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Module 1: Introduction Topic 3: Interconnect TechnologyOGI EE564 Howard Heck © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Where Are We? Introduction Transmission Line Basics Analysis ToolsOverview Trends & Challenges Interconnect Technology Transmission Line Basics Analysis Tools Metrics & Methodology Advanced Transmission Lines Multi-Gb/s Signaling Special Topics © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Printed Circuit BoardsContents Component Packaging Passive Components Connectors Printed Circuit Boards © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Overview (add-in card) Components (Chip + Pkg) Connector PCB(Motherboard) (add-in card) Connector Source: Intel Corp. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Overview – SOA Desktop MotherboardGraphics Connector Chipset Microprocessor Memory Slots © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Overview – SOA Desktop MotherboardMemory Connectors Chipset Graphics Connector Microprocessor X48 chipset motherboard © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Packages house the silicon chips. They provide:Component Packaging Packages house the silicon chips. They provide: Mechanical support Heat removal Environmental protection Electrical signal & power connections (chip to PCB). Heat Spreader Silicon Package PCB Soldered Connections © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Component Packaging © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Component Packaging Source: Intel Corp. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Example: Flip Chip Pinned Grid ArrayBottom Top Cross-section © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Medium Speed Package Electrical ModelsBond Wire Trace Pin / Land Tie Bar L bw R pin Z , t d tb , L , C Die Board Source: Packaging Databook, Intel Corp Today’s speeds demand that we use fully coupled 3D package models. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Passive Components ResistorsUses: termination for interconnect, pull up/down for static features Variability: 5%, 2%, 1% Chip resistors – 1 resistor per component R-Packs – up to 4 resistors per small outline component Resistor networks – more resistors per component Lead inductance and package crosstalk can be important effects for high frequency applications. Capacitors Variability: 20%, 10% Chip capacitors – used for high frequency (local) decoupling of power suppliers Tantalum capacitors – used for bulk decoupling At high frequencies, resistance and inductance of the packages must be included in the models. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Sockets & Connectors Sockets connect packages to PCBs.Connectors connect PCBs to PCBs. Connection is mechanical between two metal surfaces. DIMM connector LGA775 Socket PCI® Express © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Socket/Connector Electrical ModelsThese are simple models. Coupled models are frequently used for high performance applications. R con Z 0con , t dcon Today’s speeds demand that we use fully coupled 3D connector models. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Printed Circuit BoardsFunction: provide electrical signal connections between components & deliver power to the components. Material Set: Construction: Typically 4 to 6 layers (always an even number). 4 layer board: 2 signal, 2 power ($0.09/in2) 6 layer board: 4 signal, 2 power ($0.18-$0.24/in2) Higher layer counts are available at higher cost. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
PCB Construction © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3 Surface Mount PadSignal Trace Via Land Power Plane Laminate (Dielectric) Via Barrel Solder Mask Laminate (Resin) Laminate (Glass) Signal Trace Power Plane Solder Mask © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
PCB Signal Layer D D W S G S © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3 f 0.024" f0.012" D 1 0.050" G 0.005" W 0.006" S 2 0.005" S 1 © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
PCB Vias Vias make layer-layer connections by drilling holes and filling them with conductor material (copper). They are used in chips, package, and boards. Heat Spreader Silicon Package PCB Soldered Connections © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
PCB Design Goals Function: All signals connectedPerformance: Maximum operating frequency Cost Minimized technology requirements Layer count Board size Relaxed width & spacing Relaxed via size Design for manufacturability Component selection Component placement Trade routing © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Summary Package electrical parameters are typically modeled with lumped circuit elements and transmission lines. We will examine the effects of lumped elements later, and will account for them in our design project. We will also consider when transmission line models are required. For high volume PCs, system designers use pervasive, low cost PCB solutions: FR-4 material set 4 layer boards 5/5 or 6/6 mil trace/space wiring 4 boards per panel for motherboards PCBs are used for motherboards, add-in cards, and CPU packages. PCBs provide interconnect for high speed buses operating as high as 400 MHz/800 MT/s and beyond. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
References Intel Packaging Databook, Intel Corporation, 2002, Component Types Used for SMT, IBM Microelectronics Division, January 1994. Surface Mount Design and Land Pattern Standard, IPC-SM-782, IPC, Revision A – August 1993. R.R. Tummala, E.J. Rymaszewski (ed.), Microelectronics Packaging Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989. © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Appendix: More PackagesCeleron® Processor Package Celeron® Processor Cartridge Pentium® Processor w/ MMX™ Package 850 Chipset Package © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Appendix: More ConnectorsISA PCI SLOT1 Memory DIMM AGP © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
Appendix: CPU Sockets PGA370 © H. Heck 2008 Section 1.3
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