Presentation on theme: "Critical and Cultural Theories of Mass Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Critical and Cultural Theories of Mass Communication Challenges toMinimal Effects Theory
2Cultural Studies and Political Economy Theory are alternative theories on media and society. Rooted in Marxist TheoryArgues that mass media support the status quo and interfere with efforts of social movements to bring about useful social change (true with social networks?)
3They also say media provides “pluralistic public forum” (like Twitter) where power by dominant elites can be challenged.Examples of this?
4Many theories we have looked at were POSTPOSITIVIST – this approach doesn’t consider value judgments.Some CULTURAL theory though is CRITICAL theory which necessarily makes judgments.
5Critical Theory is based on a set of specific social values. Critical theorists critique existing social institutions.They look specifically at institutions (like media) that undermine or marginalize important values.Let’s think about how alternative movements are framed by the media.
6Newspapers and television networks have been rebuked by media critics for treating the movement as if it were a political campaign or a sideshow — by many liberals for treating the protesters dismissively, and by conservatives, conversely, for taking the protesters too seriously.The protesters themselves have also criticized the media — first for ostensibly ignoring the movement and then for marginalizing it.In the initial coverage, “I saw almost nothing that talked about our reasons for being there, and that trend has largely continued,” said Patrick Bruner, an organizer for Occupy Wall Street in New York. He said the group welcomed investigations of “our ideas, why we’re here, what we’re saying and talking about.”
7Days after the protest began in New York, the liberal filmmaker Michael Moore appeared on MSNBC, asserting that the mass media had a tendency to play down left-wing protests.
8Conversely, L. Brent Bozell III, the president of the conservative Media Research Center,appeared on Sean Hannity’s show on Fox telling other media outlets to “put their pompoms down for a minute.”
10Any time there are misstatements of fact — on Thursday the Fox News affiliate in New York falsely reported that protesters planned to “shut down” the subways, and “CBS Evening News” reported that hundreds had turned out for an afternoon rally when in fact many thousands had — questions about bias are raised.
11Do social networks help provide an accurate portrayal free of internal and external bias?
12Cultural Theory looks at how the media might produce changes in social life through subtle influences on social practices that are the foundation of everyday life.
13Cultural theory argues the media can intrude in our lives and alter how we make sense of ourselves and our social world.Media could alter how we view ourselves and our relationships to others.
14Early Marxist Theory focuses on the idea that elites control media. Neo Marxists think media is more of a pluralistic public forum- BUT they recognize that elites have an advantage because media content implicitly or explicitly supports the status quo.
15Critical Theorists reject simple ideas of powerful negative effects on audiences. Even when media content supports the status quo- audiences can reinterpret or reject this content.
16James Carey:Sees media as central to the representation of shared beliefs.
17American Cultural Studies James Carey - Transmission versus Ritual Perspectives on mediaReinterpretation of British and Canadian TheoryMinimal effects research is too focused on transmission effects. Media do much more than transmit information from point A to point BMedia are central agents in the rituals that make up daily lifeNews reassures us about continuity of social orderTV allows routine escape from daily problems
18Ideas of Marshall McLuhan are based on the research of Harold Innis. Their ideas underlie much of cultural and critical theory.
19Canadian Cultural Studies Marshall McLuhan and Harold InnisTechnological Determinists?Focus on media technology not on the content delivered by mediaLooked at the role of media over great time and distancesSpeculated about impact of media on culture and social organization
20Harold Innis Canadian Economist Key Concept = Bias of Communication Traces media history: oral, written, print, broadcastTime-Binding MediaSpace-Binding MediaCenter and peripheryCommunication dependency
21Marshall McLuhan Early Ideas Mechanical Bride = Printing PressReading is private, individual act not social and leads to the breakdown of orality based social orders - tribeMedia is the Massage; Media are the MessageMedia extend the sensesPrint media extend the eye = literacy problematic - linearOral media extend the ear = tribal drum = NazismElectronic media extend central nervous system = post-literacy = ???But what type of social order will emerge when electronic media become dominant?McLuhan extoled the virtues of the Global Village
22Each medium, independent of the content it mediates, has its own intrinsic effects which are its unique message.
23When you don’t have a physical body you have a very different relation to the world around you- a big effect of the digital age.Everything happens at once.The medium isn’t neutralThe form is more imp than the content.Roughing up by a new medium
24Listening Post - Of mediums and messages, Al Jazeera https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKPJjh4939M
25McLuhan Pros and ConsCalled attention to broad range of interesting communication issuesOffered intriguing but highly ambiguous analyses of issuesSought publicity and played to audiencesWrote essentially non-linear texts - illogical, irrationalBorrowed freely from Neomarxist theory but was widely acclaimed by Capitalists
26Applying Cultural Studies Theory Today The Internet even more potential to create a Global Village than satellite TVOn the Internet messages can be tailored to audiences’ cognitive abilities and skillsWill centrally controlled new media emerge or will control over media be widely held as it is on the Internet?Is the Internet a model for future media or is it just a transitional medium?
27Do Social Networking Websites Influence Everyday Culture? Simulate and/or displace other forms of everyday communicationFoster many different communication rituals with varying consequencesFoster new social roles and identitiesReinforce some social changesDo we experience ourselves and others differently because of SNWs?
28Culture-centered communication theory has developed as an alternative to limited-effects perspectives. What do these two perspectives have to say about the role of media in politics generally or in transmitting propaganda? Which perspective raises larger questions and concerns about the role of media?
29What are the differences and similarities between cultural theory and critical cultural theory? List some of the strong points and some of the limitations of McLuhan's ideas. Indicate if you find any of his ideas especially useful or misleading.
30Do you ever make judgments about people based solely on how they look Do you ever make judgments about people based solely on how they look? What kinds of evaluations do you make? Why do you do this? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this very human ability?
31To what extent do you think media content fosters support for the status quo? Do you agree or disagree with critical cultural studies arguments that this tendency limits the growth of richer, more pluralistic cultures?
32Many U.S. journalists found themselves in difficult positions in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. Were they Americans or journalists first? Many opted for nation over profession. For example, CBS anchor Dan Rather told an interviewer, “George Bush is President, he makes the decisions and, you know, as just one American, he wants me to line up, just tell me where.” The issue is not whether you supported America’s action in the Middle East. The issue is that there was a variety of opinion on the best, most effective, most just, most humane response to the attacks, and media should have provided the forum for its debate. They did in mainstream media around the world, even that of our closest allies. Did U.S. media fail the American people by so obviously supporting the official government position, the status quo? Might you answer differently if reporters’ pro-establishment biases, on any topic, were in opposition to your own?
33Discuss Frankfurt School assertions about mass culture and high culture. Can or should mass media be used to promote high culture? What about the notion of high culture itself? Is this concept inherently elitist? Why, for example, should a city fund symphonies, opera, and ballet companies and not jazz, rock ’n roll, and rap music?
34Popular culture researchers assert the value of popular culture texts like television shows, movies, and popular music. Their argument seems valid when we talk about examples such as television series Modern Family, movies like Hurt Locker, and certain musicWhat about other texts, things like television’s Gossip Girl,J ersey Shore, and Sabrina the Teenage Witch, or movies like the Die Hard series or The Nutty Professor, or Barry Manilow music? Can you still make the popular culture argument using these texts?
35Crisis of the Cultural Environment The critical view of media is well articulated by George Gerbner in the Media Education Foundation’s (www.igc.org/mef) The Crisis of the Cultural Environment.
37In cultural theory- CULTURE is central In cultural theory- CULTURE is central. Media affect society because they affect how culture is created and learned and shared.Cultural theories look at the long term consequences of cultural change created by media….
38Microscopic and Macroscopic Microscopic theory deemphasizes larger issues about social issues in favor of looking at how media affect our individual lives and experiences.Macroscopic theory look at how individuals are affected because they want to understand how the whole society is impacted.
39Microscopic theorists want to understand how regular life is transformed by media. Are we changing because of media? Are we becoming smarter, stupider, more social, more stressed, gentler, kinder, more aggressive?What happens when media are incorporated into daily life and how do they shape our social world?Do media enhance or disrupt everyday life?
40Macroscopic researchers don’t really care whether everyday life is enhanced by media. They think media turns culture into a commodity to sell- and they want to understand what happens when media culture becomes a part of the national economy.They look at things like: Have media disrupted the conduct of national politics and the impact on society?
41Critical TheorySome cultural theories are referred to as CRITICAL theory because these theorists are critical of media and use their research specifically to create change and criticize the status quo.
42Critical TheoryA critical theory raises questions about the way things are and provides alternate ways of for the media to behave.
43The Emergence of an Alternative to Minimal Effects Theory Minimal Effects Theory suggests that media power is quite limitedOnly some people are affected under certain conditionsImportant effects can fade away quicklyMedia mostly reinforce social changes that are already underwayBut is media power really that limited?Why do advertisers pay so much for ads?Why do politicians bother to campaign?
44Assessing the Role of Media The Media Effects (Postpositivist) Research StrategyIdentify independent & dependent variablesAssess linear causal relationshipsFind empirical evidence of causal power of mediaThe Critical Cultural Research StrategyFocus on audience uses and experiencesLook for changes in quality of experience that take place over timeDevelop theories about changes in experience and consequences of these changes
45Differences in Doing Research iPod Effects ResearchVariables = iPod use and social isolationDoes iPod use cause social isolationDo research to see if heavy iPod users have fewer friends than nonusersiPod Culture-based ResearchFocus on use and experience of music via iPodTalk to heavy iPod users and nonusers about musicDraw conclusions based on differences in experiences of music
46Critical Theory versus Cultural Theory Critical Theory is more likely to combine normative theory with empirical observationMedia should be used to achieve valued goalsWe should assess current media use to see if goals are being achievedWe should criticize problematic uses and actively work to improve media use so that valued goals are achieved
47Examples of Valued Goals Western civilization involves key values and social practices that need to be fostered. These include:Democracy in which all citizens are equally informed and politically activeA culturally diverse society in which there is understanding and respect for allConsumption of products based on real needs rather than media induced desires
48Cultural Theory versus Critical Theory Cultural Theory usually focuses on media content and experience of contentIt can be based on simple curiosity about why certain content is popularIt often is concerned about why different social groups experience content differently- Examples?It isn’t concerned about the value of different uses and experiencesCritical theory is about CHANGE.
49Classic Critical Theory Marxist TheoryGrounded in ideal values = egalitarianism, mass democracyElites use media to indoctrinate masses with ideologies that are inconsistent with their interestsChange is only possible with a revolution that takes media away from elites and gives them to the masses
50Classic Critical Theory NeoMarxist TheoryIt is possible to challenge and overcome elite efforts to indoctrinate massesElite ideology can be countered with populist (communist) ideologyElite misuse of media can be exposed and criticizedMedia literacy can teach masses to criticize elite misuse of media
51Classic Critical Theory Frankfurt School Theory of MediaEarliest version of NeoMarxist theoryChallenged by the rise of Nazism in Germany and seeks to explain whyMedia technology itself is problematic since it badly misrepresents the social worldSymphony music versus recordsMasses accept poor quality simulationsMedia disrupt daily routines central to civilized social action - going to movies replaces operaNazis use media to replace civilized high culture with pseudo-folk culture
52Classic Cultural Studies Theory Textual Analysis and Literary CriticismGood literature (High Culture) is central to development of civilizationTextual analysis and literary criticism can identify a “canon” of ideal literary works that everyone should readUniversal appreciation of High Culture would advance civilization
531980s Critical Cultural Studies Theories British Cultural StudiesPioneered by Raymond Williams who reassessed cultural development in EnglandBirmingham SchoolStuart Hall - Media Reception Research; Theory of Encoding and DecodingMedia are a pluralistic public forum in which ideas are contestedElites have important advantages in this competitionElite advantages can be overcome by studying how audiences decode ideological content and developing new strategies for using mediaFocus on how nonelite groups resist elite ideologies embedded in media content
541980s Critical Theory Political Economy Theory Capitalist elites are more interested in earning profits than advancing ideology so sometimes media content seems to contradict elite interestsThe rise of centralized, privately owned media is problematic - bad consequences are likelyCulture becomes a commodity and is packaged in problematic waysMass entertainment dominates at the expense of better forms of media contentNews is written from elite perspectives and is status quo orientedAlternate ways to structure and fund media are needed