Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eight: Trade Restrictions: Tariffs. 8.1 Introduction Nations impose restrictions on the free flow of international trade. Since these restrictions."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Eight: Trade Restrictions: Tariffs
8.1 Introduction Nations impose restrictions on the free flow of international trade. Since these restrictions and regulations deal with the nations trade or commerce, they are known as trade or commercial policies. Restrictions are advocated by interest groups who benefit from them. The most important restrictions are tariffs. A tariff is a tax levied on the traded commodity as it crosses a national boundary. An import tariff is a duty on the imported commodity, while an export tariff is a duty on the exported one.
Import tariffs more important and will concentrate on. Tariffs can be either: Ad Valorem: is expressed as a fixed percentage of the value of the traded commodity. Specific: is expressed as a fixed sum per physical unit of the traded commodity. Compound: is a combination of an ad valorem and a specific tariff.
Tariffs in Some Developed Countries 4 Dr. Reyadh Faras
Tariffs in Some Developing Countries 5 Dr. Reyadh Faras
Escalating Tariffs in Some Developed Countries 6 Dr. Reyadh Faras
8.2 Partial Equilibrium Analysis of a Tariff The partial equil. analysis is most appropriate when a small nation imposes a tariff on imports competing a small domestic industry. Then the tariff will affect neither world prices nor the rest of the economy. A.Partial Equilibrium Analysis of a Tariff In Fig.-8-1, D X is demand curve and S X is supply curve of Commodity X in Nation 2. Without trade, intersection of D X and S X defines equil (E); 30X is demanded and supplied at P X =$3. With trade at world price P X =$1, Nation 2 consumes 70X (AB), of which 10X (AC) is produced domestically and 60X (CB) is imported.
FIGURE 8-1 Partial Equlibrium Effects of a Tariff.
The line S F represents the infinitely elastic free trade foreign supply curve of X to Nation 2. With a 100% ad valorem import tariff, P X in Nation 2 will rise to $2, and consumption will be 50X (GH), of which 20X (GJ) is produced domestically and 30X (JH) is imported. The line S F +T represents the new tariff inclusive foreign supply curve of X to Nation 2. The consumption effect of a tariff equals 20X (BN). The production effect equals 10X (CM). The trade effect equals 30X (BN+CM). The revenue effect equals $30 (MJHN).
NOTE: The more elastic is (D X ), the greater is the consumption effect. The more elastic is (S X ), the greater is the production effect. The more elastic are (D X and S X ), the greater is the trade effect, and the smaller is the revenue effect of a tariff.
B. Effect of a Tariff on Consumer and Producer Surplus The increase in price leads to a reduction in consumer surplus and an increase in producer surplus. Left panel of Fig. 8-2 shows that the loss of consumer surplus is equal to shaded area AGHB=$60. Reason: before the tariff, consumers consume 70X at P X =$1. consumers pay for each unit as much as they are willing to pay for the last (70 th ) unit (point B). Consumers however receive more satisfaction and are willing to pay higher prices for earlier units they buy. Consumer surplus: the difference between what consumers are willing to pay for each unit of the commodity, and what they actually pay.
FIGURE 8-2 Effect of Tariff on Consumer and Producer Surplus.
With the tariff, price rises from P X =$1 to P X =$2 and purchases decline from 70X to 50X. Consumer now pay OGHZ=$100 for 50X. Consumer surplus shrinks from ARB=$122.5 to GRH=$62.5, or by AGHB=$60. Producer Surplus In the right panel of Fig. 8.2, the increase in rent or producer surplus resulting from the tariff is given by shaded area AGJC=$15. Reason: at free trade P X =$1, domestic producers produce 10X and receive OACV=$10 in revenues.
With the tariff and P X =$2, they produce 20X and receive OGJU=$40. Of the $30 increase (AGJC+VCJU) in the revenue of producers, VCJU=$15 represents the increase in their cost of production, while the remainder (shaded area AGCJ=$15) represents the increase in the: Producer surplus: a payment that need not be made in the long run in order to induce domestic producers to supply the additional 10X with the tariff. Producer surplus is referred to as the subsidy effect of the tariff.
C. Costs and Benefits of a Tariff Fig 8-3 shows that of the reduction of the consumer surplus of AGHB= a+b+c+d= $60, MJHN= c= $30 is tariff revenue collected by government, AGJC= a=$15 is addition to producers surplus, while the remaining $15 (CJM= b= $5 and BHN= d= $10 represents the protection cost, or deadweight loss to the economy. The production component (CJM=b= $5) of the deadweight loss arises because, with the tariff, some domestic resources are transferred from the more efficient production of exportable commodity Y to the less efficient production of importable X.
FIGURE 8-3 Partial Equilibrium Costs and Benefits of a Tariff.
The consumption component (BHN=d= $10) of the deadweight loss arises because the tariff artificially increases P X relative to P Y and distorts the pattern of consumption. In Sum: The tariff redistributes income from domestic consumers to domestic producers and from the nations abundant factor (producing exportables) to the nations scarce factor (producing importables). This leads to inefficiencies referred to as the deadweight loss of the tariff.
8.3 The Theory of Tariff Structure A. The Rate of Effective Protection Very often, a nation imports a raw material duty free or imposes a lower tariff rate on the importation of the input than on the importation of the final commodity produced with the imported input. The nation does this in order to encourage domestic processing and employment. In this case, the rate of effective protection exceeds the nominal tariff rate. Domestic value added equals the price of the final commodity minus the cost of the imported inputs
While the nominal tariff rate is important to consumers, the effective tariff rate (ETR) is important to producers because it indicates how much protection is actually provided to the domestic processing of the import-competing commodity. The effective rate of tariff protection is important to producers in stimulating the domestic production in competition with imported goods. Whenever the imported input is admitted duty free or a lower tariff rate is imposed on the imported input than on the final commodity produced with the imported input, the effective rate of protection will exceed the nominal tariff rate.
FIGURE 8-4 Pre- and Post-Uruguay Round Cascading Tariff Structure in Industrial Countries.
The rate of effective protection is usually calculated using the following formula: g = (t – a i t i ) / (1 – a i ) Where: g = the rate of effective protection to producers of the final commodity. t = the nominal tariff rate on consumers of the final commodity a i = the ratio of cost of imported input to price of final commodity in the absence of tariffs. t i = the nominal tariff rate on the imported input
Example: An imported wool =$80 used to produce a $100 suit. If t = 10%, a i = $80/$100= 0.8, and t i = 0. g = (t – a i t i ) / (1 – a i ) g = ( – x ) / ( – ) g = ( – ) / ( ) = If a 5% nominal tariff is imposed on imported input: g = ( – x ) / ( – ) g = ( – ) / ( ) = If a 20% nominal tariff is imposed on imported input: g = ( – x ) / ( – ) g = ( – ) / ( ) =