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Application Layer. Applications A program or group of programs designed for end users. A program or group of programs designed for end users. Software.

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Presentation on theme: "Application Layer. Applications A program or group of programs designed for end users. A program or group of programs designed for end users. Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 Application Layer

2 Applications A program or group of programs designed for end users. A program or group of programs designed for end users. Software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and applications software. Software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and applications software. Systems software consists of low-level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. Systems software consists of low-level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. This includes operating systems, compilers, and utilities for managing computer resources. This includes operating systems, compilers, and utilities for managing computer resources.

3 Applications… In contrast, applications software (also called end-user programs) includes database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets for example. In contrast, applications software (also called end-user programs) includes database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets for example. Figuratively speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities. Figuratively speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities.

4 Application Layer The application layer is the seventh level of the seven layer OSI model. It’s the “highest layer” of the OSI model. The application layer is the seventh level of the seven layer OSI model. It’s the “highest layer” of the OSI model.

5 What is the OSI model? OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a standard description or "reference model" for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a standard description or "reference model" for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. Its purpose is to guide product implementers so that their products will consistently work with other products. Its purpose is to guide product implementers so that their products will consistently work with other products.

6 OSI Developed by representatives of major computer and telecommunication companies beginning in 1983, OSI was originally intended to be a detailed specification of interfaces. Developed by representatives of major computer and telecommunication companies beginning in 1983, OSI was originally intended to be a detailed specification of interfaces. Instead, the committee decided to establish a common reference model for which others could develop detailed interfaces, that in turn could become standards. Instead, the committee decided to establish a common reference model for which others could develop detailed interfaces, that in turn could become standards. OSI was officially adopted as an international standard by the International Organization of Standards (ISO). OSI was officially adopted as an international standard by the International Organization of Standards (ISO).

7 OSI The main idea in OSI is that the process of communication between two end points in a telecommunication network can be divided into layers, with each layer adding its own set of special, related functions. The main idea in OSI is that the process of communication between two end points in a telecommunication network can be divided into layers, with each layer adding its own set of special, related functions. Whatis.com Whatis.com

8 OSI Each communicating user or program is at a computer equipped with these seven layers of function. Each communicating user or program is at a computer equipped with these seven layers of function. So, in a given message between users, there will be a flow of data through each layer at one end down through the layers in that computer and, at the other end, when the message arrives, another flow of data up through the layers in the receiving computer and ultimately to the end user or program. So, in a given message between users, there will be a flow of data through each layer at one end down through the layers in that computer and, at the other end, when the message arrives, another flow of data up through the layers in the receiving computer and ultimately to the end user or program. Whatis.com Whatis.com

9 OSI The actual programming and hardware that furnishes these seven layers of function is usually a combination of the computer operating system, applications (such as your Web browser), TCP/IP or alternative transport and network protocols, and the software and hardware that enable you to put a signal on one of the lines attached to your computer. The actual programming and hardware that furnishes these seven layers of function is usually a combination of the computer operating system, applications (such as your Web browser), TCP/IP or alternative transport and network protocols, and the software and hardware that enable you to put a signal on one of the lines attached to your computer. Whatis.com Whatis.com

10 This graphic is taken from The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics.

11 OSI: Layer 7 – Application Layer This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. This is the layer at which communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions. This layer is not the application itself, although some applications may perform application layer functions. Examples of Application Layer Protocols: HTTP, UDP, TCP, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), SSL Examples of Application Layer Protocols: HTTP, UDP, TCP, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), SSL

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14 Application Layer Review This layer supports application and end-user processes. This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, , and other network software services. This layer provides application services for file transfers, , and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.

15 Application Layer Protocols: In- Depth Review of HTTP The HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, must be the most widely used Application layer protocol in the world today. The HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, must be the most widely used Application layer protocol in the world today. It forms the basis of what most people understand the Internet to be—the World Wide Web. It forms the basis of what most people understand the Internet to be—the World Wide Web. Its purpose is to provide a lightweight protocol for the retrieval of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and other documents from Web sites throughout the Internet. Its purpose is to provide a lightweight protocol for the retrieval of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and other documents from Web sites throughout the Internet. Each time you open a Web browser to surf the Internet, you are using HTTP over TCP/IP. Each time you open a Web browser to surf the Internet, you are using HTTP over TCP/IP.

16 Application Layer Protocols: In- Depth Review of HTTP Example from web on basic HTTP page retrieval process: Example from web on basic HTTP page retrieval process: The first important point to note is that a Web page is typically made up of many dozens of objects, ranging from the HTML base through to the images that are present on the page. The first important point to note is that a Web page is typically made up of many dozens of objects, ranging from the HTML base through to the images that are present on the page. The HTML can be thought of as the template for the page overall, instructing the browser on the layout of the text, font sizes and colors, background color of the page, and which other images need to be retrieved to make up the page. The HTML can be thought of as the template for the page overall, instructing the browser on the layout of the text, font sizes and colors, background color of the page, and which other images need to be retrieved to make up the page.

17 Application Layer Protocols: In- Depth Review of HTTP Think of the process, taking place in the following order: Think of the process, taking place in the following order: Client sends a request for the required page to the Web server. Client sends a request for the required page to the Web server. The server analyzes the request and sends back an acknowledgment to the client along with the HTML code required to make the page. The server analyzes the request and sends back an acknowledgment to the client along with the HTML code required to make the page. The client will begin interpreting the HTML and building the page. The client will begin interpreting the HTML and building the page. The client, in subsequent requests, will retrieve any embedded objects, such as images or other multimedia sources. The client, in subsequent requests, will retrieve any embedded objects, such as images or other multimedia sources.

18 Application Layer Protocols: In- Depth Review of HTTP Once all elements of the page have been retrieved, the client browser will display the completed Web page. Once all elements of the page have been retrieved, the client browser will display the completed Web page. The order and timing of the process described previously depends largely on which implementation of HTTP is used— 1.0 or 1.1—although all browsers work in this way of request and response. The order and timing of the process described previously depends largely on which implementation of HTTP is used— 1.0 or 1.1—although all browsers work in this way of request and response.

19 Application Layer Protocols: In- Depth Review of HTTP The URL is the most important piece of information that the client browser includes in any GET request. The URL is the most important piece of information that the client browser includes in any GET request. The URL is defined as being a combination of the host where the site is located, the scheme used to retrieve the page, and the full path and filename. The URL is defined as being a combination of the host where the site is located, the scheme used to retrieve the page, and the full path and filename. Optionally, the URL may include information such as the TCP port number to be used or a unique reference point within a larger page. Optionally, the URL may include information such as the TCP port number to be used or a unique reference point within a larger page.

20 Security Security of the application layer is critical. Security of the application layer is critical.


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