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Internet Basic Definitions Dr. Baker Abdalhaq. Internet The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks.

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Presentation on theme: "Internet Basic Definitions Dr. Baker Abdalhaq. Internet The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet Basic Definitions Dr. Baker Abdalhaq

2 Internet The Internet is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, Academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer,and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web.

3 is a store-and-forward method of writing, sending, receiving and saving messages over electronic communication systems.

4 Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers connected over a network such as the Internet.

5 Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet chat or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums called channels, but also allows one-to-one communication via private message, as well as chat and data transfers via Direct Client-to- Client.

6 File transfer protocol (FTP) A protocol for file transfer or file transfer protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the transfer of files between two computing endpoints.

7 TELNET (TELecommunication NETwork) is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area network (LAN) connections. It was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15 and standardized as IETF STD 8, one of the first Internet standards.

8 Usenet a portmanteau of "user" and "network", is a world-wide distributed Internet discussion system. It evolved from the general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name.

9 A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations.

10 The World Wide Web commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks

11 A Web page or webpage is a resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links.

12 Website is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet.Web pagesweb serversInternet A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML, that is almost always accessible via HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the Web server to display in the user's Web browser.HTMLHTTPWeb serverWeb browser The pages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called the homepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them control how the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flows between the different parts of the sites.URLhomepagehyperlinksoverall structuretraffic

13 A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the same form as the user will view them. They are edited using three broad categories of software: Text editors. such as Notepad or TextEdit, where the HTML is manipulated directly within the editor program Text editorsNotepadTextEdit WYSIWYG editors. such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver (previously Macromedia Dreamweaver), where the site is edited using a GUI interface and the underlying HTML is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYGMicrosoft FrontPageAdobe DreamweaverGUI Template-based editors, such as Rapidweaver and iWeb, which allow users to quickly create and upload websites to a web server without having to know anything about HTML, as they just pick a suitable template from a palette and add pictures and text to it in a DTP-like fashion without ever having to see any HTML code.RapidweaveriWeb DTPHTML code

14 dynamic website is one that has frequently changing information or collates information on the hop each time a page is requested. For example, it would call various bits of information from a database and put them together in a pre-defined format to present the reader with a coherent page. It interacts with users in a variety of ways including by reading cookies recognizing users' previous history, session variables, server side variables etc., or by using direct interaction (form elements, mouseovers, etc.). A site can display the current state of a dialogue between users, monitor a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the requirements of the individual user.cookies mouseovers

15 Domain Name System (DNS) associates various information with domain names; most importantly, it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames, e.g. into IP addresses, e.g , which networking equipment needs to deliver information. A DNS also stores other information such as the list of mail servers that accept for a given domain. By providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of contemporary Internet use.domain namesphone IP addressesmail servers keywordInternet

16 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another through a network, such as the protocol Internet FTP is a file transfer protocol for exchanging and manipulating files over any TCP-based computer network. A FTP client may connect to a FTP server to manipulate files on that server. As there are many FTP client and server programs available for different operating systems, FTP is a popular choice for exchanging files independent of the operating systems involved.TCPoperating systems

17 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol for the transfer of information on the intranet and the World Wide Web. Its original purpose was to provide a way to publish and retrieve hypertext pages over the Internet.communications protocolintranetWorld Wide WebhypertextInternet HTTP development was coordinated by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), culminating in the publication of a series of Request for Comments (RFCs), most notably RFC 2616 (June 1999), which defines HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use.World Wide Web ConsortiumInternet Engineering Task ForceRequest for CommentsRFC 2616June 1999 HTTP is a request/response standard between a client and a server. A client is the end-user, the server is the web site. The client making an HTTP request - using a web browser, spider, or other end-user tool - is referred to as the user agent. The responding server - which stores or creates resources such as HTML files and images - is called the origin server. In between the user agent and origin server may be several intermediaries, such as proxies, gateways, and tunnels. HTTP is not constrained to using TCP/IP and its supporting layers, although this is its most popular application on the Internet. Indeed HTTP can be "implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet, or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used."clientserverweb siteweb browserspider user agentHTMLproxies gatewaystunnelsTCP/IP

18 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Typically, an HTTP client initiates a request. It establishes a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection to a particular port on a host (port 80 by default; see List of TCP and UDP port numbers). An HTTP server listening on that port waits for the client to send a request message. Upon receiving the request, the server sends back a status line, such as "HTTP/ OK", and a message of its own, the body of which is perhaps the requested file, an error message, or some other information. Transmission Control ProtocolportList of TCP and UDP port numbers The reason that HTTP uses TCP and not UDP is because much data must be sent for a webpage, and TCP provides transmission control, presents the data in order, and provides error correction. See the difference between TCP and UDP.TCPUDP difference between TCP and UDP Resources to be accessed by HTTP are identified using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) (or, more specifically, Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)) using the http: or https URI schemes. ResourcesUniform Resource IdentifiersUniform Resource LocatorshttpsURI schemes

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