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Electron Configuration Electrons in Atoms Adapted from Christy Johannesen http://www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem/notes.htm#atom http://www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem/notes.htm#atom

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A. General Rules zPauli Exclusion Principle yEach orbital can hold TWO electrons with opposite spins.

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A. General Rules zAufbau Principle yElectrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first. yLazy Tenant Rule

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RIGHT WRONG A. General Rules zHunds Rule yWithin a sublevel, place one e - per orbital before pairing them. yEmpty Bus Seat Rule

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O 8e - zOrbital Diagram zElectron Configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 B. Notation 1s 2s 2p

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zShorthand Configuration S 16e - Valence Electrons Core Electrons S16e - [Ne] 3s 2 3p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 B. Notation zLonghand Configuration

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© 1998 by Harcourt Brace & Company s p d (n-1) f (n-2) 12345671234567 6767 C. Periodic Patterns

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zPeriod # yenergy level (subtract for d & f) zA/B Group # ytotal # of valence e - zColumn within sublevel block y# of e - in sublevel

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s-block1st Period 1s 1 1st column of s-block C. Periodic Patterns zExample - Hydrogen

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C. Periodic Patterns zShorthand Configuration yCore e - : Go up one row and over to the Noble Gas. yValence e - : On the next row, fill in the # of e - in each sublevel.

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[Ar]4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 C. Periodic Patterns zExample - Germanium

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zFull energy level zFull sublevel (s, p, d, f) zHalf-full sublevel D. Stability

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zElectron Configuration Exceptions yCopper EXPECT :[Ar] 4s 2 3d 9 ACTUALLY :[Ar] 4s 1 3d 10 yCopper gains stability with a full d-sublevel. D. Stability

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zElectron Configuration Exceptions yChromium EXPECT :[Ar] 4s 2 3d 4 ACTUALLY :[Ar] 4s 1 3d 5 yChromium gains stability with a half-full d-sublevel. D. Stability

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zIon Formation yAtoms gain or lose electrons to become more stable. yIsoelectronic with the Noble Gases.

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O 2- 10e - [He] 2s 2 2p 6 D. Stability zIon Electron Configuration yWrite the e - config for the closest Noble Gas yEX: Oxygen ion O 2- Ne

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