Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Minds Eyes: Modeling the Development of Diverse Sexual Preferences Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Minds Eyes: Modeling the Development of Diverse Sexual Preferences Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Minds Eyes: Modeling the Development of Diverse Sexual Preferences Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. ~~William Shakespeare (1564–1616) The Reiss Plenary James V. Kohl Clinical Laboratory Scientist, ASCLS, NCA JVKohl@bellsouth.net www.pheromones.com

2 The Mind's Eyes: Human Pheromones, Neuroscience, and Male Sexual Preferences. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 18(4): 313-369. Guest editor: Michael R. Kauth Editor: Eli Coleman Concurrently published as a book chapter in Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality The Haworth Press, Inc. Adapted for presentation from: Kohl (2006)

3 Nature SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION PRENATAL PRE- and POSTNATAL GnRH Nerve cell Migration Olfactory placode Olfactory Bulbs Limbic System Hypothalamic GnRH Hypothalamus GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude extrapituitary effects Pituitary LH / FSH HPG axis HPA axis Adrenal metabolites (androsterone) (etiocholanolone) FSHLH Gonads Testes (androgenic metabolites) Ovaries (estrogenic metabolites) Adrenals Pheromones PHEROMONESPHEROMONES Synaptogenesis Synaptolysis Apoptosis Synaptogenesis Synaptolysis Apoptosis NEUROTRANSMISSION CyclicTonic MaleFemale Neuronal feedback PositiveNegative Aging Sexual Expression Sexual Identity Sexual orientation Learning and Memory Pheromones alter GnRH-modulated: neural circuitry, odor hedonics, mood, memory, motivation, cognitive behavioral state, and potentiating responses to other stimuli, and link Nature to Nurture via affective reactions Nurture The influence of pheromones from the same sex or from the opposite sex on postnatal sexual differentiation Pheromones From the same sex From the opposite sex Extrahypothalamic GnRH Luteinizing Hormone: The link between sex and the sense of smell

4 Dichotomies Nature vs Nurture (Genetics vs Social environment) Structure vs Function Organization vs Activation Effects of hormones vs Behavioral affects Conscious choice vs Unconscious affects Creation vs evolution (Normalcy vs Diversity)

5 Hormone-dependent facial features Used with permission from Victor Johnson

6 Hormone-dependent WHR Adapted from Marlowe et al. (2005)

7 High Estrogen/Androgen ratios, physical features… Feminine features: small jaw, full lips, large breasts, narrow waist, shorter, higher vocal pitch, light complexion, etc. …AND THE PHEROMONES OF WOMEN.

8 Low Estrogen/Androgen ratios, physical features… Masculine features: growth of the jaw, brow ridges, center of the face from the brow to the bottom of the nose, more facial hair, taller, darker, more muscular, etc. …AND THE PHEROMONES OF MEN.

9 Pheromones (traditional definition) Karlson and Luscher (1959): … substances which are secreted to the outside by an individual and received by a second individual of the same species, in which they release a specific reaction, for example, a definite behaviour, or a developmental process. (p. 55)

10 Pheromones are: Species-specific and hormone- dependent chemical signals that alter hormone levels and behavior in others. ---------------------------------------------------------- The only sensory input from our social environment that has a direct effect on hormones. Pheromones directly affect behavior.

11 Olfactory/pheromonal input and pheromones are: No sixth sense No human vomeronasal organ (VNO) No discoverer of human pheromones Body odors that, whether or not we smell them, alter hormone levels and behavior in others. See: www.pheromones.com

12 The Minds Eyes and Diverse Food Preferences MED_071C Image Club Royalty Free Photograph

13 The Minds Eyes and Diverse Sexual Preferences Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Body odor Conditioned stimulus (CS): visual, auditory, tactile, gustatorycombined? The CS (e.g., visual input), gains behavioral significance after being paired with a biologically active UCS (e.g., pheromones). Odors/pheromones are the proximate cause Hormone-driven preferences are their effect.

14 Brain Imagery 1: Body odors vs Common odors Johan N. Lundstrom, Julie A. Boyle, Robert J. Zatorre, and Marilyn Jones-Gotman (2007) Functional Neuronal Processing of Body Odors Differs from that of Similar Common Odors. Cereb Cortex. published online 12 October 2007

15 Brain Imagery 2: Male vs Female response Savic, I., Berglund, H., Gulyas, B., & Roland, P. (2001). Smelling of odorous sex hormone- like compounds causes sex-differentiated hypothalamic activations in humans. Neuron., 31(4), 661-668.

16 Brain Imagery 3: Male / Female sexual preferences Martins, Y., Preti, G., Crabtree, C. R., Runyan, T., Vainius, A. A., & Wysocki, C. J. (2005). Preference for human body odors is influenced by gender and sexual orientation. Psychol Sci., 16(9), 694-701. Savic, I., Berglund, H., & Lindstrom, P. (2005). Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 102(20), 7356-7361. Epub 2005 May 7359. Berglund, H., Lindstrom, P., & Savic, I. (2006). Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 103(21), 8269-8274.

17 Savic, I. Brain response to putative pheromones in humans. AChemS 29 th Annual Meeting, April 25-29, 2007 Sarasota, Florida Smelling male and female pheromones, activates the human brain in a sex differentiated manner. The pattern of activation in homosexual subjects raises the question of whether this pattern could be effect of sexual behavior or reflect a variant organization of the hypothalamic circuits. (embargoed) These issues will be discussed in relation to new data from male–to-female transsexuals…

18 The Minds Eyes: A distributed network of nerve cells that collectively integrates hormone responses to pheromones with visual input, and with other associated sensory input from our social environment.

19 The Minds Eyes Nature + Nurture ( Genetics + Social environment) Nature: Genetically determined mechanisms for the identification of others of the same species and for the development of sexual preferences. Nurture: A direct effect on genes by sensory input from the social environment Pheromones directly link nurture (the social environment) to gene activation (nature).

20 The Minds Eyes Structure + Function Gene activation occurs in hormone-secreting nerve cells of brain tissue that is located in a structure: the hypothalamus. The function of these hormone-secreting cells is to direct the concurrent maturation of the brain, the neuroendocrine system, and the reproductive systemall of which are directly effected by pheromones, which affect the development of sexual preferences.

21 The Minds Eyes Organization + Activation Before birth, genetically determined sexually dimorphic hormones organize the number and density of these cells in the hypothalamus. At birth, these cells are activated differently by the pheromones of other males compared to other females. Pheromones from other people cause hormone levels to change: re-organization.

22 The Minds Eyes Effect of hormones + Behavioral affect The direct effect of pheromones on these hormone-secreting cells in the hypothalamus controls levels of many other hormones. In mammals, the effect of pheromones on levels of hormones conditions behavioral affects. People are mammals. Visual input from our social environment is not likely to have direct effects on hormones or on behavior.

23 The Minds Eyes Effect of hormones + Behavioral affect One central neuronal pathway links: noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic, and opiodergic pathways, as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters like gamma­ aminobutyric acid and excitatory amino acids like glutamic and aspartic acids and other brain peptides including pineal secretions like melatonin and corticotrophin­releasing hormone and the complex interactions among them (e.g., the effects of hormones)… …to functional species-specific influences, which are linked to behavioral affect by the same hormone-secreting cells, that pheromones directly effect.

24 The Minds Eyes Conscious choice + Unconscious affects A hormone conserved in species as diverse as yeast and primates is the biological core of mammalian reproductive sexual behavior, and it is activated by human pheromones. Similar hormone pathways are conserved in mammals that do not consciously choose their mates. Conscious choice is probably less important than the direct effect of pheromones on hormones and their unconscious affects on the behavior of most species.

25 The Minds Eyes Creation + Evolution ( Normalcy + Diversity) The Creation or Evolution of lock and key (hormone and receptor) proteins enable communication of sex differences and immune system differences in all species that sexually reproduce. One hormone is a key that is conserved across all species that sexually reproduce. Diversification of the different locks that this key opens enables speciation -- and predates the genetic origin of vision.

26 The Minds Eyes: No Dichotomies Nature + Nurture ( Genetics + Social environment) Structure + Function Organization + Activation Effects of hormones + Behavioral affects Conscious choice + Unconscious affect Creation + Evolution ( Normalcy + Diversity)

27 The Minds Eyes: No Dichotomies Nature + Nurture ( Genetics + Social environment) Structure + Function Organization + Activation Effects of hormones + Behavioral affects Conscious choice + Unconscious affect Creation + Evolution ( Normalcy + Diversity)

28 Reality check: Individuals vs. groups Used with permission from Victor Johnson

29 The Minds Eyes: Modeling the Development of Diverse Sexual Preferences Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. ~~William Shakespeare (1564–1616) The Reiss Plenary James V. Kohl Clinical Laboratory Scientist, ASCLS, NCA JVKohl@bellsouth.net www.pheromones.com

30 Hypothalamus Medial preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus MPOA/AH MP-AHN Sexual preference difference (1)

31 Male Pheromone/Female ResponseFemale Pheromone/Male Response Adapted from Savic et al., 2001 The Minds Eyes are in the area of the brain that lights up differently when exposed to male or female pheromones.

32 HeW HoM HeM Male pheromone Female pheromone Sexual preference difference (M) Adapted from Savic et al., 2005

33 HeW Lesbian HeM Male pheromone Female pheromone Sexual preference difference (F) Adapted from Berglund et al., 2006

34 Kelahan, L.C, Hoffmann H., and Kohl, JV Putative Human Pheromones May Condition a Human Female Hormonal Effect / Behavioral Affect Poster session: Saturday 330-530

35 How to Smell Like You Look Good Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. ~~William Shakespeare (1564–1616) The Reiss Plenary James V. Kohl Clinical Laboratory Scientist, ASCLS, NCA JVKohl@bellsouth.net www.pheromones.com

36 What about birds? Hagelin, J. (2007). Odors and chemical signaling. In B. G. M. Jamieson (Ed.), Reproductive Behavior and Phylogeny of Aves. Vol. 6B. (pp. 76-119). Enfield, NH: Science Publishers.

37 We need to know why something is the way we find it, not just describe what is found. Theory gives us the ability to derive hypotheses about what else might be true and check them out. Explanation (theory) is how science progresses and finds ways of helping society contain its many problems. To me explanation is the heart of science. Unfortunately we in social science do not have as much explanation in our published journal articles as we should. But few would dismiss explanation as unimportant or unnecessary. Ira L. Reiss: 12/02/1999.

38 You can't just keep explaining things by your model. You need to predict that which has not yet occurred by the model and be able to show that a primary visual mechanism is not able to predict the same thing. Jay Feierman: 7/29/2007

39 Pheromones effect hormones and control sexual behaviors The effect of pheromones on reproductive hormone status is mediated by GnRH neurons. GnRH plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors via their link to reproductive hormone status and sexual behavior that involves GnRH neurons. Boehm, U., Zou, Z., & Buck, L.B. (2005). Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction. Cell, 123, 683-695.


Download ppt "The Minds Eyes: Modeling the Development of Diverse Sexual Preferences Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google