Presentation on theme: "Chemistry 2100 Lecture 9. Carbohydrates Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate: A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance."— Presentation transcript:
Chemistry 2100 Lecture 9
Carbohydrates Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate: A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis. Monosaccharide: Monosaccharide: A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate. Aldose: Aldose: A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group. Ketose: Ketose: A monosaccharide containing a ketone group.
Monosacharides In 1891, Emil Fischer made the arbitrary assignments of D- and L- to the enantiomers of glyceraldehyde. –D-monosaccharide: –D-monosaccharide: the -OH on its penultimate carbon is on the right in a Fischer projection. –L-monosaccharide: –L-monosaccharide: the -OH on its penultimate carbon is on the left in a Fischer projection.
Hemiacetals and Hemiketals
Pyranoses and Furanoses
Haworth Projections D-Fructose (a 2-ketohexose) also forms a five-membered cyclic hemiacetal.
Hydrogenation Hardening: The reduction of some or all of the carbon-carbon double bonds of an unsaturated triglyceride using H 2 /transition metal catalyst, which converts a liquid triglyceride to a semisolid.
"partially hydrogenated vegetable oil"
Complex Lipids Figure 21.1 Schematic diagram of simple and complex lipids.
Fluid Mosaic Model Figure 21.2 The fluid mosaic model of membranes.