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© John Parkinson JP 1
© John Parkinson JP 2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible Gamma – m X-rays – m UV – m IR – m Microwaves cms Radio m frequency wavelength 400 nm 700 nm
© John Parkinson JP 3 Continuous Spectrum from a hot solid or incandescent liquid e.g. hot filament Part of the Line Spectrum for Hydrogen gas Glowing gas Line Spectrum, unique to the gas
© John Parkinson JP 4 Ionisation Energy THE HYDROGEN ATOM + e-e- Because energy within the atom is quantised, the electron can only occupy certain energy levels. The electron is normally found in the lowest energy state, because this is the most stable. This is called the GROUND STATE. e-e- The electron can be excited to higher energy levels electrically in a discharge tube or by heating. e-e- e-e- 1 st Excited State 2 nd Excited State 3 rd Excited State Given enough energy, the electron can be stripped away from the atom. IONISATION has occurred e-e-
© John Parkinson JP 5 + e-e- e-e- e-e- Photon of electromagnetic radiation Excited electrons lose their excess energy as photons of electromagnetic radiation. Wave length of released photon
© John Parkinson JP 6 The energy levels of en electron in a hydrogen atom can be represented by the formula: in electron volts (eV) (1 eV is the energy an electron would have if it had been accelerated through a p.d. of one volt. 1 eV = 1.6 x J) For the ground state n = 1, so E = eV For the first excited state n = 2, so E = eV For the second excited state n = 3, so E = eV For the third excited state n = 4, so E = eV
© John Parkinson JP 7 E n eV n = 1 ground state n = 3 0 n = n = n = 4 ionisation e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- Spectrum λ Lyman series in UV e-e- e-e- BALMER series VISIBLE
© John Parkinson JP 8 e-e- E n eV n = 1 ground state n = 3 0 n = n = n = 4 ionisation N.B. All energies are NEGATIVE. REASON: The maximum energy is the energy to ionise the electron. However an ionised electron feels no attraction to the nucleus so it must have zero potential energy. It follows that energies less than the ionisation energy must be negative
© John Parkinson JP 9 E n eV n = 1 ground state n = 3 0 n = n = n = 4 ionisation QUESTION. The Paschen Series in the Hydrogen Spectrum refers to transitions down to the second excited state. These lines are in the Infra Red. Find the longest of these wavelengths. This will involve the smallest energy change…. n = 4 to n = 3 ΔE = E 4 – E 3 = – (-1.51) = 0.66 eV x 1.6 x = x J
e-e- E n eV n = 1 ground state n = 3 0 n = ∞ n = n = 4 ionisation N.B. All energies are NEGATIVE. REASON: The maximum energy.
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