).  World Bank ECD Situation Analysis 1994 (Stakeholder lead).  The Interim ECE Policy 1996.  The National ECD Pilot (Stakeholder /government partnership with )1996-1997.  The ECD Audit ( Massive consultation )1999-2000.  White Paper 5 on ECE.

16 CRITICAL POLICY RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS CONT.... White Paper on Social Development. Children’s Act. South Africa’s National Children’s Rights. Coordination Framework. Guidelines for Early Childhood Development. Integrated Plan for Children affected and infected by HIV and AIDS. Health Sector Strategic Frame work. The Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDs. The comprehensive Primary Health Care Package. The National Integrated Plan for Early Childhood Development For Birth to Four (Only intersectoral policy document).

17 ACHIEVEMENTS FROM ECD POLICY IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES  Well defined ECD units and sections were established in the departments of Education and Social Development.  Some departments have identified focal ECD people.  Identification of different implementation strategies.  Financing-ECD became a budget item with Treasury from 2000.  ECD has become a political priority and one of the apex areas for government intervention.  National programmes for poverty alleviation are using ECD as a place to start implementation:  Programme of Action  Expanded Public Works programme

18 ACHIEVEMENTS FROM ECD POLICY IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES  There is some collaboration between government and NGOs but it needs strengthening and formalising.  Number of registered sites have increased from less than 5000 in 2001 to over 11,000.  ECD training mechanisms in place.  Number of trained and skilled ECD practitioners is over 10,000 (No reliable system of data collection.  ECD Qualification system in place.

19 CHALLENGES  Lack of Social cohesion- barriers and extensive differences due to lack of unequal access to economic benefits amenities and resources.  Poverty -biggest challenge to ECD.  Effects of HIV and AIDS-Child headed homes.  No national advocacy.  Lack of monitoring and evaluation.

20 CHALLENGES CONT....  Intersectoral service delivery mechanisms not in place.  ECD financing has improved but still inadequate.  Spending of ECD financial resources sometimes a problem.  Financial tracking not in place.

21 LESSONS LEARNT TOWARDS SCALING UP ECD Requirements for scaling up ECD particularly for birth to four:  Well defined policies and implementation strategies.  Un equivocal government commitment.  Dedicated funding.  Committed staff and ECD sections.  An appropriate integrated approach.  Clear planning and budgets for short term, medium term, long term.

22 LESSONS LEARNT TOWARDS SCALING UP ECD CONT....  Interdepartmental collaboration.  Intersectoral collaboration.  Well defined systems and structures of service delivery.  Interventions must begin early (even prenatally).  Use combination of interventions.  utilize a range of delivery channels (e.g. centers, crèches, health facility,homes etc.).

23 SCALING UP FOR QUALITY Important to note that quality interventions require -:  Integration of health, nutrition, education, social and economic development and care in ECD programmes.  Collaboration between government and civil society organizations.  Lower child to care giver ratios and smaller group sizes for younger children.  For purposes of monitoring and evaluation develop standards or indicators for example for early learning,programmes, centers,training etc.

24 SCALING UP FOR QUALITY CONT...  Staff who are appropriately trained, receive ongoing in- service training and supportive and continuous supervision.  Involvement of parents as partners with ECD practitioners.  Combines a package of multiple interventions (birth registration, supplementary food, social grants, parent education etc.).  Substantial investment resources required both for training and for payment of salaries of for ECD practitioners.

25 CONCLUSION It’s all about the children their needs and rights (Young Lives UNICEF South Africa)


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