Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chemistry 2100 Lecture 9. Carbohydrates Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate: A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chemistry 2100 Lecture 9. Carbohydrates Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate: A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry 2100 Lecture 9

2 Carbohydrates Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate: A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance that gives these compounds on hydrolysis. Monosaccharide: Monosaccharide: A carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate. Aldose: Aldose: A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group. Ketose: Ketose: A monosaccharide containing a ketone group.

3

4

5 Enantiomers

6 Monosacharides In 1891, Emil Fischer made the arbitrary assignments of D- and L- to the enantiomers of glyceraldehyde. –D-monosaccharide: –D-monosaccharide: the -OH on its penultimate carbon is on the right in a Fischer projection. –L-monosaccharide: –L-monosaccharide: the -OH on its penultimate carbon is on the left in a Fischer projection.

7 Epimers

8

9

10

11

12

13 Hemiacetals and Hemiketals

14 Cyclization

15 D-glucose D-glucose

16 Pyranoses and Furanoses

17 Haworth Projections D-Fructose (a 2-ketohexose) also forms a five-membered cyclic hemiacetal.

18 -D(–)-fructofuranose -D(–)-fructopyranose (Honey)

19 Chair Conformations chair conformationFor pyranoses, the six-membered ring is more accurately represented as a chair conformation.

20 Chain-ring Equilibrium and Reducing Sugars

21 The Glycosidic Bond

22 Disaccharides

23 Sweetness Monosaccharides are colorless crystalline solids, very soluble in water, but only slightly soluble in ethanol. Sweetness relative to sucrose:

24 starch

25 amylose amylopectin dextrins starch

26 amylose amylopectin dextrins starch

27 amylose amylopectin dextrins (1,4) starch

28 amylose amylopectin dextrins (1, 4)

29 starch amylose amylopectin dextrins (1, 6) (1, 4)

30 starch amylose amylopectin dextrins

31 glycogen

32 β (1,4) cellulose

33 Other Polymers Chitin Agar Heparin

34

35 Lipids

36 Fatty Acids

37 oleic acid (mp 4°C) stearic acid (mp 70°C)

38

39

40 Triacylglycerols

41 Saponification Saponification: the base-promoted hydrolysis of fats and oils in aqueous NaOH and produces glycerol and a mixture of fatty acid salts called soaps.

42 anionic detergents Synthetic Detergents (syndets)

43 Hydrogenation Hardening: The reduction of some or all of the carbon-carbon double bonds of an unsaturated triglyceride using H 2 /transition metal catalyst, which converts a liquid triglyceride to a semisolid.

44 "partially hydrogenated vegetable oil"

45 Complex Lipids Figure 21.1 Schematic diagram of simple and complex lipids.

46 Membranes: Glycerophoshpolipids

47

48

49

50 Fluid Mosaic Model Figure 21.2 The fluid mosaic model of membranes.

51 Other Lipids: Waxes

52 Sterols

53 Steroids

54

55 Low-Density Lipoprotein


Download ppt "Chemistry 2100 Lecture 9. Carbohydrates Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate: A polyhydroxyaldehyde or polyhydroxyketone, or a substance."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google