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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5: MOMEMTUM AND ENERGY 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5: MOMEMTUM AND ENERGY 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 5: MOMEMTUM AND ENERGY 1

2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley This lecture will help you understand: Momentum Impulse Impulse Changes Momentum Bouncing Conservation of Momentum Collisions Energy Work Potential Energy Work-Energy Theorem Conservation of Energy Power Machines Efficiency Sources of Energy 2

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Momentum and Energy Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe. H. G. Wells 3

4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Momentum a property of moving things means inertia in motion more specifically, mass of an object multiplied by its velocity in equation form: mass velocity (momentum = mv) 4

5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Momentum example: A moving boulder has more momentum than a stone rolling at the same speed. A fast boulder has more momentum than a slow boulder. A boulder at rest has no momentum. 5

6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A moving object has ________________. A.momentum B.energy C.speed D.all of the above Momentum CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 6

7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A moving object has ________________. A.momentum B.energy C.speed D.all of the above Momentum CHECK YOUR ANSWER 7

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum ________________. A.remains unchanged in accord with the conservation of momentum B.doubles C.quadruples D.decreases Momentum CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 8

9 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When the speed of an object is doubled, its momentum ________________. A.remains unchanged in accord with the conservation of momentum B.doubles C.quadruples D.decreases Momentum CHECK YOUR ANSWER 9

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse product of force and time (force time) in equation form: impulse = Ft example: o A brief force applied over a short time interval produces a smaller change in momentum than the same force applied over a longer time interval. or o If you push with the same force for twice the time, you impart twice the impulse and produce twice the change in momentum. 10

11 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse Changes Momentum The greater the impulse exerted on something, the greater the change in momentum. in equation form: Ft = (mv) 11

12 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When the force that produces an impulse acts for twice as much time, the impulse is ________________. A.not changed B.doubled C.quadrupled D.halved Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 12

13 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When the force that produces an impulse acts for twice as much time, the impulse is ________________. A.not changed B.doubled C.quadrupled D.halved Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR ANSWER 13

14 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse Changes Momentum Case 1: increasing momentum o Apply the greatest force for as long as possible, and you extend the time of contact. o Force can vary throughout the duration of contact. examples: golfer swings a club and follows through baseball player hits a ball and follows through 14

15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A cannonball shot from a cannon with a long barrel will emerge with greater speed because the cannonball receives a greater ________________. A.average force B.impulse C.both of the above D.neither of the above Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 15

16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A cannonball shot from a cannon with a long barrel will emerge with greater speed because the cannonball receives a greater ________________. A. average force B.impulse C.both of the above D.neither of the above Explanation: The force on the cannonball will be the same for a short- or long-barreled cannon. The longer barrel provides for a longer time for the force to act, and therefore, a greater impulse. (The long barrel also provides a longer distance for the force to act, providing greater work and greater kinetic energy of the cannonball.) Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR ANSWER 16

17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse Changes Momentum Case 2: decreasing momentum over a long time o extend the time during which momentum is reduced 17

18 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A fast-moving car hitting a haystack or a cement wall produces vastly different results. 1.Do both experience the same change in momentum? 2.Do both experience the same impulse? 3.Do both experience the same force? A.yes for all three B.yes for 1 and 2 C.no for all three D.no for 1 and 2 Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 18

19 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A fast-moving car hitting a haystack or hitting a cement wall produces vastly different results. 1.Do both experience the same change in momentum? 2.Do both experience the same impulse? 3.Do both experience the same force? A.yes for all three B.yes for 1 and 2 C.no for all three D.no for 1 and 2 Explanation: Although stopping the momentum is the same whether done slowly or quickly, the force is vastly different. Be sure to distinguish between momentum, impulse, and force. Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR ANSWER 19

20 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? (Careful!) A.no, both are the same B.yes, less if it lands on the carpet C.no, less if it lands on a hard floor D.no, more if it lands on a hard floor Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 20

21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley When a dish falls, will the change in momentum be less if it lands on a carpet than if it lands on a hard floor? (Careful!) A.no, both are the same B.yes, less if it lands on the carpet C.no, less if it lands on a hard floor D.no, more if it lands on a hard floor Explanation: The momentum becomes zero in both cases, so both change by the same amount. Although the momentum change and impulse are the same, the force is less when the time of momentum change is extended. Be careful to distinguish between force, impulse, and momentum. Impulse Changes Momentum CHECK YOUR ANSWER 21

22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse Changes Momentum examples: When a car is out of control, it is better to hit a haystack than a concrete wall. physics reason: same impulse either way, but extension of hitting time reduces the force 22

23 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse Changes Momentum example (continued): In jumping, bend your knees when your feet make contact with the ground because the extension of time during your momentum decrease reduces the force on you. In boxing, ride with the punch. 23

24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Impulse Changes Momentum Case 3: decreasing momentum over a short time o short time interval produces large force example: Karate expert splits a stack of bricks by bringing her arm and hand swiftly against the bricks with considerable momentum. Time of contact is brief and force of impact is huge. 24

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Bouncing Impulses are generally greater when objects bounce. example: Catching a falling flower pot from a shelf with your hands: You provide the impulse to reduce its momentum to zero. If you throw the flower pot up again, you provide an additional impulse. This double impulse occurs when something bounces. 25

26 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Bouncing Pelton wheel designed to bounce water when it makes a U-turn as it impacts the curved paddle 26

27 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conservation of Momentum Law of conservation of momentum: In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged. 27

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conservation of Momentum examples: When a cannon is fired, the force on cannonball inside the cannon barrel is equal and opposite to the force of the cannonball on the cannon. The cannonball gains momentum, while the cannon gains an equal amount of momentum in the opposite directionthe cannon recoils. When no external force is present, no external impulse is present, and no change in momentum is possible. 28

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conservation of Momentum examples (continued): Internal molecular forces within a baseball come in pairs, cancel one another out, and have no effect on the momentum of the ball. Molecular forces within a baseball have no effect on its momentum. Pushing against a cars dashboard has no effect on its momentum. 29

30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Collisions For all collisions in the absence of external forces net momentum before collision equals net momentum after collision in equation form: (net mv) before = (net mv) after 30

31 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Collisions elastic collision o occurs when colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or any generation of heat 31

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Collisions inelastic collision o occurs when colliding objects result in deformation and/or the generation of heat 32

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Collisions example of elastic collision: single car moving at 10 m/s collides with another car of the same mass, m, at rest From the conservation of momentum, (net mv) before = (net mv) after (m 10) before = (2m V) after V = 5 m/s 33

34 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Freight car A is moving toward identical freight car B that is at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple together. Compared with the initial speed of freight car A, the speed of the coupled freight cars is ________________. A.the same B.half C.twice D.none of the above Collisions CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 34

35 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Freight car A is moving toward identical freight car B that is at rest. When they collide, both freight cars couple together. Compared with the initial speed of freight car A, the speed of the coupled freight cars is ________________. A.the same B.half C.twice D.none of the above Explanation: After the collision, the mass of the moving freight cars has doubled. Can you see that their speed is half the initial velocity of freight car A? Collisions CHECK YOUR ANSWER 35

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Energy A combination of energy and matter make up the universe. Energy mover of substances both a thing and a process observed when it is being transferred or being transformed a conserved quantity 36

37 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Energy property of a system that enables it to do work anything that can be turned into heat example: electromagnetic waves from the Sun Matter substance we can see, smell, and, feel occupies space 37

38 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work involves force and distance is force distance in equation form: W = Fd Two things occur whenever work is done: application of force movement of something by that force 38

39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley If you push against a stationary brick wall for several minutes, you do no work ________________. A.on the wall B.at all C.both of the above D.none of the above Work CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 39

40 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley If you push against a stationary brick wall for several minutes, you do no work ________________. A.on the wall B.at all C.both of the above D.none of the above Explanation: You may do work on your muscles, but not on the wall. Work CHECK YOUR ANSWER 40

41 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work examples: twice as much work is done in lifting two loads one- story high versus lifting one load the same vertical distance reason : force needed to lift twice the load is twice as much twice as much work is done in lifting a load two stories instead of one story reason : distance is twice as great 41

42 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work example: A weightlifter raising a barbell from the floor does work on the barbell. Unit of work: Newton-meter (Nm) or Joule (J) 42

43 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work is done in lifting a barbell. How much work is done in lifting a barbell that is twice as heavy the same distance? A.twice as much B.half as much C.the same D.depends on the speed of the lift Work CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 43

44 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work is done in lifting a barbell. How much work is done in lifting a barbell that is twice as heavy the same distance? A.twice as much B.half as much C.the same D.depends on the speed of the lift Explanation: This is in accord with work = force distance. Twice the force for the same distance means twice the work done on the barbell. Work CHECK YOUR ANSWER 44

45 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley You do work when pushing a cart with a constant force. If you push the cart twice as far, then the work you do is ________________. A.less than twice as much B.twice as much C.more than twice as much D.zero Work CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 45

46 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley You do work when pushing a cart with a constant force. If you push the cart twice as far, then the work you do is ________________. A.less than twice as much B.twice as much C.more than twice as much D.zero Work CHECK YOUR ANSWER 46

47 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Potential Energy stored energy held in readiness with a potential for doing work example: o A stretched bow has stored energy that can do work on an arrow. o A stretched rubber band of a slingshot has stored energy and is capable of doing work. 47

48 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy potential energy due to elevated position example: o water in an elevated reservoir o raised ram of a pile driver equal to the work done (force required to move it upward the vertical distance moved against gravity) in lifting it in equation form: PE = mgh 48

49 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Does a car hoisted for repairs in a service station have increased potential energy relative to the floor? A.yes B.no C.sometimes D.not enough information Potential Energy CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 49

50 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Does a car hoisted for repairs in a service station have increased potential energy relative to the floor? A.yes B.no C.sometimes D.not enough information Comment: If the car were twice as heavy, its increase in potential energy would be twice as great. Potential Energy CHECK YOUR ANSWER 50

51 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Potential Energy example: Potential energy of 10-N ball is the same in all 3 cases because work done in elevating it is the same. 51

52 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Kinetic Energy energy of motion depends on the mass of the object and its speed include the proportional constant 1/2 and KE = 1/2 mass speed squared If object speed is doubled kinetic energy is quadrupled 52

53 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy? A.yes, due to motion alone B.yes, when motion is nonaccelerated C.yes, because speed is a scalar and velocity is a vector quantity D.no Kinetic Energy CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 53

54 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Must a car with momentum have kinetic energy? A.yes, due to motion alone B.yes, when momentum is nonaccelerated C.yes, because speed is a scalar and velocity is a vector quantity D.no Explanation: Acceleration, speed being a scalar, and velocity being a vector quantity, are irrelevant. Any moving object has both momentum and kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy CHECK YOUR ANSWER 54

55 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy and work of a moving object equal to the work required to bring it from rest to that speed, or the work the object can do while being brought to rest in equation form: net force distance = kinetic energy, or Fd = 1/2 mv 2 55

56 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work-Energy Theorem Work-energy theorem gain or reduction of energy is the result of work in equation form: work = change in kinetic energy (W = KE) doubling speed of an object requires 4 times the work also applies to changes in potential energy 56

57 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Work-Energy Theorem applies to decreasing speed o reducing the speed of an object or bringing it to a halt example: applying the brakes to slow a moving car, work is done on it (the friction force supplied by the brakes distance) 57

58 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Consider a problem that asks for the distance of a fast- moving crate sliding across a factory floor and then coming to a stop. The most useful equation for solving this problem is ________________. A. F = ma B. Ft = mv C.KE = 1 / 2 mv 2 D.Fd = 1 / 2 mv 2 Work-Energy Theorem CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 58

59 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Consider a problem that asks for the distance of a fast- moving crate sliding across a factory floor and then coming to a stop. The most useful equation for solving this problem is ________________. A. F = ma B. Ft = mv C. KE = 1 / 2 mv 2 D. Fd = 1 / 2 mv 2 Comment: The work-energy theorem is the physicists favorite starting point for solving many motion-related problems. Work-Energy Theorem CHECK YOUR ANSWER 59

60 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The work done in bringing a moving car to a stop is the force of tire friction stopping distance. If the initial speed of the car is doubled, the stopping distance is ________________. A.actually less B.about the same C.twice D.none of the above Work-Energy Theorem CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 60

61 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The work done in bringing a moving car to a stop is the force of tire friction stopping distance. If the initial speed of the car is doubled, the stopping distance is ________________. A.actually less B.about the same C.twice D.none of the above Explanation: Twice the speed means four times the kinetic energy and four times the stopping distance. Work-Energy Theorem CHECK YOUR ANSWER 61

62 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conservation of Energy Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. 62

63 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conservation of Energy example: energy transforms without net loss or net gain in the operation of a pile driver 63

64 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Conservation of Energy A situation to ponder… Consider the system of a bow and arrow. In drawing the bow, we do work on the system and give it potential energy. When the bowstring is released, most of the potential energy is transferred to the arrow as kinetic energy, and some as heat to the bow. 64

65 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Suppose the potential energy of a drawn bow is 50 joules and the kinetic energy of the shot arrow is 40 joules. Then ________________. A.energy is not conserved B.10 joules go to warming the bow C.10 joules go to warming the target D.10 joules are mysteriously missing A situation to ponder… CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 65

66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Suppose the potential energy of a drawn bow is 50 joules and the kinetic energy of the shot arrow is 40 joules. Then ________________. A.energy is not conserved B.10 joules go to warming the bow C.10 joules go to warming the target D.10 joules are mysteriously missing Explanation: The total energy of the drawn bow, which includes the poised arrow is 50 joules. The arrow gets 40 joules and the remaining 10 joules warms the bowstill in the initial system. A situation to ponder… CHECK YOUR ANSWER 66

67 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Kinetic Energy and Momentum Compared Similarities between momentum and kinetic energy Both are properties of moving things. Difference between momentum and kinetic energy Momentum is a vector quantity; therefore it is directional and can be cancelled. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity and can never be cancelled. 67

68 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Kinetic Energy and Momentum Compared velocity dependence o Momentum depends on velocity. o Kinetic energy depends on the square of velocity. example: An object moving with twice the velocity of another with the same mass, has twice the momentum but four times the kinetic energy. 68

69 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Power measure of how fast work is done in equation form: 69

70 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Power example: A worker uses more power running up the stairs than climbing the same stairs slowly. Twice the power of an engine can do twice the work of one engine in the same amount of time, or twice the work of one engine in half the time or at a rate at which energy is changed from one form to another. 70

71 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Power Unit of power joule per second, called the watt after James Watt, developer of the steam engine o 1 joule/second = 1 watt o 1 kilowatt = 1000 watts 71

72 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A job can be done slowly or quickly. Both may require the same amount of work, but different amounts of ________________. A.energy B.momentum C.power D.impulse Power CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 72

73 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A job can be done slowly or quickly. Both may require the same amount of work, but different amounts of ________________. A.energy B.momentum C.power D.impulse Comment: Power is the rate at which work is done. Power CHECK YOUR ANSWER 73

74 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Machines Machine device for multiplying forces or changing the direction of forces cannot create energy but can transform energy from one form to another, or transfer energy from one location to another cannot multiply work or energy 74

75 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Machines Principle of a machine conservation of energy concept: work input = work output input force input distance = output force output distance (force distance) input = (force distance) output 75

76 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Machines Simplest machine lever o rotates on a point of support called the fulcrum o allows small force over a large distance and large force over a short distance 76

77 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Machines pulley o operates like a lever with equal arms changes the direction of the input force example: This pulley arrangement can allow a load to be lifted with half the input force. 77

78 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Machines operates as a system of pulleys (block and tackle) multiplies force 78

79 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every 1- meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises ________________. A.50 centimeters B.45 centimeters C.25 centimeters D.none of the above Machines CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 79

80 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley In an ideal pulley system, a woman lifts a 100-N crate by pulling a rope downward with a force of 25 N. For every 1- meter length of rope she pulls downward, the crate rises ________________. A.50 centimeters B.45 centimeters C.25 centimeters D.none of the above Explanation: Work in = work out; Fd in = Fd out. One-fourth of 1 m = 25 cm. Machines CHECK YOUR ANSWER 80

81 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Efficiency percentage of work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output in equation form: 81

82 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A certain machine is 30% efficient. This means the machine will convert ________________. A.30% of the energy input to useful work70% of the energy input will be wasted B.70% of the energy input to useful work30% of the energy input will be wasted C.both of the above D.none of the above Efficiency CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR 82

83 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley A certain machine is 30% efficient. This means the machine will convert ________________. A.30% of the energy input to useful work70% of the energy input will be wasted B.70% of the energy input to useful work30% of the energy input will be wasted C.both of the above D.none of the above Efficiency CHECK YOUR ANSWER 83

84 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Sources of Energy Sun example: Sunlight evaporates water; water falls as rain; rain flows into rivers and into generator turbines, then back to the sea to repeat the cycle. Sunlight can transform into electricity by photovoltaic cells. Wind power turns generator turbines. 84

85 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Sources of Energy Concentrated energy nuclear power o stored in uranium and plutonium o byproduct is geothermal energy held in underground reservoirs of hot water to provide steam that can drive turbogenerators 85

86 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Sources of Energy dry-rock geothermal power is a producer of electricity o Water is put into cavities in deep, dry, hot rock. Water turns to steam and reaches a turbine, at the surface. After exiting the turbine, it is returned to the cavity for reuse. 86


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