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SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 1 Beyond HD: Resolution, Frame Rate, & Dynamic Range Mark Schubin multiple Emmy-award- winning SMPTE Fellow.

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Presentation on theme: "SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 1 Beyond HD: Resolution, Frame Rate, & Dynamic Range Mark Schubin multiple Emmy-award- winning SMPTE Fellow."— Presentation transcript:

1 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 1 Beyond HD: Resolution, Frame Rate, & Dynamic Range Mark Schubin multiple Emmy-award- winning SMPTE Fellow

2 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 2 Why Go Beyond HD? Evolution Evolution resolution resolution started at 8 lines started at 8 lines frame rate frame rate started at 8 fps started at 8 fps wider screen wider screen started vertical started vertical sound sound color color surround sound surround sound Baird 30-line TV 1932

3 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 3 (Not) S3D extra gear extra gear prod. & view. prod. & view. extra signals extra signals extra work extra work extra processes extra processes noticeable noticeable good when it works well good when it works well bad when it doesnt bad when it doesnt NEP SS-3D plans Pace S3D rig 6 of 16 seats

4 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 4 Good & Bad S3D GoodBad

5 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 5 Terminology Higher resolution Higher resolution 4K: either 4096 or 3840 active pixels per line 4K: either 4096 or 3840 active pixels per line nominally 2160 lines nominally 2160 lines 8K: either 8192 or 7680 active pixels per line 8K: either 8192 or 7680 active pixels per line nominally 4320 lines nominally 4320 lines 7680 version also called UHDTV or Super Hi-Vision 7680 version also called UHDTV or Super Hi-Vision Higher Frame Rate = HFR Higher Frame Rate = HFR includes 1080 lines at 60 fps progressive scan includes 1080 lines at 60 fps progressive scan Higher Dynamic Range = HDR Higher Dynamic Range = HDR range from darkest to brightest in an image range from darkest to brightest in an image

6 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 6 What Is HD? ?

7 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 7 "The exposition's opening on April 30 also marked the advent of this country's first regular schedule of high- definition broadcasts." ? What Is HD?

8 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 8 "The exposition's opening on April 30 also marked the advent of this country's first regular schedule of high- definition broadcasts." - Broadcasting magazine ? What Is HD?

9 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 9 "The exposition's opening on April 30 also marked the advent of this country's first regular schedule of high- definition broadcasts." - Broadcasting magazine, reporting from the 1939 New York Worlds Fair on New York Worlds Fair on 441-line (total) television 441-line (total) television What Is HD?

10 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 10 …this countrys… ?

11 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 11 TV D That Was More H Baird 600-line color 1940 French TV 819-line Thousand-line Thousand-line systems tested in the 1940s

12 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 12 Human Resolution Theory Snellen Chart 20/20 (6/6) optotype

13 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 13 Resolution and Viewing Distance Detail falls with distance Detail falls with distance Too close cant see picture due to visible pixels Too close cant see picture due to visible pixels Peak where pixels match visual acuity Peak where pixels match visual acuity 20/20 = 30 cpd 20/20 = 30 cpd NTSC ~ 480 lines NTSC ~ 480 lines 8°, 7.15x height 8°, 7.15x height 1080-line HD 3.16H 1080-line HD 3.16H viewing distance rez cycle = white line & black line

14 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 14 Lechner Distance: 9 feet (2.7 m) Flat-Panel Displays Increase Distance

15 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 15 Seeming Lack of Need for HDTV 9 feet (2.7 m) 15.1inches (38 cm) 15inches 25-inch (64 cm) TV CEA: 27-inch (69 cm) average CEA: 27-inch (69 cm) average size sold to U.S. dealers in 2006 Dealer inventory one year Dealer inventory one year 10 years to replace all TVs 10 years to replace all TVs 1080 lines visible on 70-inch 1080 lines visible on 70-inch (178 cm) 16:9 HDTV 8°

16 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 16 July 2011 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report based on DisplaySearch data (actual & projected) Home TV Screen Size Shipped (their typo)

17 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 17 Panasonic 150-inch/3.8-m plasma TV at 2008 Consumer Electronics Show 4096x2160 One Heck of a Home TV 2006 August 16, Stan Glasgow, pres. Sony Electronics, next big leap in HD [beyond 1080-line] could be 3-5 years could be 3-5 years 70-inch:1080-line::140-inch:2160-line

18 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 18 Changing Theatrical Expectations courtesy Warner Bros. Technical Operations The tiny-screen movie palace is ancient history

19 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 19 based on 20/20 vision HDTV2K courtesy of ARRI, used with permission

20 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 20 NHK – Ultra-Definition TV Super Hi-Vision 7680 x 4320 (8K) – 400-inch (10.2-m) 16x more pixels than 1920 x 1080 HDTV NAB 2007

21 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 21 Problems with 30-cpd Theory Edges Edges 3 chart lines below 20/20 3 chart lines below 20/20 April 2008 SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal: April 2008 SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal: NHK Research on Human Factors in UHDTV possible to distinguish between 78 and 156 cpd possible to distinguish between 78 and 156 cpd 156 cpd is more than five times the 20/20 criterion 156 cpd is more than five times the 20/20 criterion realness is a function of image detail realness is a function of image detail rises rapidly to 50 cpd rises rapidly to 50 cpd continues rising through 156 cpd continues rising through 156 cpd

22 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 22 Beyond-HDTV Spatial Resolution Cameras from: Cameras from: ARRI, Astro, Canon, Dalsa, Hitachi, Ikegami, JVC, Lockheed-Martin, Meduza, NHK, Olympus, Red, Sony, Vision Research ARRI, Astro, Canon, Dalsa, Hitachi, Ikegami, JVC, Lockheed-Martin, Meduza, NHK, Olympus, Red, Sony, Vision Research Displays from: Displays from: CMO, JVC, LG, Panasonic, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, Toshiba CMO, JVC, LG, Panasonic, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, Toshiba Other gear: Other gear: codecs, recorders, up- & down-convert, production switchers codecs, recorders, up- & down-convert, production switchers But first… But first…

23 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 23 HigherFrameRates 50 Hz 100 Hz BBC/EBUsimulation from 300- fps video Raw data rate same mult. Raw data rate same mult. Compressed data rate TBD Compressed data rate TBD less change between frames less change between frames sharper for easier estimation sharper for easier estimation

24 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 24 Also Motion Strobing Panning-speed tables based on frame rate and viewing angle Panning-speed tables based on frame rate and viewing angle If higher resolution means greater angle, then higher frame rate If higher resolution means greater angle, then higher frame rate S3D sometimes halves frame rate per eye S3D sometimes halves frame rate per eye

25 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 25 Douglas Trumbull on HFR, New York Times, 2012 Feb 5 There are really no words for it in English, but its a window onto reality Tree of Life, Fox Searchlight Pictures

26 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 26 There are really no words for it in English, but its a window onto reality There are really no words for it in English, but its a window onto reality Digital cinematography can effortlessly go to 1,000 frames a second Digital cinematography can effortlessly go to 1,000 frames a second ?????? ?????? light light data data Douglas Trumbull on HFR, New York Times, 2012 Feb 5 Bill Huber

27 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 27 Alternative for Strobing/False Motion

28 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 28 Back to Spatial Resolution More detail More detail Reframing/stabilization Reframing/stabilization Single-sensor 3D Single-sensor 3D Increased Increasedsharpness Desired HD Skewed HD Resulting HD 4k Zepar S3D lens on VR Phantom 65

29 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 29 Which Person Looks Angrier? Angry Man/Neutral Woman, 1997 copyright Aude Oliva, MIT and Philippe G. Schyns, University of Glasgow used with permission in the experiments, LSF 6 cpd

30 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 30 Introducing Contrast contrast resolution Do you see a curve along the bottom?

31 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 31 Contrast-Sensitivity Function contrast resolution curve varies with retinal angle and observer max.contrastsensitivity 1-8 cpd

32 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 32 Modulation Transfer Function contrast resolution sharpness is proportional to the square of the area under the curve (ARRI paper differs) curve shape varies due to such factors as filtering, diffraction, imager resolution, etc.

33 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 33 HDCAM/DVCPRO HD Compromise contrast resolution loss of lots of resolution but very little sharpness

34 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 34 Combining Vision & Technology contrast resolution invisible not reproduced available & visible

35 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 35 Why More Resolution Is Good

36 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 36 Why More Resolution Is Good If this is 1080 lines, then the contrast ratio at 1080 lines is zero zerocontrast

37 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 37 Why More Resolution Is Good If this is 2160 lines, 64%contrast then the contrast at 1080 lines is 64%

38 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 38 Real MTF Curves EOS 10D 3072 x 2048 EOS 20D 3504 x % linear increase in sensors courtesy Bob Atkins used with permission

39 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 39 Real-World Sharpness Change EOS 10D 3072 x x 2048 EOS 20D 3504 x 2336 courtesy Bob Atkins used with permission

40 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 40 What Is Resolution? Traditional video definition: Traditional video definition: 1920 x 1080, 1280 x 720, etc x 1080, 1280 x 720, etc. Optical definition: Optical definition: line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) (video resolution ÷ 2) ÷ imager size in mm (video resolution ÷ 2) ÷ imager size in mm Imager Width lp/mm S inch /3-inch /2-inch /3-inch /4-inch for 1920 pixels per line full-width16:9

41 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February LP/mm 100 MTF% Relative MTF of HDTV 2/3-Inch, 1/2-Inch, and 1/3-Inch Lens Measured at Picture Center 1/3-Inch 1/2-Inch 2/3-Inch (from Small Format HD Acquisition, Larry Thorpe, Canon, 2005 SMPTE Fall Technical Conference) Red One 4520 pels slightly easier than 1920

42 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 42 But How Should It Be Measured? traditional color video traditional color video Hitachi, Ikegami Hitachi, Ikegami Lockheed-Martin Lockheed-Martin NHK, Olympus (diff.) NHK, Olympus (diff.) ARRI ARRI Astro Astro Canon Canon JVC JVC Red Red Sony (different) Sony (different) Vision Research Vision Research

43 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 43 Sensitivity Both hi-rez and HFR tend to need larger image sensors

44 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 44 The Story So Far Frame-rate increase = data & light increase Frame-rate increase = data & light increase Linear rez increase = (data & light increase) 2 Linear rez increase = (data & light increase) 2 Lenses to match optical rez increase Lenses to match optical rez increase Single-camera ok; multi-camera not yet Single-camera ok; multi-camera not yet downconversion useful downconversion useful Astro 4K products (more models plus coders & converters)

45 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February watt halogen light

46 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 46 High Dynamic Range 10,000,000:1 (>23-stop) contrast ratio Grass Valley Xensium (also ARRI, Fuji, Red, others)

47 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 47 Different HDR-Capture Methods Areal – Bigger Pixels Areal – Bigger Pixels Fewer pixels (ARRI) Fewer pixels (ARRI) less resolution less resolution Larger sensor (Vision Research) Larger sensor (Vision Research) cost, lens availability cost, lens availability Spatial – Multiple Sites Spatial – Multiple Sites Fuji Fuji Temporal – Multi-Readout Temporal – Multi-Readout Red Red short duration for highlights short duration for highlights old Fuji Super CCD

48 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 48 Other Optical Solutions Rosco View Live Technologies LiveLens

49 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 49 HDR Good News & Bad Good: No change after image sensing Good: No change after image sensing Bad: HDR displays before content Bad: HDR displays before content (also wider color gamut) (also wider color gamut) Dolby PRM-4200 monitor shot by Bill Bennett, ASC used with permission

50 SchubinCafe.com, Beyond HD, 2012 February 9 50 Weve come a long way since 1888 Questions?Comments?


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