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"Academic Expectations and Values among Low-Income Youth: Exploring Differences by Achievement Level" Kelly Minor Georgia State University Host Institution:

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Presentation on theme: ""Academic Expectations and Values among Low-Income Youth: Exploring Differences by Achievement Level" Kelly Minor Georgia State University Host Institution:"— Presentation transcript:

1 "Academic Expectations and Values among Low-Income Youth: Exploring Differences by Achievement Level" Kelly Minor Georgia State University Host Institution: University of Virginia

2 Background Motivation is a significant predictor of the academic performance of students (Tavani & Losh, 2003). Few studies have investigated if motivation varies by the achievement level of students. The Expectancy-Value Theory of motivation¹: ¹Eccles-Parsons, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece, et al., 1983 Expectancies Values Task Choice Persistence Performance

3 Background cont. Components of Expectancy-Value Theory² ²Eccles-Parsons, Adler, Futterman, Goff, Kaczala, Meece, et al., 1983 Expectancies Expectancies for Success Ability Beliefs Values Intrinsic Utility Cost Attainment

4 Question and Hypothesis What is the association between motivation and achievement level in low-income high school students? Hypothesis: High achieving students will have higher expectations and values than non-high achieving students.

5 Methods Education Longitudinal Study: Nationally representative sample of students in 10 th grade during The survey collected data on academic achievement, future expectations, and math and reading performance. High Achieving: students who participated in Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, Talent Search, or any College Prep program.

6 Methods cont. SEM: Identified that underlying factors were present Confirmed theory did fit with the data Similar fit with high and non-high achieving groups Group comparisons with Analyses of Variance Values Intrinsic Utility Attainment Expectancies Expectancies for Success Ability Beliefs

7 Results One-way ANOVA for Expectancy Beliefs

8 Results cont. One-way ANOVA for Value Beliefs

9 Motivation and Math Outcomes The latent constructs of motivation (Expectancies and Values) were predictors of math scores. Expectancies hold more weight in predicting math scores than values. Expectancies Values Math Scores 12.47*** 3.19*** High Achieving Youth Expectancies Values Math Scores 8.83 *** 1.80*** Non- High Achieving Youth

10 Findings and Implications Generally, there were higher levels of motivation among high achieving students. Higher expectations and values predict higher math scores. Expectations hold more weight than values in determining motivation. Educators and future researchers should identify ways to increase the motivation of non-high achieving students, especially in regards to expectancy components.

11 References Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. EDUCATION LONGITUDINAL STUDY (ELS), 2002: BASE YEAR [Computer file]. ICPSR04275-v1. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics [producer], Ann Arbor, MI: Inter- university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], Tavani, C., & Losh, S., (2003). Motivation, self-confidence, and expectations as predictors of the academic performances among our high school students. Child Study Journal, 33(3), This study was conducted under Dr. Joanna Lee of the University of Virginia, while participating in the Summer Undergraduate Research Program.


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