Presentation on theme: "The Media. The Medias Functions Entertainment Reporting the news Identifying public problems Setting the public agenda The investigative function Socializing."— Presentation transcript:
The Medias Functions Entertainment Reporting the news Identifying public problems Setting the public agenda The investigative function Socializing new generations Providing a political forum Making profits
Characteristics of American Media Using the most advanced technology Internet Satellite transmission of real-time events Helicopters used to track unraveling events Operating in a free environment 1 st Amendment Yet, time of Red Scare & McCarthyism Privately owned Politically independent Operationally vigorous Ownership centralized in a few giant corporations
Characteristics of American Media Privately owned Ownership centralized in a few giant corporations Reporters highly vigorous, motivated, and responsive to signs of news worthy stories Watergate scandal, e.g.
Types of Media Broadcasting media Radio Television Print media Newspaper Magazines Others Internet Online version of press Information source Venue of personal expression
Differences of Media Broadcast Media Essentially a headline service fewer topics little depth of coverage more audience/viewers Source of info for 80% of American adults Print Media Not a source for the majority Audience are nations elites Leading papers set the reporting agenda In-depth coverage and better analysis
The Primacy of Television Currently the most influential type of media is television. Major TV networks NBC CBS ABC TV news network CNN Fox Public TV channels PBS C-SPAN
The Primacy of Television (cont.) Televisions Influence on the Political Process. Viewers can actually see news and history as it is happening Civil Rights Movement (50s and 60s) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZLvSnr6s50 Political assassinations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmc2EzkRDkI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4KROpdUkrM&mode=related&search= http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4KROpdUkrM&mode=related&search Tragedies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4JOjcDFtBE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZoPS5sM0qwE&mode=related&search=
The Primacy of Television (cont.) Televisions Influence on the Political Process. Viewers can actually see news and history as it is happening Other protest movements Vietnam War Protest War in Iraq Viewers can see how government conducts business C-Span & Congress in law making Live broadcast of Congressional hearings Live broadcast of presidents press conference
The Media and Political Campaigns Voters now receive most information from the electronic media, especially television. There are three types of television coverage employed by a campaign: Advertising Management of News Coverage Planning political events to accommodate the press Developing a good working relationship with reporters. Convincing the media to put the right spin or interpretation on a story. Political Debates
The Media and Political Campaigns (cont.) Political Campaigns and the Internet Politicians use WWW to reach out http://clinton.senate.gov/ http://www.hillaryclinton.com/splash/ Opponents/supporters use WWW http://www.stophernow.com/site/PageServer http://www.hillaryclinton.com/
Ownership of US Media Concentration of Ownership of US Media Political power is not distributed evenly; Large concentrations of economic resources are present in society; American media is a good example of concentration of ownership among a limited number of individuals & corporations. More than ¾ of the daily newspaper are owned by large media conglomerates Major TV networks such as ABC, NBC and CNN serving most households Major TV networks supply about 65% of the programming to local affiliates.
Ownership of US Media Consequences of Media Ownership Concentration monopoly power in the media Public inability to access diverse views Lack of competitiveness and more distortions in information Manipulation of public due to concentration of ownership
Media Coverage Factors impacting media coverage in the US The journalists/producers Via selection bias In favor of news that have a great audience appeal for its dramatic 0r entertainment value Crimes Disasters Scandals Freedom or discretion to interpret stories Personal views & preferences are reflected in analysis and description of events Sources of News News coverage is also influenced by the individuals or events that are subjects of the news.
Media Coverage Factors impacting media coverage in the US Sources of News News coverage is also influenced by the individuals or events that are subjects of the news. News leaks e.g., both Clinton & Ken Star reportedly leaked info to the media to sway news reports Issues press release Appear in media interviews; Appear in popular TV programs (SNL, Late Night Show) Use of extraordinary acts to attract media attention street demonstration protests (good for financially strapped orgs)
Media Coverage Factors impacting media coverage in the US The audience of news Media are business orgs; preferences of customers determine media coverage views & positions of the upscale segments of audience receive much attention Topics the middle class is interested receive a lot of attention in media coverage. Issues such as: Stock markets Scientific breakthroughs International politics In contrast, issues concerning the lower-middle and working class receive scant attention
Media Power Sources of Media Power 1. Agenda Setting Media help set agenda for political discussion 2. Framing The power to decide how political events and results and interpreted by the American people 3. Media coverage of election and government Shape popular perceptions of politicians and political leaders Events Media Have Had Great Impact on Civil Rights Movement Vietnam War protest movement Watergate scandal Terrorist attack on the US