Tariffs o definition – tax levied on a good when it crosses a national border import tariff – much more common export tariff – less common; revenue source o purposes protective tariff – designed to reduce the amount of imports entering a country; increase sales for domestic producers revenue generation – designed to generate additional funds for domestic government
Types of Tariffs 1)specific tariff – fixed monetary amount per unit of the imported good 2)ad valorem tariff – fixed percentage of the value of the imported good customs valuation – process of determining the value of an imported good o free-on-board (FOB) valuation – tariff applied as product leaves country o cost-insurance-freight (CIF)valuation – tariff applied as product enters country 3)compound tariff – combines the elements of specific and ad valorem tariffs
Tariff Examples by Country and Industry
Effective Rate of Protection 1)nominal tariff rate – based on tariff applied to value of finished product 2)effective tariff rate – based on tariff applied to finished product and imported inputs n = nominal tariff rate on final product a = ratio of value of imported input to value of finished product ( prior to tariffs ) b = nominal tariff rate on imported input effective rate of protection = e = (n-ab) (1-a)
Effective Rate – 1 st Example e = = = 0.5 = 50% (n-ab) (1-a) (0) for this example: n = $50/($100 + $400) = 0.1 = 10% a = $400/($100 + $400) = 0.8 b = $0/($400) = 0
Effective Rate – 2 nd Example e = = = 0.3 = 30% (n-ab) (1-a) (0.05) in this case: n = $50/($100 + $400) = 0.1 = 10% a = $400/($100 + $400) = 0.8 b = $20/($400) = 0.05 = 5%
Tariff Escalation o tariff escalation – higher tariffs on intermediate and finished goods and lower tariffs on raw materials o incentive for developing nations to expand production of raw materials o disincentive for developing nations to compete in market for finished goods
Offshore Assembly Provision (OAP) o outsourcing – aspects of production process occur in another country o low cost, labor intensive products o OAP – tariffs applied only to portion of production occurring in another country o reduces effective tariff rate for domestic consumers o incentive for foreign producers to use U.S. components in production o detrimental to U.S. workers who also produce the same finished goods
Dodging Import Tariffs o tariff avoidance – legal method of reducing or eliminating the amount paid in tariffs example: Brazilian raw sugar shipped to Caribbean and refined there into ethanol then imported to the U.S. duty free o tariff evasion – illegal means of reducing or eliminating tariffs examples: false reclassification of products falsification of country of origin altering composition of product itself
Postponing Import Tariffs Bonded Warehouse o location maintained by importers ensuring that all customs obligations will be satisfied o goods may be stored for maximum of 5 years o requires inspection by U.S. Customs Service Foreign-Trade Zone o U.S. site at which foreign merchandise can be imported without immediate payment of duties or tariffs o does not require inspection by U.S. Customs
Consumer & Producer Surplus 1) consumer surplus – additional benefit obtained by the buyer of a good difference between the maximum that the buyer is willing to pay and the actual price area below demand and above price 2) producer surplus – additional benefit obtained by the seller of a good difference between the minimum that the seller is willing to accept and the actual price area above supply and below price
Consumer & Producer Surplus (cont.) When combined, the areas of consumer surplus and producer surplus represent the total welfare to the nation resulting from the sale of this good.
Tariff Welfare Effects – Small Nation Before Trade: U.S. consumer surplus is area in red. U.S. producer surplus is area in green.
Tariff Welfare Effects – Small Nation With Free Trade: Consumer surplus increases by areas a,b,c,d,e,f and g. Producer surplus decreases by areas a and e. The overall increase in welfare is b,c,d and f.
Tariff Welfare Effects – Small Nation With Tariff: c = revenue effect = lost consumer surplus now government rev. a = redistributive effect = shift from consumer to producer surplus b + d = deadweight loss = benefits lost to all parties b = protective effect d = consumption effect
Tariff Welfare Effects – Large Nation Before Trade: U.S. consumer surplus is area in red U.S. producer surplus is area in green.
Tariff Welfare Effects – Large Nation With Free Trade: Consumer surplus increases substantially. Producer surplus decreases but to a lesser degree. The overall increase in welfare is b,c,d and the triangle above.
Tariff Welfare Effects – Large Nation With Tariff: c + e = revenue effect = consumer surplus now government rev. a = redistributive effect = shift from consumer to producer surplus b + d = deadweight loss = benefits lost to all parties b = protective effect d = consumption effect above.
Tariff Welfare Effects – Large Nation Revenue Effect: In this case there are two separate portions: c = domestic revenue effect = prior U.S. consumer surplus e = terms-of-trade effect = redistribution of income from foreign nation area e > (b+d) leads to more domestic welfare
Tariff Burdens on U.S. Exporters 1)cost of inputs: tariffs increase price of imported raw materials thus increasing the price of manufacturing using these materials making U.S. firms less competitive 2)cost of living: tariffs lead to higher prices for U.S. consumers eventually leading to higher wages for U.S. workers 3)international repercussions: tariffs decrease exports from other countries decreasing their income and ability to purchase U.S. exports
Tariffs and the Poor o tariffs often applied to low price products which represent large share of budgets of low- income households o regressive - poor pay greater tariffs in percentage terms o high end domestic producers compete based on prestige and quality rather than price so these producers do not lobby as much for greater protection from imports
Trade Restriction Arguments 1)job protection preserve jobs in some industries but decrease employment in others increased cost to consumer greater than average salary for worker whose job was saved 2)cheap foreign labor productivity and cost relevant factors relevant to labor intensive production only 3)fairness in trade – level playing field other nations lack of environmental regulations response to trade barriers of other nations
Trade Restrictions Arguments (cont.) 4)domestic standard of living restrictions only improve standard of living at the expense of trading partners 5)equalized production costs scientific tariff – tariff to offset cost differentials subsidizes inefficient domestic production 6)infant industry short run protection for new domestic industries against developed foreign competition 7)noneconomic arguments national defense and cultural considerations
Political Economy of Protectionism o protection-biased sector consists of import competing companies, their workers, and suppliers to these industries o free-trade-biased sector consists of exporting industries, their workers and suppliers to these industries o U.S. policy dominated by well organized special interest groups representing producers o consumers generally unorganized and diverse o tariff escalation effect as evidence of this imbalance
Supply & Demand of Protectionism greater supply of protection: 1)higher cost to society 2)greater political importance 3)higher adjustment costs 4)greater public sympathy greater demand for protection: 1)greater comparative disadvantage 2)greater import penetration 3)greater domestic concentration 4)lesser export dependence