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Facts About the Preparation and Transition of LD Students A Snapshot from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Dr. Jose Blackorby SRI International.

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Presentation on theme: "Facts About the Preparation and Transition of LD Students A Snapshot from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Dr. Jose Blackorby SRI International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Facts About the Preparation and Transition of LD Students A Snapshot from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) Dr. Jose Blackorby SRI International October 4, 2006 ETS and National Center for Learning Disabilities Symposium on Addressing Achievement Gaps

2 2 Background NLTS2 is a reprise of the original National Longitudinal Transition Study –Congressionally mandated, 1983; conducted by SRI, –Comprehensive information on secondary school- age students nationally as they transitioned to early adulthood. –Comparison of NLTS and NLTS2 important to the analysis agenda; facilitating valid comparisons has influenced the NLTS2 design.

3 3 Primary Research Questions What are the characteristics of students receiving special education in high school? What educational programs and services do they receive as they age? What are their achievements in high school and early adulthood in terms of education, employment, social adjustment, and independent living? What services and experiences contribute to better results? How do programs, experiences, achievements, and other factors differ for youth with different characteristics? How have programs, experiences and achievements changed since the late 1980s for young people with disabilities?

4 4 NLTS2 Generalizes to: Students receiving special education who were 13 to 16 when the study began in 2001, as they transition into young adulthood. Each of the 12 special education disability categories. Each single-year age cohort.

5 5 501 LEAs and 38 special schools representing variation in –Geographic region. –District size (student enrollment). –District wealth (student poverty). 11,272 eligible students –Randomly selected by disability category. –Sampling rates higher for 16-year-olds to increase the number of youth who will be out of school the longest at the end of the study. NLTS2 Sample

6 6 Data Collection Components Parents –Telephone interviews (CATI). Only respondent, wave 1. First respondent (preceding youth interview), subsequent waves. Simultaneous respondent, last three waves. Youth –Telephone interviews (CATI) if able to answer by phone (2 nd to 5 th waves). –Mail surveys (multiple components tailored to youth’s status) if able to answer, but not by phone (2 nd to 5 th waves). –Direct assessment/In-person interview Assessment of reading, math, social studies, and science. Interview of self-concept and self-determination.

7 7 Data Collection Components (continued) Mail surveys of: –One of each student’s general education teachers about access to general education curriculum and student performance in that classroom context. –School staff best able to describe each student’s overall school program (often special education personnel) to describe program (e.g., placements), vocational education, special education, transition planning, and performance (e.g., days absent). –School principals regarding school characteristics and policies and aggregate measures of school performance. High school transcripts of courses taken and grades.

8 8 Data Collection Timeline NLTS2 Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Parent telephone interviews  Youth telephone interviews  Direct assessment/ student in-person interviews  Teacher survey  School program survey  School characteristics survey  Transcripts 

9 Data Sources Wave 1 ( ) Parent interview (n=9,230) Student’s School Program Survey (n=6,038), completed by the school staff member most knowledgeable about the student’s overall program. Teacher Survey (n=2,822) completed by a general education academic teacher. Publicly available school data. Wave 2 (2003) Parent/Youth interview (n=4,270) 9

10 10 Today’s Agenda During school: Transition planning School Programs Academic performance School completion In the early years after school: Postsecondary education Employment Social engagement and adjustment

11 Parents’ Expectations

12 12 Parents’ Expectations for Youth with Learning Disabilities Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Parent Interview. Youth will: <1

13 Transition Planning Experiences - Themes - Initiation of transition planning - Participants - Decision making - Goals - Supports - Post-school services identified - Contacts made 13

14 14 Transition Planning Themes Mixed results in best practices being met for all students with disabilities and students with learning disabilities. Process develops over time as students progress through school.

15 15 Source: NLTS2 with student school program survey. Student Has a Transition Plan, by Grade Level

16 16 Transition Planning Best Practices Begin transition planning by age 14 or earlier. IEPs to include: –Transition-related content focusing on student’s course of study no later than age 14. –Statement of needed postschool transition services and interagency responsibilities, or linkages no later than age 16.

17 17 Mean age 14.4 years Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Age Transition Planning Started for Students with Transition Plans

18 18 Transition Planning for Youth with Learning Disabilities Suitability of school program to achieving transition goals: Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Transition planning being done Has received instruction in transition planning Has course of study likely to achieve transition goals Very well suited Fairly well suited Somewhat well suited Not at all well suited

19 19 Most Frequently Identified Post-High School Service Needs of Youth with Learning Disabilities Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student's School Program Survey, 2002.

20 20 Transition Planning Best Practices Together with their parents, students with disabilities are expected to play a vital role. Students’ preferences and interests must be considered. Coordinated planning among special and general education personnel and community service agencies, as well as parents and students, best meet transition needs of youth.

21 21 Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Active Participants in Transition Planning* *Involved in discussions about services and goals **SSA staff, employers, representatives of postsecondary schools, and advocates, etc. Outside agencies & others**

22 22 Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Decision-Making at IEP Meetings Parents report goals are determined

23 23 Student’s Role in Transition Planning, by Grade Level Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

24 24 Transition Planning Best Practices A variety of supports can be necessary for students to make progress towards their goals including: –A course of study specified in the transition plan –Instruction focused on transition planning skills –Identification of postschool service or program needs.

25 25 Transition Plan Specifies Course of Study to Achieve Transition Goals, by Grade Level Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 School Program Survey.

26 26 Student Receives Instruction in Transition Planning, by Grade Level Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

27 27 Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Postschool Services Identified in Students’ Transition Plans, by Grade Level (all other needs <4%: social work, mental health, and behavioral interventions)

28 28 Information about Postschool Services Provided to Parents, by Grade Level Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

29 29 Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Contacts Made by Schools Regarding Post-High School Programs or Services

30 30 Suitability of Students’ Programs to Achieve Transition Goals, by Grade Level Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 School Program Survey. * * * = none reported “Not at all suited.”

31 31 Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Parent Interview. Parents’ Satisfaction with Transition Planning and Goals Goals are appropriate: Transition planning was:

32 Secondary School Academic Experiences - Academic course-taking and settings - General education classes - Taking college entrance exams 34

33 33 Academic Course-taking by Youth with Learning Disabilities Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

34 34 Instructional Setting by Type of Academic Class Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

35 35 Difference in Taking Academic Courses in General Education Setting: 1987 to 2001 Source: NLTS school record abstract and NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

36 36 General Education Academic Class Level Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Teacher Survey.

37 37 Extent of Curriculum Modification in General Education Academic Classes Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Teacher Survey.

38 38 Accommodations and Modifications Provided to Students with LD in General Education Classes Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 General Education Teacher Survey.

39 39 Participation in Standardized Testing for Students with Learning Disabilities Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

40 40 Accommodations for Standardized Testing for Students with Learning Disabilities Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

41 41 Grades, Retention, Test Performance, School Completion

42 42 Grades and Retention Among LD Students Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

43 43 Language Arts Skills of LD Students Source: NLTS2 student assessments, 2002 and Mean percentile

44 44 Mathematics Performance of LD Students 28 Mean percentile Source: NLTS2 student assessments, 2002 and 2004.

45 45 Content Knowledge of LD Students Source: NLTS2 student assessments, 2002 and Mean percentile

46 46 High School Completion NOTE: Includes only students who receive letter grades. Source: SEELS and NLTS2 Wave 1 parent interviews, 2000 and 2001, respectively.

47 Postsecondary Education 49

48 48 Postsecondary School Enrollment of Youth with Learning Disabilities Sources: NLTS2 Wave 2 Parent/Youth Interviews and for General Population, NLSY 2000 data for 5- through 19-year-olds. Note: Includes youth enrolled in any postsecondary classes since leaving high school.

49 Vocational Preparation and Work Experience - Vocational course-taking - Vocational services, job training and work experience - Work-related activities - Paid employment 52

50 50 Vocational Course-taking by Youth with Learning Disabilities Student takes: Settings for: Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 School Program Survey.

51 51 Difference in Vocational Education Course-taking: 1987 to 2001 Source: NLTS school record abstract and NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey.

52 52 Participation in Job Training and Work Experience Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 Student’s School Program Survey. Percentage participating in : Percentage receiving during high school:

53 53 Postsecondary Employment of Youth with Learning Disabilities – 1987 to 2003 Sources: NLTS2 Wave 2 Parent/Youth Interviews And For General Population, NLSY 2000 data for 5- through 19-year-olds. Note: Includes youth enrolled in any postsecondary classes since leaving high school

54 54 Postsecondary Employment of Youth with Learning Disabilities – 1987 to 2003 (cont’d.) Sources: NLTS2 Wave 2 Parent/Youth Interviews and for General Population, NLSY 2000 data for 5- through 19-year-olds. Note: Includes youth enrolled in any postsecondary classes since leaving high school

55 Social Adjustment Experiences and Outcomes – Social adjustment supports – Youth behavior problems – Progress toward social adjustment goals 61

56 56 Receipt of Social Adjustment Supports by Youth with Learning Disabilities Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 School Program Survey.

57 57 Youth Behavior Problems Source: NLTS2 Wave 1 School Program Survey. School report of: Parent report of:

58 58 Perceptions of Youths with LD of Their Own Self-Determination Abilities *Only 28% of youth with LD consider themselves to have a disability. Sources: NLTS2 Student Assessments, 2002 and 2004.

59 59 Perceptions of Youths with LD of Their Own Self-Determination Abilities (cont’d.) Source: NLTS2 Wave 2 Youth Interview, I know how to get Information I need I can get school staff to listen to me I feel useful and important I can tell others my age how I feel if they upset me I can handle pretty much whatever comes along

60 60 What Have We Learned? Schooling –More than half of students with LD have a primary transition goal of postsecondary education. –Like students in the general population, the course load of students with LD is heavily academic, having become increasingly so over time. –General education participation is the norm; 88% of students with LD participate, spending an average of 60% of their classes there. –Participation in general education academic classes has increased; most such classes are at grade level. –Thus students with LD are increasingly better prepared for postsecondary education, 17% take college entrance exams.

61 61 What Have We Learned? Schooling (concluded): –Students with LD continue to need support for general education academic participation. –About two-thirds who participate in general education academic classes get at least some curricular modification there. –Most also have other forms of modification or accommodation: most commonly, more time to take tests and complete assignments. –Most modifications and accommodations can help a student “get by” but do not address fundamental problems of student performance. –Tutoring is provided by the school to only about 1 in 10 students with LD. Parents provide tutoring to 1 in 10 and other lessons to 1 in 4.

62 62 What Have We Learned? Career Preparation: –Employment is the most commonly cited primary transition goal of students with disabilities (57%). –About one-third take prevocational education and half take occupationally specific vocational education in a given semester. –Vocational course-taking has declined over time as academic courses have become more prominent. –The large majority of students with LD get vocational supports/services at some time in high school; 1 in 6 do not. –Career assessment and counseling are most common; more direct services or programs (e.g., work study) are fairly rare. –Sixty percent of students with LD work for pay, more often during summers than during the school year; about half earn more than $6 per hour.

63 63 What Have We Learned? Transition Planning: –About two-thirds of students with LD receive instruction in transition planning. –Most students with LD and parents go to transition planning meetings. One in 5 students do not participate in the meetings; 1 in 6 have a leadership role. –About one-third of parents would like to be more involved and one-fourth of students would like more choice in transition goal- setting. –Three-fourths are reported by school staff to have a course of study likely to achieve their goals; 4 in 10 are reported to have a school program “very well suited” to their transition goals.

64 64 What Have We Learned? Connecting Activities: –About 1 in 5 students with LD receive case management services from or through their school. –Most students with LD have some form of postschool service need identified in transition planning, mostly postsecondary education supports and vocational services. –Needs related to independent living or self-management are rarely identified. –Contacts on behalf of students as part of transition planning generally reflect students’ primary goals.

65 65 What’s Available from NLTS2 on the Web Reports –Changes Over Time in the Secondary School Experiences of Students with Disabilities –Services and Supports for Secondary School Students with Disabilities –Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities –The Achievements of Youth with Disabilities During Secondary School –Going to School: Instructional Contexts, Programs, and Participation of Secondary School Students with Disabilities –Youth with Disabilities: A Changing Population –Life Outside the Classroom for Youth with Disabilities –The Individual and Household Characteristics of Youth with Disabilities

66 66 What’s Available from NLTS2 on the Web (continued) Data Tables –Parent Interview Wave 1 and Wave 2 –School Surveys Wave 1 and Wave 2 (soon) –Student Assessment (soon) Fact Sheets –Minorities Among Children and Youth with Disabilities –Use of Psychotropic Medications by Children and Youth with Disabilities –Special Education: Serving Children Earlier, Providing Expanded Services –Standardized Testing among Secondary School Students with Disabilities –A Profile of Students with ADHD Who Receive Special Education Services

67 67 What’s Available from NLTS2 on the Web (concluded) NLTS2 Data Briefs (distributed by NCSET) –Introducing NLTS2 –Who are Secondary Students in Special Education Today –Youth Employment –Social Activities of Youth with Disabilities –The Characteristics, Experiences, and Outcomes of Youth with Emotional Disturbances –Transition Planning for Youth with Disabilities (in press)

68 68 For more information:


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