Presentation on theme: "Non-technical Barriers to the Development of Non Food Biomass Chains Manfred Woergetter Becoteps Workshop 8-9 October 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Non-technical Barriers to the Development of Non Food Biomass Chains Manfred Woergetter http://blt.josephinum.at/ Becoteps Workshop 8-9 October 2009
Introducing myself Graduated as Mechanical Engineer, University of Technology Since 1975 R&D work on the energetic and material use of biomass at FJ-BLT: –Production, standardization and use of transport biofuels –Small scale biomass fired boilers –Biofuel feedstock –Bioenergy policies Chair of the Renewable Raw Material WG of the Ministry –Advisor for the Ministry concerning the market introduction of bioenergy &renewable raw materials –Leader of the policy topic of the IEA Bioenergy Liquid Biofuels Tasks –Key Researcher in the Austrian Bioenergy Center/ BIOENERGY 2020+.
IEA Bioenergy since 1979 One of the numerous “Implementing Agreements” 22 member countries Working in 12 Tasks Along the whole value chain 3 www.ieabioenergy.com
GHG emissions underestimated Ban Ki Moon, Secretary-General of the UN: Climate change is accelerating much faster than was previously thought New scientific evidence suggests that irreversible changes may already have been reached or even overtaken Climate change, more than any other challenge facing the world, is a crisis that will require strong and global action World energy outlook 2008: Global temperature up by 6 O C http://www.unep.org/compendium2009/PDF/compendium2009.pdf
Size of the challenge underestimated World energy outlook 2008 Preventing catastrophic damage requires a major decarbonization of world energy sources Radical actions by governments, co- ordinated by international mechanisms are needed China and India will account for half of the world primary energy demand between 2005 and 2030, collectively Non-OECD countries account for 87% of the increase http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/docs/weo2008/WEO2008_es_english.pdf
Bioenergy can play an main role IEA Bioenergy confirms the role of Bioenergy. Sustainable biomass scenarios indicate an annual potential of 200 - and 500 EJ/yr. With a projected world primary energy demand by 2050 of 1000 EJ (500 EJ in 2008), bioenergy may contribute a quarter or even more to the future global energy mix http://www.ieabioenergy.com/MediaItem.aspx?id=6360
Waste Agric. crops and byproducts Bioenergy in the global primary energy mix
Development of renewable energy + 7%/y is extremly ambitous!
Insufficient development in EU http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/progress_report_2009_en.htm Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament COM(2009) 192 final A progress report of the Commission highlighted the patchy progress of RES Indicative 2010 targets will be failed A progress report of the Commission highlighted the patchy progress of RES Indicative 2010 targets will be failed Why? + 7%/y is extremly ambitous!
NTBs to Liquid Biofuels in the ALTENER funded NTB-net (1996) Agricultural barriers Economic and financial barriers Industry Legislation Market Environmental impacts Public www.ademe.fr/htdocs/presentation/actioneuropeenne/webaltener/defaultbiocarb.htm Barriers also typical for other bioenergy pathways
Agricultural barriers to Biodiesel (1996) Blair House Agreement of the WTO limits the agricultural production of raw materials No guarantee for raw material production Lack of contracts between agriculture and industry Insufficient awareness from farmers for new crops and new products No change Nearly no change
Economic and financial barriers (1996) Raw material prices to high Logistic and transport of raw materials expensive Prices for non-food use lower than for food use Reduced interest of farmers Farmers and industry are more interested in income than in environmental benefits Low competitiveness compared to fossil fuels No change Nearly no change
Industry (1996) Lack of standardization and specifications of liquid biofuels No guarantee for a stable raw material supply High risk for investors Lack of co-ordination between farmers, producers and user No change Success story
Legislation (1996) Tax exemption – an must for liquid biofuels from agriculture No discussion on detaxation on the European level Success story in some countries Success story
Market (1996) No concepts on long-term marketing No common strategy of farmers, producers and users Small biofuels market No measures for the stabilization of the raw material and product markets No change Success story in some countries
Environment (1996) Environmental benefits not generally acknowledged, discussion of emissions controversy Discussion on loss of biodiversity Energy and environmental balances hard to compare Knowledge of N 2 O emission of rape production unsatisfactory No change
Public (1996) Lack of information for the general public on availability, properties and benefits of biofuels Lack of information of policy makers and stake holders on the European, national and regional level No change Additional barrier: „Food versus fuel conflict“
Panel Discussion with Panellists from Industry, Academia and NGOs Sustainability certification –simple rules needed –global harmonisation favourable but may take 10 years Main barriers to market implementation of 2 nd -generation –instability of political frameworks, –lack of market acceptance, sustainability not acknowledged –lack of economic feasibility (International) roadmap could be supportive –target must be clear –concerted action of a number of countries needed –must be focused on a limited number of biofuel pathways IEA Bioenergy Liquid Biofuels Task 39 Workshop Dresden (2009)
Additional barriers EU No priority for energy and climat change in the Lisbon Treaty 4 DGs involved in Bioenergy: TREN, AGRI, ENV, Research Lobbying: Strong and industry driven lobbies for wind and photovoltaic Patchy bioenergy lobby groups with diverted interests, heterogeneous appearance of the different bioenergy sectors
The challenge I Understand complexity Develop long term strategies Concentrate efforts Establish roadmaps an stay on track Establish reliable political framework Form strong lobby groups Overcome lack of public acceptance Reduce cost along the whole Bioenergy value chain Increase agricultural productivity
The challenge II Reduce life cycle emissions and improve energy balance Convince –Policy maker –Farmer –Investors –Stake holder in industries –The consumer and the general public –NGOs –Authorities –The Press Cooperate internationally www.ieabioenergy.com
Bioenergy roadmap urgently needed Roadmap must include the whole value chain –All biogenic feedstocks –Logistic –Conversion technologies –All markets Must be coordinated with –National action plans –Involved General Directorates –Existing platforms
My personal approach to NTBs NTBs are not easy to handle for scientists and engineers Time and money are the utmost limiting factor in the technological development Time and money are the utmost limiting factor in the technological development Economy is the outstanding challenge Economy is the outstanding challenge All people like „Sustainable development“, but nobody will pay for it
Development versus development costs Field tests Competition Mature technology Laboratory Pilot plant First tests in practice Demonstration Time Literature study 10 5 10 4 10 1 Valley of death? Valley of death?
Agricultural productivity 1948-96 in the US Output to input Input Output Ouput:Input
World energy consumption until 2060 Coal Oil Nat.Gas Nuc.P. Hydro Trad.Biomass Wind Solar Geo NewBio Shell Scenario „Sustainable Growth“ EJ/year 2050