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Reaching EFA: Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas EQUIP2: USAID Seminar June 15, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Reaching EFA: Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas EQUIP2: USAID Seminar June 15, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reaching EFA: Tools for Analyzing School Placement and Teacher Supply in Underserved Areas EQUIP2: USAID Seminar June 15, 2004

2 Introduction Objective –Present analytical tools that can be used to influence the policy context for meeting EFA goals in specific countries Outline –Context for and Challenge of EFA –Creating a Policy and Institutional Environment for Getting to EFA –Two Tools that Contribute to Creating the Policy Environment What Tools Are We Focusing On –Analysis of Access and Implications for School Organization –Analysis of Teacher Supply and Implications for Teacher Recruitment, Training, and Support

3 Context for and Challenge of EFA 85 countries, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, risk not meeting the EFA goal. Discourse about reaching EFA has touched on: –Finance– Completion –Access– Accountability –Efficiency– Management –Quality– Relevance –Equity– School Location and Organization –Learning– Teacher Supply and Support Discourse has tended to focus on national policy (one size fits all) Discourse and policy need to recognize the sub-national realities of “underserved areas”

4 CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDERSERVED AREAS National Average % Northern Region % ? Girls’ Attendance Boys Attendance Access to Piped water Access to MassMedia Women w/ healthcare Female literacy Underserved Areas: Those regions that rank in the lowest one third on an index of key social development indicators

5 Policy and Institutional Environment Are there known interventions that can be effective in these underserved areas? Yes Are they implementable in the current institutional and policy environment? Have tended to be implemented as outside interventions (through NGOs, etc) What would be policy implications for bringing them more into the main stream? Tools are designed to explore two aspects of doing that: School Location and Organization Teacher Supply & Support

6 Reaching EFA: School Location and Organization One key to reaching the EFA goals is identifying how the organization and placement of schools impacts access in underserved areas Presented here is a tool for identifying and analyzing access to schooling in underserved areas developed by Bob Prouty and Doug Lehman for the World Bank (referred to as the Rural Access Initiative)

7 Current Policy: School Organization In many countries, schools in rural zones are defined as: Either 6 or 3 classrooms One teacher per classroom Full primary cycle (e.g. of 6 years) At least 120 school age children available for enrollment (three classes of 40)

8 Is there a school? What proportion of the population lives outside of areas served by the education system? How much does it matter where the school is? How effective is the coverage provided by official school catchment areas? School and catchment area Villages not served Most effective coverage Least effective coverage Access: Two Basic Questions

9 Is there a school: Central Guinea? Schools Villages Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative

10 Western Sahelian Chad: Total number of villages: 4,079 Villages with school: 337 Villages within 3km of a school: 925 Villages further than 3km to a school: 2,817 Is there a school: Western Chad? Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative

11 N = 179 Most effective coverage Least effective coverage How much does it matter where the school is? GER and Distance, Chad, Western Sahelian Region, % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% School in Village Up to 1KM 1 to 2KM 2 to 3KM Distance from Village to School GER Boys Girls Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative

12 All schools Full Cycle Schools Only Do students have access to a full cycle of primary education? Example: Mondo Sub-Prefecture, Chad Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative

13 Total school-age population in this area: 168 children 1 km 2 km 3 km Total Enrollment of 38 GER of 22% 38 Using the existing rates of enrollment based on distance, how many children would go to school? Scenario A: Central school with standard catchment Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative Villages School-Age Population

14 km 2 km 3 km Total Enrollment of 88 GER of 52% Total school-age population in this area: 168 children Using the existing rates of enrollment based on distance, how many children would go to school? Scenario B: Village-based alternative schools Data are from the World Bank Rural Access Initiative Villages School-Age Population

15 What would be required for village-based schools? Schools would need to be organized differently: Smaller Multi-grade More flexible operation Teachers willing and able to work and live in small villages Pedagogy adapted to the small, multi-grade setting Capacity for local decision-making

16 Another central constraint to providing education in underserved areas is the provision and support of capable, motivated and effective teachers. Strategies for expanding basic education need to be based on an analysis of teacher supply and demand in underserved areas. This presentation illustrates one approach to that analysis. Reaching EFA: Teacher Supply and Support

17 Standard education sector policy and strategy calls for a teacher pupil ratio of 40:1, and 100% trained teachers The term ‘trained teacher’ is typically meant one who has had both secondary level education and pre-service teacher training Teachers are centrally recruited, trained and deployed Trained teachers can be assigned and will serve anywhere in the country Prevailing Policies Effecting Teacher Supply

18 Primary Enrolments Secondary School Secondary School To primary school teaching force Entry to Secondary School Completed Secondary & Teacher Training 4 years secondary 2 years teacher training The Standard Teacher Supply Chain To higher education & workforce

19 The Case of Northern Ghana Settlements tend to be small, sparsely populated and widely scattered. Teachers face problems of adequate accommodation, unsafe drinking water, lack of electricity, poor health conditions, limited transport to neighboring towns to collect salaries, visit family, shop, etc, lack of personal development opportunities, and unfamiliarity with the customs and the language of the locality. (Action Aid REV program survey report, 2000).

20 GER 1990 Boys 67% Girls 35% Total 51% Northern Ghana – 1990 to '000s Girls out of School Boys out of School Girls in School Boys in School GER 2000 Boys 59% Girls 40% Total 50% Qualified Teachers Per 1,000 Students

21 Source of recruitment for primary teachers Completed Secondary Ed Women 2,956 Men 13,466 Teachers for Underserved Areas Northern Region - Ed Profile yrs yrs7 to 11 yrs12 + Thousands Schooling Completed Female Male

22 Policy Options Increase the pupil/teacher ratio – currently 35:1 Increase the percentage of secondary leavers entering teaching - currently est. at 17% Change the population pool from which teachers are drawn Issues Constraint is the small size of rural schools This would require increasing salaries, and benefits, e.g. housing Can teachers with less than secondary education provide quality classroom instruction? What is needed to make this work? Teachers for Underserved Areas

23 Primary Enrolments Secondary School Secondary School To primary school teaching force Entry to Secondary School Completed Secondary & Teacher Training Post-primary Post-primary & in-service training 4 years secondary 2 years teacher training Policy Alternative for Teacher Supply To higher education & workforce

24 This demand analysis assumes a steady pupil/teacher ratio, and a continuing rate of 17% of secondary graduates entering the primary teaching force Teacher Supply Options Teacher Requirements for EFA -Northern Region Teachers needed to reach EFA Teachers w/Sec & TTC Teachers with Post-Primary

25 Teachers for Underserved Areas: An Example Teachers are recruited and trained locally Usually they have some post-primary education, but less than state “trained teachers” Paid far less than the state teachers but, often, show a high degree of motivation Training and on-going support provides them with the basic teaching and learning methods. They often live within the local community and are under community scrutiny [ from Evaluation of Schools for Life, N. Ghana, 2000]

26 Implications for the Policy and Institutional Environment School Organization Teacher Supply Size Location Operation Governance Management Who can be a teacher Recruitment and Deployment Training Supervision/Support Professional Development


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